Haplogroup F (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup F
Possible time of origin 43,400 YBP[1]
Possible place of origin Asia
Ancestor R9
Descendants F1, F2, F3, F4
Defining mutations 249d, 6392, 10310[2]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup F is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup typical for the Far East.

Haplogroup F is centered in Asia and appears throughout East Asia and Southeast Asia. It is not found in the Americas.[3] It is a descendant haplogroup of Haplogroup R.

Distribution[edit]

Fairly common in East Asia and Southeast Asia.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] High frequencies occur in Lahu from Yunnan (33% - 77%, average 52%), Nicobar Islands (50%), Shors from Kemerovo Oblast of Siberia (41%), and Arunachal Pradesh, India (31%).[19] There is also an important frequency in Taiwanese aborigines, Khakas, Kets, Han Chinese (and, thus, nearly all of China), Lombok, Sumba, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its distribution extends with low frequency to the Tharu of southern Nepal and the Bashkirs of the southern Urals.[20][21][22]

Table of Frequencies of MtDNA Haplogroup F[edit]

Population Frequency Count Source Subtypes
Lahu (Lancang, Yunnan) 0.771 35 Wen 2004 F1a=18, F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2a)=9
Senoi (Malaysia) 0.442 52 Hill 2006 F1a1a=23
Tujia (Yongshun, Hunan) 0.433 30 Wen 2004 F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2a)=6, F1a=4, F1c=2, F1b=1
Shor (Kemerovo) 0.415 82 Derenko 2007 F1=33, F2a=1
Lahu (Simao, Yunnan) 0.344 32 Wen 2004 F1a=10, F2a=1
Lahu (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.333 15 Wen 2004 F1a=3, F1b=1, F1c=1
Pan Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.313 32 Wen 2005 F3=2, F1b=2, F1a1a=2, F1a1(xF1a1a)=2, F1a(xF1a1)=1, F1c=1
Yi (Hezhang County, Guizhou) 0.300 20 Li 2007 F1b=4, F1a=2
Lingao (Hainan) 0.290 31 Peng 2011 F(xF1, F2, F3, F4)=2, F2=2, F1(xF1a)=1, F1a1(xF1a1a)=1, F1a1a=1, F3=1, F4=1
Lowland Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.286 42 Wen 2005 F2a=4, F1a1(xF1a1a)=2, F1a(xF1a1)=2, F1b=1, F1c=1, F1(xF1a, F1b, F1c)=1, F3=1
Xiban Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.273 11 Wen 2005 F1b=1, F1a(xF1a1)=1, F(xF1, F2a, F3)=1
Lanten Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.269 26 Wen 2005 F1a(xF1a1)=5, F1a1(xF1a1a)=1, F(xF1, F2a, F3)=1
Bai (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.263 19 Wen 2004 F1a=2, F1b=2, F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2a)=1
Huatou Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.263 19 Wen 2005 F1a1a=2, F1a1(xF1a1a)=1, F1a(xF1a1)=1, F(xF1, F2a, F3)=1
Vietnamese 0.262 42 Jin 2009 F1a=10, F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2)=1
Taiwan (aborigines) 0.253 640 Peng 2011 F4=72, F3=54, F1a1(xF1a1a)=21, F1a(xF1a1)=14, F2=1
Bai (Dali, Yunnan) 0.250 68 Wen 2004 F1a=6, F1c=4, F2a=4, F1b=2, F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2a)=1
Indonesian (Mataram, Lombok) 0.250 44 Hill 2007 F1a1a=4, F1a(xF1a1, F1a3, F1a4, F1a5)=4, F1a3=1, F1a4=1, F(xF1a, F1b, F2, F3a, F3b, F4)=1
Uyghur (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.250 16 Comas 2004 F=4
Yi (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.250 16 Wen 2004 F1b=2, F1a=1, F2a=1
Khakassian (Khakassia) 0.246 57 Derenko 2007 F1=11, F2a=3
Naxi (Lijiang, Yunnan) 0.244 45 Wen 2004 F1a=8, F1b=2, F2a=1
