Demographics of Tanzania

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Tanzanian people
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Total population
44,928,923 (2012 census)
Diaspora est. 3.7 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
United Kingdom United Kingdom 35,000
United States United States 20,308[2]
Canada Canada 19,500[3]
Australia Australia 1,500[3]
Sweden Sweden 900[3]
Italy Italy 900[3]
Denmark Denmark 700[3]
Switzerland Switzerland 500[3]
France France 500[3]
Languages
Kiswahili, English and Regional languages
Religion
Islam, Christianity and Indigenous beliefs

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Tanzania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.

The population distribution in Tanzania is extremely uneven. Most people live on the northern border or the eastern coast, with much of the remainder of the country being sparsely populated.[4]:page 1252 Density varies from 12 per square kilometre (31/sq mi) in the Katavi Region to 3,133 per square kilometre (8,110/sq mi) in the Dar es Salaam Region.[5]:page 6 Approximately 70 percent of the population is rural, although this percentage has been declining since at least 1967.[6] Dar es Salaam is the de facto capital and largest city. Dodoma, located in the centre of Tanzania, is the de jure capital, although action to move government buildings to Dodoma has stalled.

The population consists of about 125 ethnic groups.[7] The Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chagga, and Haya peoples have more than 1 million members each.[8]:page 4

Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa.[9] Among the languages spoken in Tanzania are all four of Africa's language families: Bantu, Cushitic, Nilotic, and Khoisan.[9] Swahili and English are Tanzania's official languages.[9] Swahili belongs to the Bantu branch of the Niger-Congo family.[10] The Sandawe people speak a language that may be related to the Khoe languages of Botswana and Namibia, while the language of the Hadzabe people, although it has similar click consonants, is arguably a language isolate.[11] The language of the Iraqw people is Cushitic.[12] Other languages are Indian languages and Portuguese (spoken by Goans and Mozambicans).

Although much of Zanzibar's native population came from the mainland, one group known as Shirazis traces its origins to the island's early Persian settlers. Non-Africans residing on the mainland and Zanzibar account for 1 percent of the total population. The Asian community, including Hindus, Sikhs, Shi'a and Sunni Muslims, Parsis, and Goans, has declined by 50 percent in the past decade[when?] to 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000 on Zanzibar. An estimated 70,000 Arabs and 20,000 Europeans (90 percent of which are from the British diaspora) reside in Tanzania.

Based on 1999–2003 data, over 74,000 Tanzanian-born people were living in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, with 32,630 residing in the United Kingdom; 19,960 in Canada; 12,225 in the United States; 1,714 in Australia; 1,180 in the Netherlands; and 1,012 in Sweden.[13]

Population[edit]

Demographics of Tanzania, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
The Bantu Sukuma are Tanzania's largest ethnic group.

According to the 2012 census, the total population was 44,928,923 compared to 12,313,469 in 1967,[5]:page 1 resulting in an annual growth rate of 2.9 percent. The under 15 age group represented 44.1 percent of the population, with 35.5 percent being in the 15–35 age group, 52.2 percent being in the 15–64 age group, and 3.8 percent being older than 64.[14]

According to the 2012 revison of the World Population Prospects, children below the age of 15 constituted 44.8 percent of the total population, with 52.0 percent aged 15–64 and 3.1 percent aged 65 or older.[15]

Total population[15] Population aged 0–14 (%)[15] Population aged 15–64 (%)[15] Population aged 65+ (%)[15]
1950 7,650,000 46.0 51.8 2.2
1955 8,741,000 45.7 52.0 2.3
1960 10,074,000 45.8 51.8 2.4
1965 11,683,000 45.8 51.7 2.4
1970 13,605,000 46.2 51.3 2.5
1975 15,978,000 46.4 51.1 2.6
1980 18,687,000 46.5 50.8 2.6
1985 21,850,000 46.4 51.0 2.7
1990 25,485,000 46.0 51.3 2.7
1995 29,944,000 45.3 51.9 2.8
2000 34,021,000 44.8 52.3 2.9
2005 38,824,000 44.6 52.4 3.0
2010 44,793,000 44.8 52.0 3.1

Vital statistics[edit]

The Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey 2010 estimated that the infant mortality rate for 2005–10 was 51.[16] Registration of other vital events in Tanzania is not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[15]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 402,000 184,000 218,000 49.0 22.4 26.6 6.74 153
1955-1960 464,000 198,000 267,000 49.3 21.0 28.3 6.80 143
1960-1965 535,000 218,000 322,000 49.1 20.1 29.0 6.80 136
1965-1970 616,000 239,000 384,000 48.7 18.9 29.8 6.79 128
1970-1975 709,000 258,000 475,000 48.0 17.5 30.5 6.75 119
1975-1980 821,000 275,000 542,000 47.4 15.9 31.5 6.73 109
1980-1985 932,000 307,000 633,000 46.0 15.2 30.8 6.55 104
1985-1990 1,061,000 348,000 727,000 44.8 14.7 30.1 6.36 102
1990-1995 1,197,000 423,000 892,000 43.2 15.3 27.9 6.05 102
1995-2000 1,336,000 480,000 815,000 41.8 15.0 26.8 5.75 92
2000-2005 1,522,000 492,000 961,000 41.8 13.5 28.3 5.66 77
2005-2010 1,744,000 454,000 1,230,000 41.6 10.8 30.2 5.58 61
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Population[edit]

Source:[17]

Region 1967 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 1978 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 1988 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 2002 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 2012 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate)
Tanzania, including Zanzibar 12,313,469 / 47 / 7.3 17,036,499 / 49 / 6.3 22,455,207 / 47 / 5.4 33,461,849 / 43 / 4.2 44,928,923 / /
Zanzibar 354,815 / 48 / 7.3 476,111 / 48 / 7.1 640,675 / 49 / 6.4 981,754 / 43 / 4.5 1,303,569 / /

Fertility and Births (Demographic and Health Surveys)[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[18]


Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural) CBR (Zanzibar) TFR (Zanzibar)
1991-1992 42,8 6,25 42,1 5,14 43,0 6,59
1996 40,8 5,82 36,3 4,11 41,9 6,34
1999 41,4 5,55 34,4 3,16 43,5 6,48
2004-2005 42,4 5,7 34,6 3,6 44,8 6,5 38,0 5,3
2010 38,1 5,4 35,0 3,7 39,0 6,1 35,9 5,1

Total fertility rate in Tanzania[edit]

Fertility rates are estimated by Surveys (TDHS) and Census in different times. TDHS surveys estimated these fertility rates :6.3 (1991–92), 5.8 (1996), 5.7 (2004–05), 5.4 (2010) and 2002 Census said 6.3 [19]

Region 1967[20] 1978[20] 1988[20] 2002[20] 2006-09[16]
Tanzania (country total) 7.3 6.3 5.4 4.2 5.4
Dodoma(capital) 7.6 6.2 5.9 4.5
Arusha 7.5 7.0 6.0 3.4
Kilimanjaro 8.9 7.5 5.8 3.4
Tanga 7.7 6.2 5.1 3.7
Morogoro 6.2 6.5 4.3 3.6
Pwani 5.8 6.1 5.4 3.7
Dar es Salaam 5.0 5.4 3.4 1.9
Lindi - 5.4 4.6 3.1
Mtwara 5.7 4.9 4.5 3.1
Ruvuma 7.1 6.1 5.0 3.6
Iringa 7.8 6.3 4.9 3.6
Mbeya 8.1 6.3 4.7 3.5
Singida 6.3 5.9 5.7 4.8
Tabora 6.7 6.0 5.4 4.9
Rukwa - 6.1 6.2 5.0
Kigoma 6.6 7.2 6.5 5.5
Shinyanga 8.7 6.9 6.3 5.6
Kagera 7.5 7.3 6.9 5.4
Mwanza 8.1 7.1 6.1 5.0
Mara 8.0 6.9 5.9 5.9
Manyara - - - 4.9
Tanzania Mainland 7.3 6.3 5.4 4.2 5.4
North Unguja - 7.1 7.0 4.9
South Unguja - 6.2 6.5 4.2
Urban West - 6.1 5.2 3.6
North Pemba - 8.3 6.9 5.7
South Pemba - 8.2 7.6 5.8
Tanzania Zanzibar 7.3 7.1 6.4 4.5 5.1

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[21]

Population[edit]

  • 48,261,942 (July 2013 estimate)

Note: Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.

Old Tanzanian woman in Arusha, 2008.

Median age[edit]

total: 17.3 years
male: 17.0 years
female: 17.6 years (2013 estimate)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15–54 years: 1.00 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 estimate)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 60.76 years
male: 59.48 years
female: 62.09 years (2013 estimate)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Main article: HIV/AIDS in Tanzania

Age 15-49 HIV infection rates:

5.1 percent overall,[22] with 6.2 percent of women[23] and 3.8 percent of men[24] being infected.[25]

People living with HIV/AIDS:

1.6 million (2011 estimate)[26]

Deaths:

86,000 (2009 estimate)

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Tanzania

Swahili or Kiswahili (official), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), many local languages from six families.

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write Swahili, English, or Arabic
total population: 69.4%
male: 77.5%
female: 62.2% (2003 est.)

Religions[edit]

Main article: Religion in Tanzania

Most Tanzanians are nowadays Christians and Muslims. The numerical relationship between followers of the wo religions is regarded as politically sensitive and questions about religious affiliation have not been included in census questionnaires since 1967.

