Demographics of Algeria

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Algeria, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Algeria, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Ninety-one percent of the Algerian population lives along the Mediterranean coast on 12% of the country's total land mass. Forty-five percent of the population is urban, and urbanization continues, despite government efforts to discourage migration to the cities. Currently, 24,182,736 Algerians live in urban area, about 1.5 million nomads live in the Saharan area.

99% of the population is classified ethnically as Arab-Berber[1] and religiously as Sunni Muslim 96%, the few non-Sunni Muslims are mainly Ibadis 1.3% from the M'Zab valley (See Islam in Algeria). A mostly foreign Roman Catholic community also about Christians especially Protestant evangelic and almost 500 Jewish, most of them live in Bejaia. The Jewish community of Algeria, which once constituted 2% of the total population, has substantially decreased due to emigration, mostly to France and Israel.

Algeria's educational system has grown rapidly since 1962; in the last 12 years, attendance has doubled to more than 5 million students. Education is free and compulsory to age 16. Despite government allocation of substantial educational resources, population pressures and a serious shortage of teachers have severely strained the system, as have terrorist attacks against the educational infrastructure during the 1990s. Modest numbers of Algerian students study abroad, primarily in France and Canada. In 2000, the government launched a major review of the country's educational system.

Housing and medicine continue to be pressing problems in Algeria. Failing infrastructure and the continued influx of people from rural to urban areas has overtaxed both systems. According to the UNDP, Algeria has one of the world's highest per housing unit occupancy rates for housing, and government officials have publicly stated that the country has an immediate shortfall of 1.5 million housing units.

Population[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±% p.a.  
1901 4,739,300 —    
1906 5,231,700 +2.00%
1911 5,563,800 +1.24%
1921 5,804,200 +0.42%
1926 6,066,400 +0.89%
1931 6,553,500 +1.56%
1936 7,234,700 +2.00%
1948 8,681,800 +1.53%
2010 35,600,000 +2.30%
2011 36,300,000 +1.97%
2012 37,100,000 +2.20%
2013 37,900,000 +2.16%


Source: Office National des Statistiques (ONS)[2]

Vital statistics[3][4][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1966 13 123 667 000 50.8
1967 13 497 630 000 46.7
1968 13 887 618 000 44.5
1969 14 287 665 000 46.5
1970 14 691 689 000 46.9
1971 15 098 687 000 45.5
1972 15 512 697 000 44.9
1973 15 936 717 000 45.0
1974 16 375 722 000 44.1
1975 16 834 738 000 43.8
1976 17 311 751 000 43.4
1977 17 809 728 000 40.9
1978 18 331 767 000 41.9
1979 18 885 797 000 42.2
1980 19 475 819 000 42.0
1981 20 104 835 000 41.5
1982 20 767 852 000 41.0
1983 21 453 812 000 37.9
1984 22 150 850 000 38.4
1985 22 847 864 000 37.8
1986 23 539 781 000 33.2
1987 24 226 755 000 31.2
1988 24 905 806 000 32.4
1989 25 577 755 000 153 000 602 000 29.5
1990 25 022 775 000 151 000 624 000 31.0 6.0 25.0 4.50
1991 25 643 773 000 155 000 618 000 30.1 6.0 24.1
1992 26 271 799 000 160 000 639 000 30.4 6.1 24.3
1993 26 894 775 000 168 000 607 000 28.8 6.2 22.6
1994 27 496 776 000 180 000 596 000 28.2 6.5 21.7
1995 28 060 711 000 180 000 531 000 25.3 6.4 18.9
1996 28 566 654 000 172 000 482 000 22.9 6.0 16.9
1997 29 045 654 000 178 000 476 000 22.5 6.1 16.4
1998 29 507 607 000 144 000 463 000 20.6 4.9 15.7
1999 29 965 593 643 141 000 452 643 19.8 4.7 15.1
2000 30 416 588 628 140 000 448 628 19.4 4.6 14.7
2001 30 879 618 380 141 000 477 380 20.0 4.6 15.5
2002 31 357 616 963 138 000 478 963 19.7 4.4 15.3
2003 31 848 649 000 145 000 504 000 20.4 4.6 15.8
2004 32 364 669 000 141 000 528 000 20.7 4.4 16.3
2005 32 906 703 000 147 000 556 000 21.4 4.5 16.9
2006 33 481 739 000 144 000 595 000 22.1 4.3 17.8
2007 34 096 783 000 149 000 634 000 23.0 4.4 18.6
2008 34 591 817 000 153 000 664 000 23.6 4.4 19.2 2.81
2009 35 268 849 000 159 000 690 000 24.1 4.5 19.6 2.84
2010 35 978 888 000 157 000 731 000 24.7 4.4 20.3 2.87
2011 36 717 910 000 162 000 748 000 24.8 4.4 20.4 2.87
2012 37 450 978 000 170 000 808 000 26.1 4.5 21.6 3.02
2013 38 297 963 000 168 000 795 000 25.14 4.39 20.75 2.93

