August 1946

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August 15, 1946: U.S. President Truman dispatches ships to Turkey
August 16, 1946: Direct Action Day protest turns into rioting in Calcutta, 10,000 people die

The following events occurred in August 1946:

August 1, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

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August 2, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

August 3, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

August 4, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

August 5, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

August 6, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Hungary's gold reserve of $32,000,000 was returned to Budapest, from Frankfurt, where it had been stored by the government of Nazi Germany. The return of the gold stabilized the Hungarian economy following the hyperinflation of the prior two months.[9]
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., a 17-year old junior at Morehouse College, began a lifelong crusade against racial prejudice, with the publication of a letter in the Atlanta Constitution, in response to an editorial. His father later remarked that the letter was the first "indication that Martin was headed for greatness".[10]
  • A pair of unmanned B-17 bombers landed in California after having been flown a distance of 2,174 miles from Hawaii, piloted entirely by radio control, as the United States Army carried out "Operation Remote". Press releases declared that the experiment proved "that guided missiles of the air forces can be launched by radio control and successfully hit a target more than 2,000 miles distant".[11]
  • Died: Tony Lazzeri, 42, American MLB 2nd baseman and Hall of Famer

August 7, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

August 8, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

Mitchell
  • The B-36 Peacemaker bomber was flown by the United States Air Force for the first time. Designed to carry the atomic bomb, and having a range of 6,000 miles, the B-36 was the first intercontinental carrier of nuclear weapons.;[14][15]
  • More than twenty years after his court-martial and resignation from the United States Army, and ten years after his death, Billy Mitchell was awarded the Medal of Honor by the U.S. Congress "for outstanding pioneer service in the field of American military aviation", and posthumously promoted to the rank of Major General.[16]

August 9, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

  • The body of African-American veteran John C. Jones, victim of a lynching, was found in a bayou near Minden, Louisiana. As a result of an investigation by the NAACP, the crime was reported nationwide and led to the first FBI investigation of a lynching in Louisiana, followed by the creation of a Committee on Civil Rights by President Truman. One author described the response to the Jones murder as "the first time since Reconstruction that the federal government had evinced any real concern over the discriminatiory treatment of black people".[17]
  • Born: Jim Kiick, American NFL running back, in Lincoln Park, New Jersey

August 10, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

  • In Athens, Alabama, a mob of white men and teenagers, estimated at 2,000 people, rioted after two white men had been jailed for an unprovoked attack on a black man the day before. Breaking into smaller groups, the mob went into town and began beating any African-American seen the street. State troops, sent by the Governor, arrived at 4:00 pm and restored order by midnight. Nobody was killed, but more than 50 black persons were injured. Sixteen white suspects were later indicted by a county grand jury for the violence.[18]

August 11, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

Schoolteacher Dumarsais

August 12, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

August 13, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

McCarthy
Wells
  • Tenth Circuit Judge Joseph McCarthy defeated longtime U.S. Senator Robert M. La Follette, Jr. in the Wisconsin Republican primary[21]
  • In the United States, the Indian Claims Commission was established to fix a fair market value for land taken from the American Indians "at the time the land was taken". An example of the low awards of compensation was $29.1 million for the entire state of California, at 47 cents an acre. Between 1946 and the 1951 deadline, 370 petitions were filed.[22]
  • Died: H.G. Wells, 79, British science fiction author; and William J. Gallagher, 71, retired Minneapolis street sweeper who was elected to Congress in 1944;[23]

August 14, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Zhdanov Doctrine: Soviet politician Andrei Zhdanov began a campaign against writers and artists whose work showed "anti-Soviet sentiment" or complacency toward Communist party goals. At Zhdanov's direction, the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party passed the resolution "About the journals Zvezda and Leningrad" on proper Soviet literature, condemning the two literary magazines for publishing the works of author Mikhail Zoshchenko and poet Anna Akhmatova. The editors of the magazines were replaced, and the two writers were barred from publishing further works.[24] Similar condemnations followed against bourgeois influence in theater (August 26) and film productions (September 4).[25]
  • An American B-29 reconnaissance plane discovered a large ice floe 300 miles north of Alaska. Nine miles in width, 17 miles long, and ideal for the basing of aircraft, "Target X" was the first of three "floating bases" used by the United States.[26]
  • Born: Larry Graham, American comedian, in Beaumont, Texas

