|Type||Tactical ballistic missile|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1976 – present (Scarab A)
1986 – present (Scarab B)
1990 – present (Scarab C)
|Used by||See operators|
|Weight||2,000 kg (4,400 lb) Scarab A
2,010 kg (4,430 lb) Scarab B
1,800 kg (4,000 lb) Scarab C
|Length||6.4 m (21 ft)|
|Diameter||0.65 m (2 ft 2 in)|
|Warhead||Chemical, 100 kt nuclear warhead, EMP, or fragmentation filling|
|Engine||Single-stage solid propellant|
|70 km (43 mi) Scarab A
120 km (75 mi) Scarab B
185 km (115 mi) Scarab C
|Speed||1.8 km/s (1.1 mi/s)|
|Inertial with GLONASS|
|BAZ-5921 Mobile TEL|
OTR-21 Tochka (Russian: оперативно-тактический ракетный комплекс (ОТР) «Точка»; English: Tactical Operational Missile Complex "Tochka", "Point") is a Soviet short-range tactical ballistic missile. Its GRAU designation is 9K79; its NATO reporting name is SS-21 Scarab. It is transported in a 9P129 vehicle and raised prior to launch. It uses an inertial guidance system.
The OTR-21 is a mobile missile launch system, designed to be deployed along with other land combat units on the battlefield. While the FROG-7 is large and relatively inaccurate, the OTR-21 is much smaller. The missile itself can be used for precise strikes on enemy tactical targets, such as control posts, bridges, storage facilities, troop concentrations and airfields. The fragmentation warhead can be replaced with a nuclear, biological or chemical warhead. The solid propellant makes the missile easy to maintain and deploy.
OTR-21 units are usually managed in a brigade structure. There are 18 launchers in a brigade; each launcher is provided with 2 or 3 missiles. The vehicle is completely amphibious, with a maximum road speed of 60 km/h (37 mph) and 8 km/h (5.0 mph) in water. It is NBC-protected. The system has been in development since 1968. Three variants have been created.
The initial Scarab A entered service with the Soviet Army in 1975. It carries one of three types of warhead:
- 482 kg (1,063 lb) of conventional HE
- fragmentation (lethal radius more than 200 m (660 ft)
The minimal range is about 15 km (9.3 mi), maximum range is 70 km (43 mi); its circular error probable (CEP) is estimated to be about 150 m (490 ft).
The improved Scarab B (Tochka-U) was introduced in 1989. Improved propellant increased the range to 120 km (75 mi). CEP significantly improved, to less than 95 m (312 ft).
A third variant, Scarab C, was developed in the 1990s. Again, range increased (185 km (115 mi)), and CEP decreased to less than 70 m (229 ft). Scarab C weighs 1,800 kg (4,000 lb).
North Korea has developed a local variant, the KN-02 Toksa (Viper), by reverse-engineering Syrian-supplied Scarab A missiles. The Toksa has a range of 120-140 kilometers, and it is the most accurate ballistic missile in KPA's inventory to date. The KN-02 uses a MAZ-630308-224 truck instead of the 9P129. North Korea is also believed to be developing an anti-ship ballistic missile version of the KN-02. The land-based missile would have a range of 200–300 km (120–190 mi) and travel at Mach 4-5. Its range would be longer than current KN-01 variants and be much more difficult to intercept due to its speed. The missile would be similarly threatening to South Korean and American warships as the Chinese DF-21D "carrier killer" missile, and Iran is believed to be involved given their work in anti-ship ballistic missile development.
Use in combat
There are reports of missiles having been fired by Ukrainian forces during the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine. Evidence from impact has not been found yet. There is evidence of the use of these missiles in the Lugansk area in mid-August 2014.
- At least 8 launchers Tochka-U
- 3 launchers Tochka-U with 4 missiles
- 36 
- 18 
- unknown number
- 220 launchers. Missile systems have been upgraded since 2004 (replacing the onboard automated control systems)
- 90 
- unknown number
- North Korea
- unknown number of variant KN-02
- passed on to successor states.
- Czech Republic
- inherited from Czechoslovakia, retired.
- East Germany
- 4  retired in 2005, because of lack of rockets and service parts
- small number, inherited from Czechoslovakia, all retired.
- Soviet Union
- Passed on to successor states.
- N.Korea Developing Anti-Ship Missile - Chosun.com, 14 October 2013
- "It Was No Spontaneous, But Planned War". Novaya Gazeta.
- Fulghum, David A.; Douglas Barrie, Robert Wall and Andy Nativi (2008-08-15). "Georgian Military Folds Under Russian Attack". Aviation Week. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
- Smith-Spark, Laura; Almasy, Steve; Paton Walsh, Nick (29 July 2014). "CNN 2014 07 29 Ballistic missiles Ukraine". YouTube.com. CNN. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- Russia Today's commentary on the matter: Kiev forces fire ballistic missiles into E. Ukraine – CNN (RT.com, July 29th 2014).
- "Силовики обстреляли Луганск баллистическими ракетами "Точка-У"". Life News. August 16, 2014.
- "Силовики обстреляли Луганск баллистическими ракетами "Точка-У"".
- Belarus Army Equipment
- Milev, Momchil (2014-04-11). "Da izkovem ot plugovete mechove". Economedia. p. 2. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- The Military Balance 2010. — P. 223.
- Ground Forces Equipment - Ukraine
- MILITARIUM - Wojsko Polskie - Uzbrojenie
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to OTR-21 Tochka.|
- SS-21 Scarab article on Warfare.ru
- Tochka-U Video
- SS-21 Scarab (9K79 Tochka)
- (Russian) OTR Tochka
- MissileThreat.com SS-21
- Jane's Defence news on North Korean SS-21 test, April 2006