Bunu (Dahua & Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.240 25 Wen 2005 F1b=2, F(xF1, F2a, F3)=1, F1a1(xF1a1a)=1, F1a1a=1, F3=1
Ket 0.237 38 Starikovskaya 2005 F=9
Han (Beijing) 0.225 40 Jin 2009 F1a=4, F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2)=3, F1b=2
Taiwanese (Taipei, Taiwan) 0.220 91 Umetsu 2005 F=20
Han (Southwest China; pool of 44 Sichuan, 34 Chongqing, 33 Yunnan, & 26 Guizhou) 0.219 137 Ji 2012 F1a=15, F2=8, F3=7
Hani (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.212 33 Wen 2004 F1a=6, F1b=1
Tibetan (Shigatse, Tibet) 0.207 29 Ji 2012 F1a=5, F1b=1
Tujia (Yanhe County, Guizhou) 0.207 29 Li 2007 F1a=2, F1c=1, F2a3=1, F2b=1, F(xF1, F2)=1
Bapai Yao (Liannan, Guangdong) 0.200 35 Wen 2005 F1b=3, F3=2, F1a1a=1, F1a(xF1a1)=1
Indonesian (Waingapu, Sumba) 0.200 50 Hill 2007 F1a4=3, F1a3=2, F1a1a=2, F1a(xF1a1, F1a3, F1a4, F1a5)=1, F1a1(xF1a1a)=1, F3b=1
Manchurian 0.200 40 Jin 2009 F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2)=3, F1a=2, F1b=2, F1c=1
Thai 0.200 40 Jin 2009 F1b=8
Li (Hainan) 0.197 346 Peng 2011 F1a1(xF1a1a)=30, F2=20, F1(xF1a)=4, F1a(xF1a1)=4, F1a1a=3, F3=3, F4=3, F(xF1, F2, F3, F4)=1
Han (Xinjiang) 0.191 47 Yao 2004 F1a=2, F3=2, F1b=1, F1c=1, F2a2=1, F2a3=1, F4=1
Thailand 0.190 105 Kaewsutthi 2011 F1=18, F(xF1)=2
Lisu (Gongshan, Yunnan) 0.189 37 Wen 2004 F2a=4, F1b=2, F1a=1
Han (southern California) 0.187 390 Ji 2012 F=73
Oirat Mongol (Xinjiang) 0.184 49 Yao 2004 F2(xF2a2, F2a3, F2b)=3, F1b=3, F1a=2, F2b=1
Dong (Tianzhu County, Guizhou) 0.179 28 Li 2007 F1a=4, F1b=1
Han (Taiwan) 0.175 1117 Ji 2012 F=196
CHB (Han from Beijing Normal University) 0.174 121 Zheng 2011 F=21
Jino (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.167 18 Wen 2004 F1a=2, F1b=1
Nu (Gongshan, Yunnan) 0.167 30 Wen 2004 F2a=5
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.161 31 Li 2007 F1a=3, F1(xF1a, F1b, F1c)=1, F(xF1, F2)=1
CHD (Han from Denver) 0.151 73 Zheng 2011 F=11
Filipino (Palawan) 0.150 20 Scholes 2011 F3b2=3
Indonesian (52 Pekanbaru, 42 Medan, 34 Bangka, 28 Palembang, & 24 Padang) 0.150 180 Hill 2007 F1a1a=9, F1a(xF1a1, F1a3, F1a4, F1a5)=8, F1a5=3, F4=3, F1a3=2, F1a4=2
Kyrgyz (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.150 20 Comas 2004 F=3
Yi (Shuangbai, Yunnan) 0.150 40 Wen 2004 F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2a)=2, F1a=2, F1b=2
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.149 47 Jin 2009 F1a=3, F1b=3, F2a=1
Borneo (89 Banjarmasin & 68 Kota Kinabalu) 0.146 157 Hill 2007 F3b=9, F(xF1a, F1b, F2, F3a, F3b, F4)=4, F1a3=3, F1a4=3, F1a1(xF1a1a)=2, F1a(xF1a1, F1a3, F1a4, F1a5)=1, F1a1a=1
Indonesian (Bali) 0.146 82 Hill 2007 F1a(xF1a1, F1a3, F1a4, F1a5)=5, F1a1(xF1a1a)=4, F1a1a=2, F(xF1a, F1b, F2, F3a, F3b, F4)=1
Hmong (Jishou, Hunan) 0.146 103 Wen 2005 F1a1(xF1a1a)=4, F1a1a=3, F(xF1, F2a, F3)=3, F1a(xF1a1)=2, F1b=2, F3=1
Aini (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.140 50 Wen 2004 F1a=6, F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2a)=1
Indonesian (Ambon) 0.140 43 Hill 2007 F1a3=3, F1a4=2, F1a1a=1
Cun (Hainan) 0.133 30 Peng 2011 F4=3, F1a1(xF1a1a)=1
Hui (Xinjiang) 0.133 45 Yao 2004 F1b=2, F1c=2, F1a=1, F2a3=1
Batak (Palawan) 0.129 31 Scholes 2011 F1a3=3, F3b2=1
Yi (Luxi, Yunnan) 0.129 31 Wen 2004 F1b=3, F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2a)=1
Guoshan Yao (Jianghua, Hunan) 0.125 24 Wen 2005 F1a(xF1a1)=1, F1b=1, F3=1
Tu Yao (Hezhou, Guangxi) 0.122 41 Wen 2005 F1a1a=4, F1a(xF1a1)=1
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.118 102 Liu 2011 F1a(xF1a1)=4, F1b=3, F2(xF2a, F2b)=2, F3a=2, F3(xF3a)=1
