Richard Nikolaus von Coudenhove-Kalergi
|Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi|
|Father||Heinrich von Coudenhove-Kalergi|
16 November 1894|
|Died||27 July 1972
Richard Nikolaus Eijiro von Coudenhove-Kalergi (German: Richard Nikolaus Eijiro Graf Coudenhove-Kalergi; Japanese: リヒャルト・ニコラウス・栄次郎・クーデンホーフ=カレルギー Rihiyăruto-Nikorausu 栄次郎 (= Eijiro) Kūdenhōfu-Karerugī; November 16, 1894 – July 27, 1972) was an Austrian politician, geopolitician, philosopher and count of Coudenhove-Kalergi, who was a pioneer of European integration. He was the founder and President for 49 years of the Paneuropean Union. His parents were Heinrich von Coudenhove-Kalergi, an Austro-Hungarian diplomat, and Mitsuko Aoyama, the daughter of an antiques-dealer and oil tycoon in Tokyo.
His first book, titled Pan-Europa was published in 1923, contained a membership form for the Pan-Europa movement. Coudenhove-Kalergi's movement held its first Congress in Vienna in 1926. In 1927 Aristide Briand was elected honorary president. Personalities attending included: Albert Einstein, Thomas Mann and Sigmund Freud.
He was the first recipient of the Charlemagne Prize in 1950. The 1972–1973 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour. Coudenhove-Kalergi also proposed Beethoven's Ode to Joy as the music for the European Anthem.
Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi was the second son of Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi (1859–1906), an Austro-Hungarian count and diplomat of mixed European origin, and Mitsuko Aoyama (1874–1941). His father, who spoke sixteen languages and embraced travel as the only means of prolonging life, had prematurely abandoned a career in the Austrian diplomatic service that took him to Athens, Constantinople, Rio de Janeiro, and Tokyo, to devote himself to study and writing.
Coudenhove-Kalergi's parents met when the future countess helped the Austro-Hungarian diplomat stationed in Japan after he fell off a horse. In commenting on their union, Whittaker Chambers described the future originator of Pan-Europe as "practically a Pan-European organization himself". He elaborated: "The Coudenhoves were a wealthy Flemish family that fled to Austria during the French Revolution. The Kalergis were a wealthy Greek family from Crete. The line has been further crossed with Poles, Norwegians, Balts, French and Germans, but since the families were selective as well as cosmopolite, the hybridization has been consistently successful." The Kalergis family roots trace to the Byzantine royalty via Venetian aristocracy, connecting with the Phokas imperial dynasty. In 1300, Coudenhove-Kalergi's ancestor Alexios Phokas-Kalergis signed the treaty that made Crete a dominion of Venice.
Youth and education
Coudenhove-Kalergi passed his adolescence on Bohemian family estates in Ronsperg, known today as Poběžovice. His father personally taught his two sons Russian and Hungarian and toughened them both physically and morally. He took them on long walks in all weathers, made them sleep on straw mattresses and take cold showers, and taught them to shoot and fence so well that no one would ever dare challenge them. He also took them to Mass every Sunday. On every Good Friday, as the liturgy came to the exhortation "oremus et pro perfidis Judaeis" ("Let us also pray for the faithless Jews"), the old count allegedly rose and walked out of the church in a protest against this supposed expression of antisemitism.
Coudenhove-Kalergi studied at the Ecole épiscopale de Brixen (Brixen) before attending the Theresianische Akademie in Vienna from 1908 until 1913. He obtained his doctorate in philosophy with a thesis on Die Objectivität als Grundprinzip der Moral (The Objectivity as Fundamental Principle of Morals) in 1917 from the University of Vienna.
While still in his student years, Coudenhove-Kalergi married the famous Viennese actress Ida Roland in April 1915. His marriage to a divorcée thirteen years his senior and a commoner, caused a temporary split with his family.
Aristocratic in his origins and elitist in his ideas, Coudenhove-Kalergi identified and collaborated with such politicians as Engelbert Dollfuss, Kurt Schuschnigg, Otto von Habsburg, Winston Churchill, and Charles de Gaulle. His ideal political constituent was a gentleman, a person adhering to honesty, fair play, courtesy, and rational discourse. He strove to replace the nationalist German ideal of racial community with the goal of an ethnically heterogeneous and inclusive European nation based on a communality of culture, a nation whose geniuses were the "great Europeans" such as abbé de Saint-Pierre, Kant, Napoleon, Giuseppe Mazzini, Victor Hugo, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Pan-European political activist
Coudenhove-Kalergi is recognized as the founder of the first popular movement for a united Europe. His intellectual influences ranged from Rudolf Kjellén and Oswald Spengler to Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche. In politics, he was an enthusiastic supporter of "fourteen points" made by Woodrow Wilson on 8 January 1918 and pacifist initiatives of Kurt Hiller. In the early 1920s he joined a Masonic lodge at Vienna, where he would reach several degrees. In 1922, he co-founded the Pan-European Union (PEU) with Archduke Otto von Habsburg, as "the only way of guarding against an eventual world hegemony by Russia". In 1923, he published a manifesto entitled Pan-Europa, each copy containing a membership form which invited the reader to become a member of the Pan-Europa movement. He favored social democracy as an improvement on "the feudal aristocracy of the sword" But his ambition was to create a conservative society that superseded democracy with "the social aristocracy of the spirit".
