Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup L0
Possible time of origin 112,200 to 188,000 YBP[1]
Possible place of origin East Africa
Ancestor Mitochondrial Eve
Descendants L0a'b'f'k, L0d
Defining mutations 263!, 1048, 3516A, 5442, 6185, 9042, 9347, 10589, 12007, 12720[2]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L0 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Origin[edit]

The region in Africa where Tishkoff found the greatest level of mitochondrial diversity (green) and the region Behar et al. postulated the most ancient division in the human population began to occur (light brown)

L0 is one of two branches from the most recent common ancestor, MRCA, for the shared human maternal lineage. This ancestor is estimated to have lived in East Africa approximately 150,000 to 170,000 years ago.[citation needed] Haplogroup L0 consists of five main branches (L0a, L0b, L0d, L0f, L0k). Four of them were originally classified into haplogroup L1 as L1a, L1d, L1f, and L1k[citation needed]

MRCA (mtDNA) 
   L0   
 
 
 
 

 L0a



 L0b




 L0f




 L0k




 L0d



 L1-6 
 

L1



 L2-6




Distribution[edit]

It is found most commonly in the Sub-Saharan Africa. It reaches its highest frequency in the Khoisan people at 73%.[3] Some of the higher frequencies are:[4] Namibia (!Xun) 79%, South Africa (Khwe/!Xun) 83% and Botswana (!Kung) 100%.

Haplogroup L0d is the most divergent ("ancient") haplogroup of global mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. It is found at highest frequencies in the Khoisan groups of Southern Africa.[5][6][4][7] L0d is also commonly found in the Coloured population of South Africa and frequencies range from 60% [8] to 71%.[7] This illustrates the massive maternal contribution of Khoisan people to the Coloured population of South Africa.

Haplogroups L0k is the second most common haplogroup in the Khoisan groups (following L0d) and is largely restricted to the Khoisan.[5][6][4][7] Interestingly, while the Khoisan associated L0d haplogroup were found in high frequencies in the Coloured population of South Africa, L0k were not observed in two studies involving large groups of Coloured individuals.[7][8]

Haplogroup L0f is present in relatively small frequencies in Tanzania, East Africa.

Haplogroup L0a is most prevalent in South-East African populations (25% in Mozambique).[3] Among Guineans, it has a frequency between 1% and 5%, with the Balanta group showing increased frequency of about 11%. Haplogroup L0a has a Paleolithic time depth of about 33,000 years and likely reached Guinea between 10,000 and 4,000 years ago. It also is often seen in the Mbuti and Biaka-pygmies. L0a is found in almost 25% in Hadramawt (Yemen).[9]

Haplogroup L0b Ethiopia.

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L0 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)
    • L0
      • L0d
        • L0d3
        • L0d1'2
          • L0d1
            • L0d1a
            • L0d1b
            • L0d1c
              • L0d1c1
          • L0d2
            • L0d2a'b
              • L0d2a
                • L0d2a1
              • L0d2b
            • L0d2c
      • L0a'b'f'k
        • L0k
          • L0k1
          • L0k2
        • L0a'b'f
          • L0f
            • L0f1
            • L0f2
              • L0f2a
              • L0f2b
          • L0a'b
            • L0a
              • L0a1
                • L0a1a
                  • L0a1a2
                • L0a1b
                  • L0a1b1
                    • L0a1b1a
                  • L0a1b2
                • L0a1c
                • L0a1d
              • L0a2
                • L0a2a
                  • L0a2a1
                    • L0a2a1a
                      • L0a2a1a1
                      • L0a2a1a2
                  • L0a2a2
                    • L0a2a2a
                • L0a2b
                  • L0a2ba
                • L0a2c
                • L0a2d
              • L0a3
              • L0a4
            • L0b

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

References[edit]