Tibetan (Nagchu, Tibet) 0.114 35 Ji 2012 F=4
Tibetan (Lhasa, Tibet) 0.114 44 Ji 2012 F1a=2, F2=2, F1b=1
Filipino (Luzon) 0.113 177 Tabbada 2010 F1a3=6, F1a4=6, F3b=5, F4b=2, F1a1a=1
Indonesian (Alor) 0.111 45 Hill 2007 F1a4=3, F1a1a=1, F1a(xF1a1, F1a3, F1a4, F1a5)=1
Indonesian (Sulawesi, incl. 89 Manado, 64 Toraja, 46 Ujung Padang, & 38 Palu) 0.110 237 Hill 2007 F1a4=12, F1a3=4, F1a(xF1a1, F1a3, F1a4, F1a5)=4, F1a1a=3, F1a1(xF1a1a)=1, F1a5=1, F1b=1
Tujia (western Hunan) 0.109 64 Wen 2004 F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2a)=2, F1a=2, F1b=2, F1c=1
Cham (Bình Thuận, Vietnam) 0.107 168 Peng 2010 F1a1a=10, F1(xF1a)=3, F1a(xF1a1)=3, F1a1(xF1a1a)=2
Tibetan (Shannan, Tibet) 0.105 19 Ji 2012 F=2
Dingban Yao (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.100 10 Wen 2005 F1a(xF1a1)=1
Filipino (Visayas) 0.098 112 Tabbada 2010 F1a4=7, F1a3=3, F3b=1
Korean (South Korea) 0.097 185 Jin 2009 F1a=8, F1b=8, F2(xF2a)=2
Korean (Seoul National University Hospital) 0.096 633 Fuku 2007 F=61
Filipino 0.094 64 Tabbada 2010 F1a3=3, F1a4=3
Mien (Shangsi, Guangxi) 0.094 32 Wen 2005 F1a1(xF1a1a)=2, F1a1a=1
Tibetan (Tibet) 0.093 216 Ji 2012 F1a=13, F1b=4, F2=3
CHS (Han from Hunan & Fujian) 0.091 55 Zheng 2011 F=5
Buryat 0.087 126 Kong 2003 F1b=6, F1a=3, F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2a)=2
Tofalar 0.087 46 Starikovskaya 2005 F1b=4
Uzbek (Xinjiang) 0.086 58 Yao 2004 F2a3=2, F4=2, F1b=1
Tuvinian (Tuva) 0.086 105 Derenko 2007 F1=8, F2a=1
Japanese (Tōhoku) 0.083 336 Umetsu 2005 F=28
Mongol (New Barag Left Banner) 0.083 48 Kong 2003 F1a=2, F1c=1, F2a=1
Pumi (Ninglang, Yunnan) 0.083 36 Wen 2004 F2a=2, F1b=1
Tibetan (Diqing, Yunnan) 0.083 24 Wen 2004 F1a=1, F1b=1
Korean (northern China) 0.078 51 Jin 2009 F(xF1a, F1b, F1c, F2)=1, F1a=1, F1b=1, F1c=1
JPT (Japanese from Tokyo) 0.076 118 Zheng 2011 F=9
Kazakh (Xinjiang) 0.075 53 Yao 2004 F1b=3, F2(xF2a2, F2a3, F2b)=1
Chinese (Shenyang, Liaoning) 0.075 160 Umetsu 2005 F=12
Danga (Hainan) 0.075 40 Peng 2011 F1a1(xF1a1a)=1, F2=1, F3=1
Japanese (northern Kyūshū) 0.074 256 Umetsu 2005 F=19
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.074 54 Ji 2012 F1a=2, F1b=2
Uyghur 0.073 55 Yao 2004 F1b=2, F1a=1, F1c=1
Filipino (Mindanao) 0.071 70 Tabbada 2010 F3b=2, F1a4=2, F1a3=1
Korean (Seoul & Daejeon, South Korea) 0.069 261 Kim 2008 F1=12, F(xF1)=6
Tibetan (Chamdo, Tibet) 0.069 29 Ji 2012 F1a=2
Semelai (Malaysia) 0.066 61 Hill 2006 F1a1a=4
Japanese (Hokkaidō) 0.065 217 Asari 2007 F=14
Wuzhou Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.065 31 Wen 2005 F1a1(xF1a1a)=1, F3=1
Korean (South Korea) 0.064 203 Umetsu 2005 F=13
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.064 47 Derenko 2007 F1=3
Uyghur (Xinjiang) 0.064 47 Yao 2004 F1b=2, F1a=1
Bashkir (Beloretsky, Sterlibashevsky, Ilishevsky, & Perm) 0.063 221 Bermisheva 2002 F=14
Dungan (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.063 16 Comas 2004 F=1
Japanese (Miyazaki) 0.060 100 Uchiyama 2007 F1b=3, F1a=2, F2a=1
Tharu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.060 133 Fornarino 2009 F1c=7, F1(xF1c, F1d)=1
Japanese (Gifu) 0.059 1617 Fuku 2007 F=96
Japanese (Tōkai) 0.057 282 Umetsu 2005 F=16
Teleut (Kemerovo) 0.057 53 Derenko 2007 F1=3
Altai Kizhi 0.056 90 Derenko 2007 F1=3, F2a=2
Kalmyk (Kalmykia) 0.055 110 Derenko 2007 F1=6
Tibetan (Shannan, Tibet) 0.055 55 Ji 2012 F1a=2, F2=1
Tibetan (Qinghai) 0.054 56 Wen 2004 F1c=2, F1a=1
Japanese 0.052 211 Maruyama 2003 F1b=9, F1a=2