August 15, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Truman Doctrine: U.S. President Harry S. Truman informed Turkey's President İsmet İnönü that the United States would provide its assistance to help Turkey resist Soviet demands for control of the Dardanelles straits. Over the next year, Truman lobbied Congress to provide more than $400,000,000 in aid to both Turkey and Greece as part of American strategy in the Middle East.[27]
  • Died: Edward R. Bradley, 86, horse breeding magnate

August 16, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

Born: American Actor-Playwright Jim Brochu

August 17, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

AllTheKingsMen.jpg

August 18, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

August 19, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

Young William Blythe

August 20, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

August 21, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • In Marburg in the American zone of Germany, the bodies of Frederick the Great, who ruled Prussia from 1740 to 1786, and his father Frederick William I of Prussia (who ruled 1713-1740) were reburied after having been removed from Potsdam in 1943. The ceremony was presided over by Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia, grandson of the last Kaiser of Germany and the eldest son of former Crown Prince Wilhelm.[41] Louis Ferdinand, pretender to the throne from 1951 to 1994, lived to see the reinternment of the kings in Potsdam in 1991, following the reunification of Germany.[42]

August 22, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

Seoul national university logotype.png
Sztojay
  • Döme Sztójay, who had served as Prime Minister of Hungary during occupation by the Nazi Germany, was executed by a firing squad after being convicted of treason and crimes against humanity.[43]
  • The Seoul National University was established in Korea on the campus of the former Keijo Imperial University, and included colleges of arts and sciences, engineering, agriculture, law, education, commerce, arts, medicine and dentistry. By[44]

August 23, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

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August 24, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

August 25, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

August 26, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

August 27, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • A milestone in vascular surgery was achieved when Portuguese surgeon João Cid dos Santos performed the removal of plaque from an artery, a procedure now referred to as an endarterectomy.[57]
  • Owners of baseball's National League and American League teams met and secretly voted 15-1 to retain the ban against African-Americans, on grounds that integration of the game would be harmful to the Negro Leagues. The dissenting vote was from Branch Rickey, owner of the Brooklyn Dodgers, who then went to Commissioner Happy Chandler to overturn the ruling.[58]
Sisavang Vong - 1951.jpg