According to his autobiography, at the beginning of 1924 he came through Baron Louis de Rothschild in contact with Max Warburg who offered to finance his movement for the next 3 years giving him 60,000 gold marks; Warburg eventually remained sincerely interested in the movement for his entire life and served as an intermediate man as to bring him in contact with influential personalities in America such as banker Paul Warburg and financier Bernard Baruch accompanying him there. In April 1924 Coudenhove-Kalergi founded the journal Paneuropa (1924-1938) of which he was editor and principal author. The next year he started publishing his main work, the Kampf um Paneuropa (The fight for Paneuropa, 1925-1928, three volumes). In 1926, the first Congress of the Pan-European Union was held in Vienna and the 2,000 delegates elected Coudenhove-Kalergi as president of the Central Council a position he held until his death (1972).
His original vision was for a world divided into only five states: a United States of Europe that would link continental countries with French and Italian possessions in Africa; a Pan-American Union encompassing North and South Americas; the British Commonwealth circling the globe; the USSR spanning Eurasia; and a Pan-Asian Union whereby Japan and China would control most of the Pacific. To him, the only hope for a Europe devastated by war was to federate along lines that the Hungarian-born Romanian Aurel Popovici and others had proposed for the by then just dissolved multinational Empire of Austria-Hungary. According to Coudenhove-Kalergi, Pan-Europe would encompass and extend a more flexible and more competitive Austria-Hungary, with English serving as world language, spoken by everyone in addition to his native tongue. He believed that individualism and socialism would learn to cooperate instead of compete, and urged that capitalism and communism cross-fertilize each other just as the Protestant Reformation had spurred the Catholic Church to regenerate itself.
Coudenhove-Kalergi attempted to enlist prominent European politicians in his pan-European cause. He offered the presidency of the Austrian branch of the Pan-European Union to Ignaz Seipel, who accepted the offer unhesitatingly and rewarded his beneficiary with an office in the old Imperial palace in Vienna. Coudenhove-Kalergi had less success with Tomáš Masaryk, who referred him to his uncooperative Prime Minister Edvard Beneš. The idea of pan-Europe elicited support from politicians as diverse in their orientation as Carlo Sforza and Hjalmar Schacht. Although Coudenhove-Kalergi found himself unable to sway Benito Mussolini, his ideas influenced Aristide Briand and his inspired speech in favor of a European Union in the League of Nations on 8 September 1929, as well as his famous 1930 "Memorandum on the Organization of a Regime of European Federal Union". Meanwhile, his Pan-Europeanism earned vivid loathing from Adolf Hitler, who excoriated its pacifism and mechanical economism and belittled its founder as "everybody's bastard".
After the annexation of Austria by the Third Reich in 1938, Coudenhove-Kalergi fled to Czechoslovakia, and thence to France. As France fell to Germany in 1940, he escaped to the United States by way of Switzerland and Portugal. During the war, he continued his call for the unification of Europe along the Paris-London axis. His wartime politics and peripeties served as the real life basis for fictional Resistance hero Victor Laszlo, the Paul Henreid character in Casablanca. He published his work Crusade for Paneurope in 1944. His appeal for the unification of Europe enjoyed some support from Winston Churchill, Allen Dulles, and "Wild Bill" Donovan. After the announcement of the Atlantic Charter on 14 August 1941, he composed a memorandum entitled "Austria's Independence in the light of the Atlantic Charter" and sent it to Winston Churchill and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In his position statement, Coudenhove-Kalergi took up the goals of the charter and recommended himself as head of government in exile. Both Churchill and FDR distanced themselves from this document. From 1942 until his return to France in 1945, he taught at the New York University, which appointed him professor of history in 1944.