Hmong (Wenshan, Yunnan) 0.051 39 Wen 2005 F1b=1, F3=1
Kazakh (Kosh-Agach, Altai Republic) 0.051 98 Derenko 2012 F1=5
Karakalpak (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.050 20 Comas 2004 F=1
Tharu (Morang, Nepal) 0.050 40 Fornarino 2009 F1c=1, F1d=1
Turkmen (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.050 20 Comas 2004 F=1
Korean (South Korea) 0.049 103 Derenko 2007 F1=5
Oroqen (Oroqen Autonomous Banner) 0.045 44 Kong 2003 F1b=2
Yakut 0.043 117 Kong 2003 F2a=3, F1b=2
Tuvan 0.042 95 Starikovskaya 2005 F(xF1b)=3, F1b=1
Kyrgyz (Talas) 0.042 48 Yao 2004 F1a=1, F1b=1
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.042 24 Ji 2012 F=1
Khamnigan (Buryatia) 0.040 99 Derenko 2007 F1=4
Iu Mien (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.037 27 Wen 2005 F(xF1, F2a, F3)=1
Kazakh 0.036 55 Yao 2004 F1b=2
Barghut (Hulunbuir) 0.034 149 Derenko 2012 F1=4, F2=1
Buryat (Buryatia) 0.031 295 Derenko 2007 F1=7, F2a=2
Tibetan (Zhongdian, Yunnan) 0.029 35 Wen 2004 F2a=1
Kim Mun (Malipo, Yunnan) 0.025 40 Wen 2005 F1a1(xF1a1a)=1
Uzbek (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.025 40 Comas 2004 F=1
Okinawa 0.025 326 Umetsu 2005 F=8
Evenk (New Barag Left Banner) 0.021 47 Kong 2003 F1c=1
Ainu 0.020 51 Sato 2009 F1b=1
Evenk (53 Stony Tunguska basin & 18 Tugur-Chumikan) 0.014 71 Starikovskaya 2005 F1b=1
Telenghit (Altai Republic) 0.014 71 Derenko 2007 F1=1
Tubalar 0.014 72 Starikovskaya 2005 F1b=1
Evenk (Krasnoyarsk) 0.014 73 Derenko 2007 F1=1
Ulchi (Old & New Bulava, Ulchsky, Khabarovsk) 0.011 87 Starikovskaya 2005 F(xF1b)=1
Mansi 0.010 98 Starikovskaya 2005 F=1
Khanty 0.009 106 Pimenoff 2008 F1=1
Chukchi (Anadyr) 0.000 15 Derenko 2007 -
Bukharan Arab (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.000 20 Comas 2004 -
Crimean Tatar (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.000 20 Comas 2004 -
Iranian (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.000 20 Comas 2004 -
Kazakh (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.000 20 Comas 2004 -
Tajik (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.000 20 Comas 2004 -
Hindu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.000 24 Fornarino 2009 -
Nganasan 0.000 24 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Buryat (Kushun, Nizhneudinsk, Irkutsk Oblast) 0.000 25 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Kurd (northwestern Iran) 0.000 25 Derenko 2007 -
Andhra Pradesh (tribal) 0.000 29 Fornarino 2009 -
Batek (Malaysia) 0.000 29 Hill 2006 -
Mendriq (Malaysia) 0.000 32 Hill 2006 -
Negidal 0.000 33 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Temuan (Malaysia) 0.000 33 Hill 2006 -
Yakut (Yakutia) 0.000 36 Derenko 2007 -
Tibetan (Deqin, Yunnan) 0.000 40 Wen 2004 -
Tajik (Tajikistan) 0.000 44 Derenko 2007 -
Daur (Evenk Autonomous Banner) 0.000 45 Kong 2003 -
Evenk (Buryatia) 0.000 45 Derenko 2007 -
Udege (Gvasiugi, Imeni Lazo, Khabarovsk) 0.000 46 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Itelmen 0.000 47 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Kyrgyz (Sary-Tash) 0.000 47 Yao 2004 -
Korean (Arun Banner) 0.000 48 Kong 2003 -
Jahai (Malaysia) 0.000 51 Hill 2006 -
Nivkh (northern Sakhalin) 0.000 56 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Mansi 0.000 63 Pimenoff 2008 -
Chukchi 0.000 66 Starikovskaya 2006 -
Siberian Eskimo 0.000 79 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Persian (eastern Iran) 0.000 82 Derenko 2007 -
Koryak 0.000 155 Starikovskaya 2005 -