For many years estimates have been repeated that about a third of the population each follows Islam, Christianity and traditional religions.[27]

As there is obviously no more such a large percentage of traditional religionists [28] a range of competing estimates has been published giving one side or the other a large share or trying to show equal shares. These estimates range from 60% Christian : 36% Muslim in the Pew Report Islam and Christianity (2010) [29] to 55% Muslim majority on the website Muslimpopulation.com.[30]

Religion-related statistics for Tanzania have been regarded as notoriously biased and unreliable.[31]

The remainder of the population are Hindus, Buddhists, animists, and unaffiliated. Most Christians are Roman Catholic, Lutheran or Seventh-Day Adventist, though a number of other Pentecostal churches, Anglicans, and Eastern Orthodox Christians are also represented in the country. Most Tanzanian Muslims are Sunni, though there are also populations of Ibadi, Shia, Ahamadiya, Bohora, and Sufi. Muslims are concentrated in coastal areas and in mainland areas along former caravan trade routes.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "IOM launches project to engage Tanzanian diaspora". IOM. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  2. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES more information 2009-2011 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimate". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Connecting with Emigrants: A Global Profile of Diasporas: Key statistics on diaspora from Tanzania". OECD Publishing. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  4. ^ "Economy", authored by Joseph Lake, in Africa South of the Sahara, edited by Europa Publications and Iain Frame, Routledge, 2013
  5. ^ a b Population Distribution by Administrative Units, United Republic of Tanzania, 2013
  6. ^ "Report reveals rapid rural-urban migration", The Citizen, reported by Athuman Mtulya, 26 September 2013
  7. ^ Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook, authored by David Levinson, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998, page 173
  8. ^ Culture and Customs of Tanzania, authored by Kefa M. Otiso, ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2013
  9. ^ a b c "East Africa", authored by Silvester Ron Simango, in Sociolinguistics: Regional overview, edited by Ulrich Ammon, published by Walter de Gruyter, 2006, pages 1966-7
  10. ^ "Swahili - A language of Tanzania". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  11. ^ Archaeology, Language, and the African Past, authored by Roger Blench, published by Rowman Altamira, 2006, pages 163-5, accessed 19 October 2014
  12. ^ "Iraqw", Ethnologue: Languages of the World, edited by M. Paul Lewis, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig, SIL International, Seventeenth edition, Dallas, Texas, USA, accessed 14 October 2014
  13. ^ "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 10 July 2013. 
  14. ^ Tanzania in figures 2012, National Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance, June 2013, page 23
  15. ^ a b c d e f World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Population Estimates and Projections Section, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations
  16. ^ a b Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010, Tanzania National Bureau of Standards, funding provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (Tanzania), Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre, Department for International Development (United Kingdom), World Health Organization/Zanzibar, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, United Nations Children's Fund, World Food Programme, United Nations Development Programme, and Irish Aids, technical assistance provided by ICF Macro through its MEASURE DHS programme, survey conducted 19 December 2010 to 23 May 2011, with results applying to the preceding three-year period
  17. ^ Analytical Report, 2002 Census, United Republic of Tanzania
  18. ^ http://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/dhs#_r=&collection=&country=&dtype=&from=1890&page=15&ps=&sk=&sort_by=nation&sort_order=&to=2014&topic=&view=s&vk=
  19. ^ http://www.nbs.go.tz/takwimu/references/2010TDHS.pdf
  20. ^ a b c d 2002 Census, United Republic of Tanzania
  21. ^ The World Factbook - Tanzania
  22. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 4.6 to 5.6 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  23. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 5.5 to 6.8 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  24. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 3.2 to 4.5 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  25. ^ Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011-12, authorized by the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and the Zanzibar Commission for AIDS; implemented by the Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics in collaboration with the Office of the Chief Government Statistician (Zanzibar); funded by the United States Agency for International Development, TACAIDS, and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with support provided by ICF International; data collected 16 December 2011 to 24 May 2012; report published in Dar es Salaam in March 2013
  26. ^ UNAIDS World AIDS Day Report 2012, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, page 7
  27. ^ So repeated here: (USA government), Central Intelligence Agency. "The World Fact Book". Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  28. ^ note continued adherence to traditional beliefs also among Christians and Muslims:"(In Tanzania) more than half the people surveyed believe that sacrifices to ancestors or spirits can protect them from harm." see Pew report Christians and Muslims in Subsaharan Africa (2010)
  29. ^ "Islam and Christianity in Subsaharan Africa (2010)". Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life. 
  30. ^ "Africa Muslim Population in 2014". Muslimpopulation.com. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  31. ^ Abdulaziz Y. Lodhi and David Westerlund. "African Islam in Tanzania". Retrieved 25 May 2014.