Essex County, Massachusetts

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Essex County, Massachusetts
Essex County Superior Courthouse, Salem MA.jpg
Essex County Superior Courthouse
Map of Massachusetts highlighting Essex County
Location in the state of Massachusetts
Map of the United States highlighting Massachusetts
Massachusetts's location in the U.S.
Founded 1643
Named for Essex
Seat Salem & Lawrence
Largest city Lynn
Area
 • Total 828 sq mi (2,145 km2)
 • Land 493 sq mi (1,277 km2)
 • Water 336 sq mi (870 km2), 41%
Population
 • (2010) 743,159
 • Density 1,509/sq mi (583/km²)
Congressional districts 3rd, 6th
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4

Essex County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. As of the 2010 census, the population was 743,159,[1] making it the third-most populous county in Massachusetts.

Essex County is included in the Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Prior to the dissolution of the county government in 1999, it had two county seats: Salem, with jurisdiction over the Southern Essex District, and Lawrence, with jurisdiction over the Northern Essex District. The county and the districts remain as administrative regions recognized by various agencies of the governmental substructure, which gathered vital statistics or disposed of judicial case loads under these geographic subdivisions, and are required to keep the records based on them. Salem and Lawrence are no longer county seats of government. However, the county subdivision has been utilized by some agencies. For example, the county as it was has been designated the Essex National Heritage Area by the National Park Service. It also is used to define areas within a National Weather Service weather alert (such as a severe thunderstorm warning) without listing every single town/city in the alert's area.

History[edit]

Printed in 1812, this political cartoon illustrates the electoral districts drawn by the Massachusetts legislature to favor the incumbent Democratic-Republican party candidates of Governor Elbridge Gerry over the Federalists, from which the term gerrymander is derived. The cartoon depicts the bizarre shape of a district in Essex County as a dragon.

The county was created by the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony on May 10, 1643, when it was ordered "that the whole plantation within this jurisdiction be divided into four sheires". Named after the county in England, Essex then comprised the towns of Salem, Lynn, Wenham, Ipswich, Rowley, Newbury, Gloucester, and Andover,[2] which were subdivided over the centuries to produce the modern composition of cities and towns.

Essex County is famous as the area that Elbridge Gerry (who was born and raised in Marblehead) districted into a salamander-like shape in 1812 that gave rise to the word gerrymandering.

Law and government[edit]

Like several other Massachusetts counties, Essex County exists today only as a historical geographic region, and has no county government. All former county functions were assumed by state agencies in 1999. The sheriff (currently Frank Cousins) and some other regional officials with specific duties are still elected locally to perform duties within the county region, but there is no county council, commissioner, or county employees. Communities are now granted the right to form their own regional compacts for sharing services. See also: League of Women Voters page on Massachusetts counties.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 828 square miles (2,140 km2), of which 493 square miles (1,280 km2) is land and 336 square miles (870 km2) (41%) is water.[3] Essex County is adjacent to Rockingham County, New Hampshire to the north, the Atlantic Ocean (specifically the Gulf of Maine and Massachusetts Bay) to the east, Suffolk County to the south, Middlesex County to the west and a very small portion of Hillsborough County, New Hampshire to the far north west in Methuen. All county land is incorporated into towns or cities.

Essex County includes the North Shore, Cape Ann, and the lower portions of the Merrimack Valley.

National protected areas[edit]

Because of Essex County's rich history, which includes 17th century colonial history, maritime history spanning its existence, and leadership in the expansions of the textile industry in the 19th century, the entire county has been designated the Essex National Heritage Area by the National Park Service.

The following areas of national significance have also been preserved:

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 57,879
1800 61,196 5.7%
1810 71,888 17.5%
1820 74,655 3.8%
1830 82,859 11.0%
1840 94,987 14.6%
1850 131,300 38.2%
1860 165,611 26.1%
1870 200,843 21.3%
1880 244,535 21.8%
1890 299,995 22.7%
1900 357,030 19.0%
1910 436,477 22.3%
1920 482,156 10.5%
1930 498,040 3.3%
1940 496,313 −0.3%
1950 522,384 5.3%
1960 568,831 8.9%
1970 637,887 12.1%
1980 633,632 −0.7%
1990 670,080 5.8%
2000 723,419 8.0%
2010 743,159 2.7%
Est. 2013 762,550 2.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[4]
1790-1960[5] 1900-1990[6]
1990-2000[7] 2010-2013[1]

As of the census[8] of 2010, there were 743,159 people, 306,754 households, and 185,081 families residing in the county. The population density was 1508.8 people per square mile (558/km²). There were 287,144 housing units at an average density of 574 per square mile (221/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 76.0% White, 3.8% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 3.1% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 6.20% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. 16.5% of the population is Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.4% were of Irish, 15.1% Italian, 9.9% English, 5.6% French and 5.0% French Canadian ancestry according to Census 2010. 80.8% spoke English, 10.2% Spanish, 1.4% French, 1.2% Italian and 1.0% Portuguese as their first language. Essex County has been becoming increasingly diverse in recent years. By 2050, it is predicted that whites will become the minority.[9] There were 275,419 households out of which 32.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.10% were married couples living together, 12.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.80% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.15.