The end of war inaugurated a revival of pan-European hopes. Winston Churchill's celebrated speech of 19 September 1946 to the Academic Youth in Zurich commended "the exertions of the Pan-European Union which owes so much to Count Coudenhove-Kalergi and which commanded the services of the famous French patriot and statesman Aristide Briand."  In November 1946 and the spring of 1947, Coudenhove-Kalergi circulated an enquiry addressed to members of European parliaments. This enquiry resulted in the founding of the European Parliamentary Union (EPU), a nominally private organization that held its preliminary conference on 4–5 July at Gstaad, Switzerland, and followed it with its first full conference from 8 to 12 September. Speaking at the first EPU conference, Coudenhove-Kalergi argued that the constitution of a wide market with a stable currency was the vehicle for Europe to reconstruct its potential and take the place it deserves within the concert of Nations. On less guarded occasions he was heard to advocate a revival of Charlemagne's empire. In 1950 he received the first annual Karlspreis (Charlemagne Award), given by the German city of Aachen to people who contributed to the European idea and European peace.
In the 1960s, Coudenhove-Kalergi urged Austria to pursue "an active policy of peace", as a "fight against the Cold War and its continuation, the atomic war". He advocated Austrian involvement in world politics in order to keep the peace, as "active neutrality". He continued his advocacy of European unification in memoranda circulated to the governments of the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy. He recommended negotiations between the European Community and the European Free Trade Association towards forming a "European customs union" that would be free of political and military connections, but would eventually adopt a monetary union.
Views on race and religion
In his attitudes towards race and religion, Coudenhove-Kalergi continued the work of his father. In his youth, the elder Coudenhove-Kalergi was an antisemite. He had expected to confirm his antipathy towards the Jews when he started working on his treatise Das Wesen des Antisemitismus (The Essence of Antisemitism); but, Coudenhove-Kalergi came to a different conclusion by the time he published his book in 1901. Following an ironic critique of the new racial theories, he declared that the essence of antisemitism amounted to nothing more credible than fanatical religious hatred. He traced that fanaticism to religious bigotry that originated in the promulgation of Torah under Ezra. According to the elder Coudenhove-Kalergi, Jewish religious bigotry provoked opposition from the relatively tolerant Greco-Roman polytheists, eliciting their anti-Judaic reaction. Antisemitism came into existence when Christianity and Islam took over the intolerant fanaticism of Judaism, and turned it against the Jews. Thus Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi credited the Jews with originating religious intolerance, and condemned it as a violation of genuine religious principles. He branded every sort of anti-Judaism unchristian. He further urged liberal Christians and Jews to ally in protecting both of their religions, and religion as such, against the emerging menace of secularism.
In spite of his opposition to simplistic racial theory, Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi agreed that Jews are racially distinct. Although he pointed out that there is no Semitic race, because Semitic is a language family, he equivocated by also remarking that the charges that Semites were uncreative were belied by civilizations formed by the Assyrians and Babylonians, who spoke Semitic languages. He further sought to defend the Jews against bigoted charges of parasitic greed and cowardice with anecdotal counterexamples of Jewish industriousness and martial courage.
In 1932 Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi composed a preface for a new edition of his father's condemnation of antisemitism, reissued by his own publishing house. In 1933 he responded to the ascendance of National Socialism by collaborating with Heinrich Mann, Arthur Holitscher, Lion Feuchtwanger, and Max Brod in writing and publishing the pamphlet Gegen die Phrase vom jüdischen Schädling (Against the Phrase 'Jewish Parasite').
- "The man of the future will be of mixed race. Today's races and classes will gradually disappear owing to the vanishing of space, time, and prejudice. The Eurasian-Negroid race of the future, similar in its appearance to the Ancient Egyptians, will replace the diversity of peoples with a diversity of individuals."
- "Instead of destroying European Jewry, Europe, against its own will, refined and educated this people into a future leader-nation through this artificial selection process. No wonder that this people, that escaped Ghetto-Prison, developed into a spiritual nobility of Europe. Therefore a gracious Providence provided Europe with a new race of nobility by the Grace of Spirit. This happened at the moment when Europe’s feudal aristocracy became dilapidated, and thanks to Jewish emancipation."