Structure of the population[edit]

Structure of the population (10 000) (2011)
Age group Male Female Total
00-04 565 534 1099
05-09 435 413 849
10-14 422 404 826
15-19 484 465 949
20-24 522 509 1031
25-29 512 504 1016
30-34 439 430 869
35-39 351 350 701
40-44 303 306 609
45-49 255 256 511
50-54 207 205 412
55-59 172 165 337
60-64 125 120 245
65-69 86 88 174
70-74 75 77 152
75-79 55 57 111
80+ 54 55 109
TOTAL 5061 4939 10 000
Age group Male Female Percent
0-14 14,22 13,51 27,74
15-64 33,70 33,10 66,80
65+ 2,70 2,77 5,46
Structure of the population (10 000) (2012)
Age group Male Female Total
00-04 577 546 1123
05-09 447 423 870
10-14 405 388 792
15-19 463 445 907
20-24 506 492 997
25-29 507 500 1007
30-34 449 439 888
35-39 356 353 709
40-44 304 307 612
45-49 260 261 520
50-54 209 208 418
55-59 174 169 342
60-64 133 127 259
65-69 86 88 174
70-74 75 77 152
75-79 55 58 113
80-84 35 36 72
85+ 21 22 43
TOTAL 5061 4939 10 000
Age group Male Female Percent
0-14 14,29 13,57 27,85
15-64 33,61 33,01 66,59
65+ 2,72 2,81 5,54

Ethnic groups[edit]

Map of tribes of Algeria (source: U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (1971))
Arab-Berbers 99%,[5] European less than 1%

In a very recent study (2008) done in northwestern Algeria (Oran area),[6] the most common haplogroups observed in the Algerian population (n=102) were :

  • E1b1b (50.9%)
    • E1b1b1b (M81) (45.1%) very common in northwest Africa and also found, with much lower frequencies compared to those observed in northwest Africa, in Turkey, the near East, the Balkans, southern Europe and in Iberia.
    • E1b1b1a (M78) (5.8%) widely distributed in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Asia up to Southern Asia, and all of Europe (with distribution peak centered in parts of the Balkans and Italy and declining frequencies in western, central, and northeastern Europe).
  • J (35.0%)[7]
    • J1 (M267) (27.4%) frequent in Egypt and the Middle East.
    • J2 (M67) (7.6%) frequent in the Northern Middle East, Balkans and Southernmost Italy and also common in Iberia and Westernmost and Easternmost North Africa
  • R1 (12.8%)
    • R1b (M269) (10.8%) typically found in Eurasia.
    • R1a (M17) (1%) typically associated with the area from Central and Eastern Europe to South Asia
    • R1 (M173) (1%) typically found in Central and South Asia
  • E1b1a (M2) (7.8%) typically Associated with West Africa
  • Others
    • Q (M242) (1%) typically associated with East, South, North and part of West Asia, and the Native American populations.