In the county the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 30.30% from 25 to 44, 23.10% from 45 to 64, and 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.80 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $51,576, and the median income for a family was $63,746. Males had a median income of $44,569 versus $32,369 for females. The per capita income for the county was $26,358. About 6.60% of families and 8.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.90% of those under age 18 and 8.90% of those age 65 or over.

Demographic breakdown by town[edit]

Income[edit]

The ranking of unincorporated communities that are included on the list are reflective if the census designated locations and villages were included as cities or towns. Data is from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.[10][11][12]

Rank Town Per capita
income
Median
household
income
Median
family
income
Population Number of
households
1 Manchester-by-the-Sea Town $69,930 $114,639 $131,136 5,137 2,047
2 Boxford Town $67,601 $137,159 $145,691 7,950 2,665
Boxford CDP $65,327 $112,656 $121,000 2,406 763
3 Marblehead Town $55,778 $99,574 $122,679 19,811 7,898
4 Wenham Town $55,054 $139,856 $159,688 4,831 1,311
Topsfield CDP $53,247 $116,667 $125,156 2,788 976
5 West Newbury Town $52,882 $104,931 $123,237 4,222 1,497
6 Andover Town $52,404 $113,936 $142,413 32,945 11,929
7 Nahant Town $51,308 $77,243 $134,875 3,420 1,531
8 Topsfield Town $50,689 $116,122 $122,794 6,075 2,039
9 Swampscott Town $48,013 $90,148 $108,004 13,826 5,577
10 North Andover Town $47,092 $95,199 $121,563 28,156 10,223
11 Newburyport City $46,327 $80,861 $117,305 17,370 7,534
12 Lynnfield Town $44,969 $101,921 $115,726 11,548 4,069
13 Newbury Town $44,349 $89,107 $120,870 6,647 2,516
Essex CDP $43,589 $77,188 $121,343 1,581 669
14 Rockport Town $43,201 $71,447 $98,587 7,021 3,020
15 Georgetown Town $42,683 $106,765 $125,417 8,083 2,790
16 Ipswich Town $42,494 $84,609 $100,000 13,127 5,473
Andover CDP $41,811 $72,440 $105,000 8,799 3,640
17 Amesbury City $41,142 $79,293 $94,946 16,267 6,543
18 Essex Town $40,213 $79,492 $115,048 3,470 1,383
Rowley CDP $39,483 $69,243 $75,481 1,370 615
19 Danvers Town $39,067 $78,593 $98,723 26,303 10,282
20 Rowley Town $38,592 $79,449 $103,197 5,815 2,254
21 Hamilton Town $38,157 $103,774 $113,000 7,809 2,532
22 Groveland Town $37,173 $91,080 $100,972 6,401 2,372
23 Beverly City $36,889 $67,733 $90,672 39,455 15,278
Salisbury CDP $36,812 $65,205 $77,119 4,735 2,117
Ipswich CDP $36,687 $70,970 $86,397 3,951 1,831
24 Merrimac Town $36,643 $76,936 $90,812 6,297 2,442
25 Middleton Town $36,194 $93,415 $100,288 8,839 2,621
Rockport CDP $36,099 $56,250 $97,241 4,952 2,137
26 Gloucester City $35,080 $59,061 $76,610 28,869 12,310
Massachusetts State $35,051 $65,981 $83,371 6,512,227 2,522,409
Essex County County $34,858 $65,785 $83,047 739,505 284,940
27 Salisbury Town $34,755 $68,194 $82,353 8,212 3,399
28 Saugus Town $34,076 $75,258 $93,125 26,516 9,917
29 Peabody City $32,442 $65,471 $80,859 50,824 20,890
30 Salem City $30,961 $56,203 $64,769 41,163 17,690
31 Haverhill City $30,574 $60,611 $76,754 60,544 24,334
32 Methuen City $29,778 $65,799 $81,190 46,785 17,508
United States Country $27,915 $52,762 $64,293 306,603,772 114,761,359
33 Lynn City $22,190 $44,367 $51,384 90,006 34,018
34 Lawrence City $17,068 $31,478 $35,606 75,761 27,048

