Benjamin Williams Crowninshield

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For his grandson, see Benjamin W. Crowninshield.
Benjamin Williams Crowninshield
BWCrowninshield.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 2nd district
In office
March 4, 1823 – March 3, 1831
Preceded by Gideon Barstow
Succeeded by Rufus Choate
5th United States Secretary of the Navy
In office
January 16, 1815 – September 30, 1818
President James Madison
James Monroe
Preceded by William Jones
Succeeded by Smith Thompson
Personal details
Born December 27, 1772
Salem, Massachusetts
Died February 3, 1851 (aged 78)
Boston, Massachusetts
Political party Federalist
National Republican
Spouse(s) Mary Boardman (d. 1840)
Occupation Merchant

Benjamin Williams Crowninshield (December 27, 1772 – February 3, 1851) served as the United States Secretary of the Navy between 1815 and 1818, during the administrations of Presidents James Madison and James Monroe.

Biography[edit]

Crowninshield's grave at Mount Auburn

Crowninshield was born in Salem, Massachusetts the son of a sea captain and merchant of the Boston Brahmin Crowninshield family. He worked in the family shipping business, Geo. Crowninshield & Sons, served at sea, and was also active in politics. His family owned the lands near Mineral Spring, where the first Crowninshield family was cradled in the country. He was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1811 and the state Senate in 1812.

Crowninshield was a prominent benefactor of the first Gerrymander. The redistricting of Essex county into two separate State Senate districts had lead to the term Gerrymander,[1] with Crowninshield, who had lost the previous year's Senate seat in a combined Essex County,[2] being placed in the new district specifically designed to favor Republicans over Federalists. Crowninshield would win his Senate seat by only 8 votes, over 100 votes less than the other Republican candidates.[3] Crowninshield would lose his seat in the State Senate the next year, with the Newburyport Herald printing an editorial cartoon of a dead Gerrymander and listing "B.W.C." as a "chief mourner."[4]

In 1810, Crowninshield, with Salem’s premier architect Samuel McIntire, built a mansion at 180 Derby Street on the Salem Waterfront.[5] Robert Brookhouse purchased the house and in 1861 deeded it to the Association for the Relief of Aged Women. Located at the Salem Maritime National Historic Site, the house is now called the The Brookhouse Home for Aged Women. and provides quality support to senior women.

Crowninshield became Secretary of the Navy in January 1815, a position almost held by his brother Jacob Crowninshield ten years earlier, and managed the transition to a peacetime force in the years following the War of 1812. This included implementation of the new Board of Commissioners administrative system and the building of several ships of the line, the backbone of a much enhanced Navy. He also oversaw strategy and naval policy for the Second Barbary War in 1815.

After leaving Navy office in 1818, Crowninshield returned to business and political affairs in Massachusetts, prospering in both. In addition to serving two more terms in the Massachusetts House, he was also elected to four terms the United States Congress from 1823 to 1831.

On his death in 1851, Benjamin Williams Crowninshield was interred in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Crowninshield was the great-great-grandfather of Charles Francis Adams III, also Secretary of the Navy from 1929 to 1933.

Namesake[edit]

The destroyer USS Crowninshield (DD-134) was named in his honor.

Family tree[edit]

 
 
 
 
Benjamin Williams Crowninshield
(1772–1851)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Francis Boardman Crowninshield
(1809–1877)
 
George Casper Crowninshield
(1810–1857)
 
 
Edward A. Crowninshield
(1817–1859)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Benjamin W. Crowninshield
(1837–1892)
 
 
 
Alice Crowninshield
(1839–1902)
 
Josiah Bradlee III
(1837–1902)
 
Frederic Crowninshield
(1845-1918)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
B.B. Crowninshield
(1867–1948)
 
Francis Boardman Crowninshield
(1869–1950)
 
Louise du Pont
(1877–1958)
 
Frederick Josiah Bradlee I
(1866–1951)
 
Helen Suzette Crowninshield
(1868–1941)
 
Frank Crowninshield
(1872–1947)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick Josiah Bradlee, Jr.
(1892–1970)
 
Josephine de Gersdorff
(1896–1975)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ben Bradlee
(1921–2014)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Quinn Bradlee

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Boston Gazette". March 26, 1812. 
  2. ^ "Independent Chronicle". May 16, 1811. 
  3. ^ "Salem Gazette". May 19, 1812. 
  4. ^ "Newburyport Herald". April 9, 1813. 
  5. ^ http://www.brookhousehome.com/history.html

References[edit]

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Gideon Barstow
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 2nd congressional district

March 4, 1823 – March 3, 1831
Succeeded by
Rufus Choate
Military offices
Preceded by
William Jones
United States Secretary of the Navy
January 16, 1815 – September 30, 1818
Succeeded by
Smith Thompson