Y-Dna Haplogroup frequencies in coastal Algeria[edit]

Population Nb E1a E1b1a E1b1b1a E1b1b1b E1b1b1c F K J1 J2 R1a R1b Q Study
1 Oran 102 0 7.85% 5.90% 45.10% 0 0 0 22.50% 4.90% 1% 11.80% 1% Robino et al. (2008)[8]
2 Algiers 35 2.85% 0 11.40% 42.85% 0 11.80% 2.85% 22.85% 5.70% 0 0 0 Arredi et al. (2004)[9]
3 Tizi Ouzou 19 0 0 0 47.35% 10.50% 10.50% 0 15.80% 0 0 15.80% 0 Arredi et al. (2004)
Total 156 0.65% 5.10% 6.40% 44.90% 1.30% 9.58% 0.65% 21.80% 4.50% 0.65% 9.60% 0.65%

In a recent genetic study by Semino et al. (2004), Algerian Arabs and Berbers were found to have more genetic similarities than was once believed.[10] This led scientists to conclude that the North African population was mainly Berber in origin and that the population had been 'Arabised', by the migration of Near-Eastener people.

The Haplogroup J, common marker in Middle-Eastern population is found at near 30% in Algeria, which is one of the most common haplogroup of the country along with E1b1b .

Recent studies on the common J1 Y chromosome suggest it arrived over ten thousand years ago in North Africa, and M81/E3b2 is a Y chromosome specific to North African ancestry, dating to the Neolithic. A thorough study by Arredi et al. (2004) which analyzed populations from Algeria concludes that the North African pattern of Y-chromosomal variation (including both E3b2 and J haplogroups is largely of Neolithic origin, which suggests that the Neolithic transition in this part of the world was accompanied by demic diffusion of Afro-Asiatic–speaking pastoralists from the Middle East. This Neolithic origin was later confirmed by Myles et al. (2005) which suggest that "contemporary Berber populations possess the genetic signature of a past migration of pastoralists from the Middle East",[11]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[12]

Nationality

Noun: Algerian(s)
Adjective: Algerian

Median age

total: 27.6 years
male: 27.4 years
female: 27.8 years (2011 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
-0.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization

Urban population: 66% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 2.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Infant mortality rate

Total: 27.73 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 30.86 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 24.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
Total: 24.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 27.82 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 21.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total population: 74.73 years
Male: 72.99 years
Female: 76.57 years (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS

Adult prevalence rate: 0.1% ; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 21,000 (2007 est.)
Deaths: less than 1000 (2007 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: cutaneous leishmaniasis is a high risk in some locations (2005)

Religions[edit]

Languages[edit]

Spoken and popular languages[edit]

Official and recognized languages[edit]

  • Classical Arabic: official language of the state, as defined in the Algerian constitution. Classical Arabic can be read and written by about 40% of Algerians. The language is used in writing only, not in daily conversation.
  • Berber language (Tamazight): recognized as "national language" in the Algerian constitution.

Literacy[edit]

Definition: Age 15 and over can read and write

Total population: 69.9%
Male: 79.6%
Female: 60.1% (2002 est.)

Education expenditures[edit]

5.1% of GDP (1999)

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Y-DNA_J/default.aspx
  2. ^ Office National des Statistiques
  3. ^ [1] United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  4. ^ [Office National de Statistique]
  5. ^ Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample
  6. ^ Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample
  7. ^ http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Y-DNA_J/
  8. ^ Robino et al. (2008), Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample
  9. ^ Arredi et al. (2004),A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa
  10. ^ Semino et al. (2004), Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J
  11. ^ although later papers have suggested that this date could have been as longas ten thousand years ago, with the transition from the Oranian to the Capsian culture in North Africa. SpringerLink - Journal Article
  12. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Algeria

External links[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2009 edition". and the As of 2003 U.S. Department of State website.