  1. ^ Soares, Pedro; Ermini, Luca; Thomson, Noel; Mormina, Maru; Rito, Teresa; Röhl, Arne; Salas, Antonio; Oppenheimer, Stephen; MacAulay, Vincent (2009). "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Journal of Human Genetics 84 (6): 740–59. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773. 
  2. ^ a b Van Oven, Mannis; Kayser, Manfred (2009). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–94. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. 
  3. ^ a b Rosa, Alexandra; Brehm, Antonio; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Villems, Richard (2004). "MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia Region". Annals of Human Genetics 68 (4): 340–52. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00100.x. PMID 15225159. 
  4. ^ a b c Tishkoff, S. A.; Gonder, M. K.; Henn, B. M.; Mortensen, H.; Knight, A.; Gignoux, C.; Fernandopulle, N.; Lema, G.; Nyambo, T. B. (2007). "History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation". Molecular Biology and Evolution 24 (10): 2180–95. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm155. PMID 17656633. 
  5. ^ a b Chen, Yu-Sheng; Olckers, Antonel; Schurr, Theodore G.; Kogelnik, Andreas M.; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C. (2000). "MtDNA Variation in the South African Kung and Khwe—and Their Genetic Relationships to Other African Populations". The American Journal of Human Genetics 66 (4): 1362–83. doi:10.1086/302848. PMC 1288201. PMID 10739760. 
  6. ^ a b Knight, Alec; Underhill, Peter A.; Mortensen, Holly M.; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Lin, Alice A.; Henn, Brenna M.; Louis, Dorothy; Ruhlen, Merritt; Mountain, Joanna L. (2003). "African Y Chromosome and mtDNA Divergence Provides Insight into the History of Click Languages". Current Biology 13 (6): 464–73. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00130-1. PMID 12646128. 
  7. ^ a b c d Schlebusch, Carina M.; Naidoo, Thijessen; Soodyall, Himla (2009). "SNaPshot minisequencing to resolve mitochondrial macro-haplogroups found in Africa". Electrophoresis 30 (21): 3657–64. doi:10.1002/elps.200900197. PMID 19810027. 
  8. ^ a b Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Harmant, Christine; Quach, Hélène; Balanovsky, Oleg; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Bormans, Connie; Van Helden, Paul D.; Hoal, Eileen G.; Behar, Doron M. (2010). "Strong Maternal Khoisan Contribution to the South African Coloured Population: A Case of Gender-Biased Admixture". The American Journal of Human Genetics 86 (4): 611–20. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.02.014. PMC 2850426. PMID 20346436. 
  9. ^ Rídl, Jakub; Edens, Christopher M.; Černý, Viktor (2009). "Mitochondrial DNA Structure of Yemeni Population: Regional Differences and the Implications for Different Migratory Contributions". The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia. Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology. pp. 69–78. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2719-1_5. ISBN 978-90-481-2718-4. 

External links[edit]

  • General
  • Haplogroup L0
    • Rosa, Alexandra; Brehm, Antonio; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Villems, Richard (2004). "MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia Region". Annals of Human Genetics 68 (4): 340–52. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00100.x. PMID 15225159. "Based on the previous knowledge of African complete sequences paraphyletic clade L1 is split into two monophyletic units L0, capturing previously defined L1a and L1d lineages, and L1 clade that includes L1b and L1c clades…" 
    • Pavesi, A. (2005). "Utility of JC polyomavirus in tracing the pattern of human migrations dating to prehistoric times". Journal of General Virology 86 (5): 1315–26. doi:10.1099/vir.0.80650-0. PMID 15831942. "The first axis of mtDNA, on the other hand, places the ancestral haplogroup L0 at the extreme left, since it gave rise to one sole lineage…" 
    • Mishmar, Dan; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Brandon, Martin; Wallace, Douglas C. (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA-like sequences in the nucleus (NUMTs): Insights into our African origins and the mechanism of foreign DNA integration". Human Mutation 23 (2): 125–33. doi:10.1002/humu.10304. PMID 14722916. "haplogroup L0 mtDNAs, the haplogroup that we had previously concluded lies at the base of the human mtDNA. tree based on phylogenetic analysis…" 
    • Knight, Alec; Underhill, Peter A.; Mortensen, Holly M.; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Lin, Alice A.; Henn, Brenna M.; Louis, Dorothy; Ruhlen, Merritt; Mountain, Joanna L. (2003). "African Y Chromosome and mtDNA Divergence Provides Insight into the History of Click Languages". Current Biology 13 (6): 464–73. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00130-1. PMID 12646128.