August 28, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

August 29, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

August 30, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

August 31, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ James G. Ryan and Leonard C. Schlup, eds. Historical Dictionary of the 1940s (M.E. Sharpe, 2006) p. 33
  2. ^ Naomi B. Lynn and Arthur F. McClure, The Fulbright Premise: Senator J. William Fulbright's Views on Presidential power (Bucknell University Press, 1973) p. 57
  3. ^ Harm Gustav Schroeter, The European Enterprise: Historical Investigation into a Future Species (Springer, 2008) p. 39
  4. ^ J. Samuel Walker, Permissible Dose: A History of Radiation Protection in the Twentieth Century (University of California Press, 2000) p. 13; Martin G. Pomper, Molecular Imaging in Oncology (Informa Health Care, 2008) iii
  5. ^ "20 SHOT IN ELECTION RIOT", Pittsburgh Press, August 2, 1946, p. 1'"Citizen's Council Takes Over In Riot-Torn Athens", 'Pittsburgh Press, August 3, 1946, p1; "TENNESSEE: Battle of the Ballots", TIME Magazine, August 12, 1946
  6. ^ Pat Koch and Jane Ammeson, Holiday World (Arcadia Publishing, 2006)
  7. ^ USGS Historic Earthquakes; James F. Dolan and Paul Mann, Active Strike-slip and Collisional Tectonics of the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone (Geological Society of America, 1998) p. 151; "TIDAL WAVES RIP WEST INDIES", 'Pittsburgh Press, August 5, 1946, p. 1
  8. ^ James R. Hansen, First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong (Simon & Schuster, 2005) p. 50
  9. ^ William Z. Slany, U.S. and Allied Efforts To Recover and Restore Gold and Other Assets Stolen or Hidden by Germany During World War II (DIANE Publishing, 1997) p. 155
  10. ^ Roger Bruns, Martin Luther King, Jr: a biography (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006) pp. 13-14
  11. ^ "Radio -Guided Planes Fly Pacific To Set Long-Distance Record", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 7, 1946, p. 1
  12. ^ James Chace, Acheson: The Secretary of State Who Created the American World (Simon and Schuster, 2007) p153
  13. ^ Mary Roldán, Blood and fire: La Violencia in Antioquia, Colombia, 1946-1953 (Duke University Press, 2002) p. 44
  14. ^ Russell F. Weigley, The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy (Indiana University Press, 1977) p. 372
  15. ^ "U.S. Round-Trip-to Europe Bomber Flies for First Time from Base in Texas", 'Pittsburgh Press, August 8, 1946, p. 1
  16. ^ Alfred F. Hurley, Billy Mitchell, Crusader for Air Power (Indiana University Press, 1975) p. 277; "Medal for Mitchell", Milwaukee Journal, August 9, 1946, p. 21
  17. ^ Adam Fairclough, Race and Democracy: The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915-1972 (University of Georgia Press, 2008) p. 113; "Louisiana Negro Beaten to Death", 'Pittsburgh Press, August 15, 1946, p. 1
  18. ^ "Mob Roaming Alabama Town", 'Pittsburgh Press, August 11, 1946, p. 1; Ted Robert Gurr, ed., Violence in America: Protest, Rebellion, Reform (SAGE, 1989) p. 248
  19. ^ Martin Munro, Exile and Post-1946 Haitian Literature(Liverpool University Press, 2007) p. 25
  20. ^ Newell Maynard Stultz, Afrikaner politics in South Africa, 1934-1948 (University of California Press, 1974) p. 115; Iris Berger, South Africa in World History (Oxford University Press US, 2009) pp. 111-112
  21. ^ "Senate Race Lost, LaFollette Admits" 'Pittsburgh Press, August 14, 1946, p1
  22. ^ M. Annette Jaimes, The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance (South End Press, 1992) p. 146; Alison R. Bernstein, American Indians and World War II: Toward a New Era in Indian Affairs (University of Oklahoma Press, 1991); Francis Paul Prucha, The Great Father: the United States Government and the American Indians (University of Nebraska Press, 1995) p1019
  23. ^ "'Street-Cleaner' Congressman Dies", 'Pittsburgh Press, August 13, 1946, p. 2
  24. ^ Edward J. Brown, Russian Literature Since the Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1982) p180; "Russian Writers Discover Foreign Customs Are Taboo", 'Pittsburgh Press, August 22, 1946, p8
  25. ^ Paul Sjeklocha and Igor Mead, Unofficial Art in the Soviet Union (University of California Press, 1967) p. 48
  26. ^ Carl Hoffman, Hunting Warbirds: The Obsessive Quest for the Lost Aircraft of World War II (Random House, Inc., 2002) p. 15; "Ice-Cube Airport", by Aubrey O. Cookman, Jr., Popular Mechanics (September 1952), pp. 134-138
  27. ^ Tareq Y. Ismael, International Relations of the Contemporary Middle East: A Study in World Politics (Syracuse University Press, 1986) p. 142
  28. ^ Stanley Wolpert, Gandhi's Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi (Oxford University Press US, 2002) p. 222; Ross Marlay and Clark D. Neher, Patriots and Tyrants: Ten Asian Leaders (Rowman & Littlefield, 1999) p. 293