Politics[edit]

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2012 41.1% 150,480 57.4% 210,302
2008 38.8% 137,129 59.1% 208,976
2004 40.5% 135,114 58.2% 194,068
2000 35.4% 110,010 57.5% 178,400
1996 30.6% 89,120 58.7% 171,021
1992 31.7% 102,212 43.6% 140,593
1988 48.6% 148,614 49.7% 151,816
1984 54.8% 162,152 44.8% 132,353
1980 43.8% 130,252 39.0% 116,173
1976 41.6% 125,538 55.0% 165,710
1972 46.5% 138,040 53.0% 157,324
1968 35.4% 99,721 61.0% 171,901
1964 25.3% 71,653 73.4% 210,135
1960 42.9% 126,599 56.9% 167,875
Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of October 13, 2010[13]
Party Number of Voters Percentage
  Democratic 158,409 32.98%
  Republican 57,759 12.02%
  Unaffiliated 261,600 54.46%
  Minor Parties 2,619 0.55%
Total 480,387 100%

Education[edit]

Essex County is home to numerous libraries and schools, both public and private.

Libraries[edit]

Secondary education[edit]

Public schools[edit]

Technical schools[edit]

Private schools[edit]

Higher education[edit]

Essex National Heritage Area[edit]

On November 12, 1996, Essex National Heritage Area (ENHA) was authorized by Congress. The heritage area consists of all of Essex County, MA a 500-square-mile (1,300 km2) area between the Atlantic Coast and the Merrimack Valley. The area includes 34 cities and towns; two National Historic Sites (Salem Maritime National Historic Site and Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site); and thousands of historic sites and districts that illuminate colonial settlement, the development of the shoe and textile industries, and the growth and decline of the maritime industries — including fishing, privateering, and the China trade.[14] The Essex National Heritage Area is one of 49 heritage areas designated by Congress, affiliated with the National Park Service.

The Essex National Heritage Commission is a non-profit organization chartered to promote tourism and cultural awareness of the area, connecting people to the places of Essex County, MA. The Commission's mission is to promote and preserve the historic, cultural and natural resources of the ENHA by rallying community support around saving the character of the area. This is accomplished through the commission's projects and programs which include; Partnership Grant Program, Explorers membership program, Photo Safaris, and the annual September weekend event 'Trails & Sails' as well as other important regional partnership building projects like the Essex Heritage Scenic Byway, and the Border to Boston trail.

Communities[edit]

The towns and cities of Essex County are listed below. They are incorporated under the current laws of the State of Massachusetts, even though in a number of cases the incorporation was accepted as a legacy from Massachusetts Bay Colony. A large number of traditionally recognized places are not. They are not listed here but may be in the articles for the incorporated places. All the territory of the state is under the jurisdiction of a city or town.

The list does not utilize the terminology of the U. S. Census Bureau, which is defined decannually.[15] For example, the census-designated place (CDP) may or may not be comparable to any single municipality on the list. CDP's change frequently. The Bureau collects data on discrete populations defined to be appropriate to its mission at the time of the census. There is not necessarily a regard for political or traditional subdivisions, although those subdivisions typically play a major role.

The cities and towns on this list officially consider themselves to be so and are defined to be so by the laws of the State of Massachusetts. As government at the county level was dissolved in Essex County in 1999, the cities and towns are directly subordinate to the state. The county still plays a role in administrative districting by various governmental agencies in Massachusetts. Subordinate places may be defined by them on any basis, except that they have no separate corporate existence under those names.

Cities[edit]

Towns[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  2. ^ Davis, William T. Bench and Bar of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, p. 44. The Boston History Company, 1895.
  3. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2014. 
  4. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 16, 2014. 
  5. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved September 16, 2014. 
  6. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 16, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 16, 2014. 
  8. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  9. ^ "The Map of America’s Tomorrow – A Visualization of the Changing Face of America". Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  10. ^ "SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  11. ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  12. ^ "HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  13. ^ "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of October 13, 2010" (PDF). Massachusetts Elections Division. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  14. ^ The National Parks: Index 2001-2003, Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, p. 104.
  15. ^ "Massachusetts". United States Census Bureau. 2011.  This site states the definitions in use for the 2010 census.

References[edit]

Essex County References

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Registries[edit]

Maps[edit]

Other sites[edit]

Coordinates: 42°38′N 70°52′W / 42.64°N 70.87°W / 42.64; -70.87