|Stylistic origins||Folk music, punk rock, avant-garde, folk punk|
|Cultural origins||Mid 1980s United States.|
|Typical instruments||Guitar, bass guitar, drums, piano|
Anti-folk (sometimes antifolk or unfolk) is a music genre that takes the earnestness of politically charged 1960s folk music and subverts it. The defining characteristics of this anti-folk are difficult to identify, as they vary from one artist to the next. Nonetheless, the music tends to sound raw or experimental; it also generally mocks seriousness and pretension in the established mainstream music scene.
Anti-folk in the US
Anti-folk was introduced by artists who were unable to gain gigs at established folk venues in Greenwich Village, including Folk City and The Speakeasy. Soon after, singer-songwriter Lach started The Fort, an after-hours club, on the Lower East Side.  The Fort's opening coincided with the New York Folk Festival, so Lach dubbed his own event the New York Antifolk Festival. Other early proponents of the movement included Cindy Lee Berryhill, Brenda Kahn, Paleface, Beck, Michelle Shocked, Zane Campbell, and John S. Hall. Roger Manning, Kirk Kelly , Sander Hicks, and Block were also early anti-folk artists.
The original Fort was shut down in 1985, and the club moved from location to location, including East Village bars Sophie's and Chameleon, before winding up in the back room of the SideWalk Cafe from 1993. The New York Antifolk Festival continues to be held annually at the SideWalk Cafe (long outlasting the original Folk Festival). Events have also taken place in the band shells in Tompkins Square Park and Central Park. While living in San Francisco for a few years in the early 1990s, Lach helped establish a West Coast anti-folk movement at the Sacred Ground club.
Anti-folk in the UK
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2011)|
In the 2000s, the label has been adopted in Britain, particularly in the London underground scene, with acts including David Cronenberg's Wife and The Bobby McGee's. The UK anti-folk scene (largely centred in London and Brighton) has established its own identity, which has been written about in a six-page feature in the September 2007 issue of Plan B magazine. Plan B held an anti-folk night at the Huw Stevens-curated Sŵn in Cardiff in November 2007. The beginnings of the UK anti-folk scene were in London, with shows promoted by Sergeant Buzfuz that, although not billed as anti-folk, featured many U.S. and UK anti-folk singer/songwriters. In 2004, the lo-fi musician Filthy Pedro started seasonal anti-folk festivals, which he promoted with Tom Mayne of the band David Cronenberg's Wife.
The Brighton anti-folk scene was quick to follow, curated primarily by Mertle. Other key figures within the UK anti-folk community include Dan Treacy of Television Personalities, Jack Hayter, Milk Kan, Extradition Order, Benjamin Shaw, Grelch, Royal Mugs, Larry Pickleman and Paul Hawkins. Emmy the Great is loosely connected with the English anti-folk scene, having played at Sgt Buzfuz's nights in 2003 as part of the duo Contraband. Kate Nash started her music career playing anti-folk-style shows, including a concert promoted by Larry Pickleman and Mertle in Brighton. Laura Marling is sometimes linked with anti-folk, although this is less to do with the UK movement and more to do with her perceived musical style.
Anti-folk-influenced acts such as The Bobby McGee's have begun to pick up regular national radio airplay and media coverage. In August 2006, Timeout Magazine called anti-folk "One of London's hottest subcultures". The first anti-folk UK compilation album, Up the Anti, was released in 2007, mastered by Mark Kramer. The Welsh anti-folk artist Mr Duke has gained some popularity in Wales.
- Kihn, Martin (1994) A Scene Is Made. New York Magazine (September 12, 1994. Page 70)
- A. Petrusich, It Still Moves: Lost Songs, Lost Highways, and the Search for the Next American Music (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 2008), pp. 234-7.
- J. Bessman, "Rising singer/songwriters redefine folk in the '90s", Billboard July 16, 1994, vol. 106 (29), pp. 1 and 36.
- Howlett, Isaac. "The Anti-Folk Movement". Supersweet Zoo. Retrieved 2013-10-24.
- How Does It Feel, Antifolkies, to Have a Home, Not Be Unknown?, Alan Light, The New York Times, August 11, 2006.
- D. Kimpel, How they made it: true stories of how music's biggest stars went from start to stardom! (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2006), p. 7.
- Krieger, Ben (2009-02-10). "NYC Anti-Folk Scene". The Deli. Retrieved 2013-10-24.
- Hochman, Steve (1989-01-10). "Bicoastal Anti-Folk of Kirk Kelly at Gaslight". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-10-24.
- "Exclusive First Look Video And Giveaway Contest From Indie Anti-Folk Star Jamie Block". Indie Band Guru. 2013-02-06. Retrieved 2013-10-24.
- J. McKinley, "Staying Undefined at the Antifolk Festival, and That’s Fine", The New York Times, http://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/23/antifolk-festival-2011/ , retrieved 6/22/12.
- M. Kihm, "A scene is made", New York Magazine September 12, 1994, vol. 27 (36), p. 70.
- C. Parkin, "Street scenes: Antifolk", Time Out, http://www.timeout.com/london/features/1971/Secret_scenes-Antifolk.html, retrieved 20/07/09.
- Antifolk.com The most updated Antifolk website, covering the movement across the world
- Antifolk.net The New York Antifolk website, started by Lach to promote the scene
- Morning Star article on Anti-folk
- Time Out London feature on Anti-folk
- Village Voice article on UK Anti-folk
- musicomh.com's Review of Anti-folk night at Sŵn Fest, Cardiff 2007