- "We are experiencing the most dangerous revolution in the world history: the revolution of the State against the man. We are experiencing the worst idolatry of all the time: the deification of the state." (Totaler Mensch – totaler Staat)
- Adel (1922)
- Ethik und Hyperethik (1922), publié en France en 1929 "Héros ou Saint", traduit de l'allemand par Marcel Beaufils aux Cahiers Internationaux - Les Editions Rieder - 7, Place Saint-Sulpice, Paris
- Pan-Europa (1923)
- Krise der Weltanschauung (1923)
- Pazifismus (1924)
- Deutschlands Europäische Sendung. Ein Gespräch (1924)
- Praktischer Idealismus (1925)
- Kampf um Paneuropa (3 Volumes, 1925–28)
- Held oder Heiliger (1927)
- Stalin & Co. (1931)
- Gebote des Lebens (1931)
- Las vom Materialismus! (1931)
- La lutte pour l'Europe (1931)
- Revolution durch Technik (1932)
- Gegen die Phrase vom jüdischen Schädling (1933, co-authored with Heinrich Mann, Arthur Holitscher, Lion Feuchtwanger, and Max Brod)
- Europa erwacht! (1934)
- Judenhaß von heute: Graf H. Coudenhofe-Kalergi. Das Wesen des Antisemitismus (1935)
- Europa ohne Elend: Ausgewählte Reden (1936)
- Judenhaß! (1937)
- Totaler Staat – totaler Mensch (1937)
- The Totalitarian State Against Man, with an introduction by Wickham Stead, translated by Sir Andrew Mc Fadyean (1939)
- Europe Must Unite, translated by Sir Andrew Mc Fadyean (1939)
- Die europäische Mission der Frau (1940)
- Kampf um Europa (1949)
- Ida Roland: In Memoriam (1951)
- Die Europäische Nation (1953)
- Der Gentleman (1953)
- An Idea Conquers the World, with a preface by Winston S. Churchill (1953)
- Vom Ewigen Krieg zum Großen Frieden (1956)
- Eine Idee erobert Europa (1958)
- From War to Peace (1959)
- Weltmacht Europa (1971)
- Regarding personal names: Graf is a title, translated as Count, not a first or middle name. The female form is Gräfin.
- "Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi". Spartacus Educational.
- Chambers, Whittaker (January 1944), Historian and History Maker, American Mercury.
- NAITO, Tetsuo (2006-03-31). "研究ノート : 欧州統合の提唱者、クーデンホーフ・カレルギーの思想と行動 An Advocate of the European Integration, Coudenhove-Kalergi’s Original Idea and Activities" (PDF). Saitama United Cyber Repository of Academic Resources (SUCRA). p. 169. Retrieved 22 October 2013. "幼き日に母親に日本の童話、例えば「桃太郎」を読んでもらったとの彼の回想がある"
- See Stephen Dorril, MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service, Free Press, 2000, p. 165.
- See Ben Rosamond, Theories of European Integration, Palgrave Macmillan, 2000, pp. 21–22.
- See Walter Lipgens, editor, Documents on the History of European Integration, Volume 1: Continental Plans for European Union 1939–1945, Walter De Gruyter, 1984, p. 712; William M. Johnston, The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History, 1848–1938, University of California Press, 1983, pp. 320–321.
- See D. Weigall and P. Stirk, editors, The Origins and Development of the European Community, Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1992, pp. 11–15.
- See Michael Burleigh, The Third Reich: A New History, Hill and Wang, 2001, p. 426; Walter Lipgens, op. cit., p. 37.) In his turn, Coudenhove-Kalergi once again approached Mussolini on 10 May 1933 in a futile attempt to form a union of Latin nations against the Third Reich. (See Walter Lipgens, op. cit, pp. 180–184.
- See Dorril, op. cit., pp. 166–167.
- See Walter Lipgens and Wilfried Loth, editors, Documents on the History of European Integration, Volume 3: The Struggle for European Union by Political Parties and Pressure Groups in Western European Countries 1945–1950, Walter De Gruyter, 1988, p. 664; Winston S. Churchill, Never Give In: The Best of Winston Churchill's Speeches, Hyperion, 2003, pp. 427–430.
- See Walter Lipgens and Wilfried Loth, op. cit., p. 537.
- "Union Paneuropéenne". August 3, 1955. Archived from the original on November 8, 2008.
- See Gavin I. Langmuir, History, Religion, and Antisemitism, pp. 22–24; William M. Johnston, op. cit., pp. 320–321.
- See Ritchie Robertson, The "Jewish Question" in German Literature, 1749–1939: Emancipation and Its Discontents, Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 198–199.
- Praktischer Idealismus, Wien/Leipzig 1925, pages 20, 23, 50
Media related to Count Richard Nikolaus von Coudenhove-Kalergi at Wikimedia Commons
- International Paneuropean Union
- European Society Coudenhove-Kalergi
- Michael Gehler, A Visionary proved Himself to be a Realist: Richard N. Coudenhove-Kalergi, Austria, and the "United States of Europe", 1923–2003
- Lubor Jilek, Pan-Europe de Coudenhove-Kalergi: l’homme, le projet et le mouvement paneuropéen
- The role of Count Coudenhove-Kalergi in east central European federalism is reexamined in The Intermarium: Wilson, Madison, & East Central European Federalism by Dr. Jonathan Levy
- Archival sources on the Paneuropean Union and the European Parliamentary Union at the Historical Archives of the EU in Florence