  29. ^ "Rioters Sweep Calcutta: 2250 Dead, Injured", 'Pittsburgh Press, August 18, 1946, p. 1; The Calcutta Riots of 1946, massviolence.org
  30. ^ Bhaskara Rao, V. Agrarian and Industrial Relations in Hyderabad State. New Delhi: Associated Pub. House, 1985. p. 121
  31. ^ Gour, Raj Bahadur. Random Writings. Hyderabad: Makhdoom Society in collaboration with Prachee Publications, Hyderabad, 2002. p. 5
  32. ^ Masʻūd Bārzānī, Mustafa Barzani and the Kurdish Liberation Movement (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) p. 173
  33. ^ James A. Grimshaw, Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren: A Literary Correspondence (University of Missouri Press, 1998)
  34. ^ Michael Parrish, The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939-1953 (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996) p. 43
  35. ^ http://afehri.maxwell.af.mil/Documents/pdf/lambert.pdf
  36. ^ "Dodgers, Rockets Tie At 14 To 14", Bend (OR) Bulletin, August 19, 1946, p. 3
  37. ^ Mines Explosion at Vergarola Beach, Pola August 18, 1946
  38. ^ "ANOTHER U.S. PLANE SHOT DOWN", Pittsburgh Press, August 19, 1946; "Five Yanks on Plane Killed" (Press, August 23); "Yugoslavs Bury 5 Killed on Plane" (Press, August 24); "Yugoslavs Return Bodies of Flyers" (Press, August 28)
    • Robert Cowley, The Cold War: A Military History (Random House, Inc., 2006 ) p. 11
  39. ^ Tom Deveaux, The Washington Senators, 1901-1971(McFarland, 2005) p. 166
  40. ^ "Pirates Vote, 15-3, Against Baseball Union", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 21, 1946; William Marshall, Baseball's Pivotal Era, 1945-1951 (University Press of Kentucky, 1999) p. 82; MLBPA History
  41. ^ Giles MacDonogh, After the Reich: The Brutal History of the Allied Occupation (PublicAffairs, 2009) p93
  42. ^ Jay Brunhouse, Maverick Guide to Berlin (Pelican Publishing, 2008) p. 404
  43. ^ John Laughland, A History of Political Trials: From Charles I to Saddam Hussein (Peter Lang, 2008) p. 150
  44. ^ John C. Weidman and Namgi Park, eds., Higher Education in Korea: Tradition and Adaptation (Taylor & Francis, 2000)
  45. ^ Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad, The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 1 (Cambridge University Press, 2010) p. 140
  46. ^ Gene D. Phillips, Creatures of Darkness: Raymond Chandler, Detective Fiction, and Film Noir (University Press of Kentucky, 2003) p. 67.
  47. ^ Frank L. Holt, Into the Land of Bones: Alexander the Great in Afghanistan (University of California Press, 2006) pp. 139-140
  48. ^ Sarah Churchwell, The Many Lives of Marilyn Monroe (Macmillan, 2005) pp. 167-171
  49. ^ Amy Blitz, The Contested State: American Foreign Policy and Regime Change in the Philippines (Rowman & Littlefield, 2000) p. 87
  50. ^ Claude Andrew Clegg III, An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad (Macmillan, 1998) p. 97
  51. ^ "New Constitution Passed by Jap House", Post-Gazette, August 25, 1946, p5
  52. ^ Louis Henkin, Albert J. Rosenthal, Constitutionalism and Rights: The Influence of the United States Constitution Abroad (Columbia University Press, 1990) p. 233
  53. ^ Ray Moseley, Mussolini: The Last 600 Days of Il Duce (Taylor Trade Publications, 2004) p356
  54. ^ Anna von der Goltz, Hindenburg: Power, Myth, and the Rise of the Nazis (Oxford University Press US, 2009) p. 193
  55. ^ "World Court Rule Accepted by U.S.", Pittsburgh Press, August 26, 1946, p2
  56. ^ Michla Pomerance, The United States and the World Court as a "Supreme Court of the Nations" (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1996) p. 449
  57. ^ Jeffrey A. Norton, Surgery: Basic Science and Clinical Evidence (Springer, 2001) p. 974
  58. ^ Roger I. Abrams, Legal Bases: Baseball and the Law (Temple University Press, 1998) p. 105
  59. ^ "Indochina", by Ellen Hammer, in The State of Asia: A Contemporary Survey (American Institute of Pacific Relations, 1951) p. 240
  60. ^ Tekeste Negash, Eritrea and Ethiopia: the federal experience (Transaction Publishers, 1997) p. 42
  61. ^ Charles K. Armstrong, The North Korean Revolution, 1945-1950 (Cornell University Press, 2004) pp. 108-109; Gi-Wook Shin, Ethnic Nationalism in Korea: Genealogy, Politics, and Legacy (Stanford University Press, 2006) p161
  62. ^ Michael Parrish, The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939-1953 (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996) p. 125
  63. ^ Lyman Van Slyke, The China White Paper: August 1949 (U.S. Department of State, 1949) p180
  64. ^ F. Roy Willis, France, Germany, and the New Europe: 1945-1967 (Stanford University Press, 1968) p47
  65. ^ Alan Pierce, Breaking the Sound Barrier (ABDO Group, 2005) p24
  66. ^ Lawrence S. Wittner, The Struggle Against the Bomb (Stanford University Press, 1993) p. 58
  67. ^ Charles Winslow, Lebanon: War and Politics in a Fragmented Society(Psychology Press, 1996) p. 73