Ford Bronco II
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|Ford Bronco II|
|Manufacturer||Ford Motor Company|
|Assembly||Louisville, Kentucky, USA|
|Body and chassis|
|Layout||Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive|
|Engine||2.8 L Cologne V-6
2.9 L Cologne V-6
2.3 L Mitsubishi 4D55T turbodiesel I4
4-speed Mazda TK4
5-speed Mazda TK5
5-speed Mazda M5OD-R1
5-speed Mitsubishi FM145
5-speed Mitsubishi FM146
|Wheelbase||94.0 in (2,388 mm)|
|Width||68.0 in (1,727 mm)|
|Length||158.3 in (4,021 mm)|
|Height||68.2 in (1,732 mm)|
|Length||161.9 in (4,112 mm)|
|Height||69.9 in (1,775 mm)|
The Ford Bronco II was one of the original SUVs sold between 1983 and 1990. It was commissioned as a smaller complement to the full-size Bronco as well as to offer a Ford alternative to the Chevrolet S-10 Blazer, Jeep Cherokee (XJ), and Toyota 4Runner. The Bronco II was Ford's first SUV as the original Bronco sold from 1966 to 1977 was not called an SUV (the term didn't exsist yet). It is mechanically and (except in detail) structurally identical to the Ford Ranger. It had a 94-inch (2,388 mm) wheelbase and was enclosed in the rear. All 1984 and 1985 Bronco IIs were 4wd. Starting in 1986 the Bronco II offered four wheel drive as an option, whereas the full size Bronco was always 4wd. The Bronco II did not have a removable roof, except for a low production run of Sherrod modified Bronco IIs. These had a soft top and custom fiberglass to finished off the cut roof.
The 1984 and 1985 models were equipped with the German-built 115 hp (86 kW) carbureted 2.8 L Cologne V-6, which was also used in the 1984 and 1985 Ford Ranger. The 1986 model year introduced the 140 hp (104 kW) fuel injected 2.9 L Cologne V-6. As with most engines, overheating the engine could lead to cracks in the cylinder head between the valve springs or at the base of the rocker shaft pedestals. This results in internal coolant leaks causing contamination of the oil, which if not caught in time causes severe internal engine damage. Although there were slight improvements to the head castings in late-1989, these heads were not installed on production engines before the production of the Bronco II ceased. Bronco IIs that were still under warranty, or at the owner’s desire, were retrofitted with the improved heads.
The first Bronco II was developed in parallel with the Ranger. The restyling of the Bronco II and Ranger was introduced in 1988, but ended for the Bronco II with the end of production on February 7, 1990, replaced by the larger Explorer. The restyling is marked not only by difference in physical appearance, but also improved structural support. The 1990 models produced after November 1989 with four-wheel drive came equipped with the Dana 35 front axle, as opposed to the Dana 28 front axle used in earlier production.
The Explorer started where the Bronco II left off with a similar Ranger-based platform, sharing essentially the same front end, but with Ford's new 4.0 L OHV Cologne 155 hp (116 kW) V6 and a four-door model with a two-door Sport option. The Explorer retained the Ranger-based platform until 1995, when the model was overhauled with a major exterior restyling and chassis modifications to allow the addition of Ford's 302 cu in (4.9 L) V8 engine.
Ford would not market another compact SUV until the release of the Escape in 2001.
The Bronco II was dogged by targeted reports that it was prone to rollovers. Some of the headlines in 1989-90 included "NHTSA Investigates Bronco II Rollovers," Automotive News (March 20, 1989) "Magazine Gives Ford's Bronco II 'Avoid' Rating," The Wall Street Journal (May 8, 1989), and "Consumer Reports Criticizes Ford Bronco II's Handling," The Washington Post (May 18, 1989).
After analysis of SUV crashes of the Suzuki Samurai, the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) opened a formal study of the Ford Bronco II in 1989. There were 43 Bronco II rollover fatalities in 1987, compared with eight for the Samurai, but accident data in four states showed the Bronco II’s rollover rate was similar to that of other SUVs, so the investigation was closed. NHTSA declined to reopen the investigation in 1997 after more Bronco II crashes.
Ford settled a lawsuit by famed jockey Bill Shoemaker, awarding him one million dollars. Shoemaker was paralyzed from the neck down after rolling his Bronco II in California in 1991. Thereafter, he was confined to a wheelchair.
There were, however, reports that the Bronco II's suspension contained a design flaw that, when turning, forced the side of the vehicle on the outside of the turn upwards, opposite of what a safe suspension should do. The Bronco II was not only top heavy, but it forced itself over. "In a hard turn, this suspension will cause the front end of the vehicle to rise and the track width to decrease, making the vehicle taller and narrower and elevating the center of gravity." Ford engineers "suggested various changes that would have reduced the chance of rollovers, but these recommendations were ignored by the company." Documented evidence showed that Ford knew about this problem, but found it less expensive to hire a team of lawyers to prepare for the oncoming lawsuits before the vehicle was even released, than to make the investment for a costly redesign.
- "Safety Research Report Index - Ford Bronco II Rollover" (PDF). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
- Plungis, Jeff (March 4, 2002). "Rollover complaints dismissed". Detroit News. Retrieved 2008-11-11.[dead link]
- Latin, Howard; Kasolas, Bobby (2002). "Bad Designs, Lethal Profits: the duty to protect other motorists against SUV collision risks". Boston University Law Review 82: 1195–7. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
- Latin, page 1198.
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