Subclades[edit]

F1a clearly predominates among the representatives of haplogroup F in Southeast Asia, but subclades of this haplogroup have been found in populations as far north as the Buryats of Siberia.

F1b tends to become more frequent as a fraction of total F in populations of the northern parts of East Asia and Central Asia, such as Mongols, Kazakhs, Uyghurs, and Japanese, but it is most frequent as a fraction of the total population in areas inhabited by Tai peoples, such as Thailand, Guangxi, and southern Yunnan. It is also notably frequent among the Yi people. There are odd exclaves of F1b in Gaininsk Bashkirs of Perm Oblast and Croats of Hvar Island.[20][23]

F2 has been found mainly in the form of F2a, which has been observed in more than 10% of a couple samples of Nu and Lisu from Gongshan, Yunnan.[9] F2 has been found with frequencies exceeding 5% in several other populations of Southwest China, Guangxi, and Hainan, including the Han majority population. Outside of southwestern China, F2 has been found with frequency greater than 5% in a sample of Oirat Mongols from Xinjiang and a sample of Khakas from Khakassia, with the former population boasting particularly high diversity within this clade.

F3 is especially common among Austronesian peoples of Taiwan and the Malay Archipelago, but it also has been found in many populations of Southwest China and South-Central China, and in a sample of Hans from Xinjiang.

F4 has been found mainly in aboriginal populations of Taiwan and Hainan, with some representatives among samples of Filipinos from Luzon, Indonesians from Sumatra, and Hans and Uzbeks from Xinjiang.

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup F subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • F
    • F1
      • F1a'c
        • F1a
          • F1a1
            • F1a1a
              • F1a1a1
            • F1a1b
            • F1a1c
          • F1a2
          • F1a3
        • F1c
        • F1b
          • F1b1
            • F1b1a
              • F1b1a1
                • F1b1a1a
              • F1b1a2
        • F1d
    • F2
      • F2a
        • F2a1
        • F2a2
        • F2a3
      • F2b
      • F2c
    • F3 (formerly R9a)
      • F3a
      • F3b
        • F3b1
    • F4
      • F4a
        • F4a1
      • F4b

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Soares, P; Ermini, L; Thomson, N; Mormina, M; Rito, T; Röhl, A; Salas, A; Oppenheimer, S; MacAulay, V (2009). "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". American Journal of Human Genetics 84 (6): 740–59. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773. 
  2. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  3. ^ Haplogroup F.
  4. ^ David Comas, Stephanie Plaza, R. Spencer Wells et al., "Admixture, migrations, and dispersals in Central Asia: evidence from maternal DNA lineages", European Journal of Human Genetics (2004) 12, 495–504. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201160
  5. ^ Starikovskaya, E. B., Sukernik, R. I., Derbeneva, O. A., Volodko, N. V., Ruiz-Pesini, E., Torroni, A., Brown, M. D., Lott, M. T., Hosseini, S. H., Huoponen, K. and Wallace, D. C. (2005), "Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Indigenous Populations of the Southern Extent of Siberia, and the Origins of Native American Haplogroups." Annals of Human Genetics, 69: 67–89. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.00127.x
  6. ^ Catherine Hill, Pedro Soares, Maru Mormina et al., "Phylogeography and Ethnogenesis of Aboriginal Southeast Asians", Mol. Biol. Evol. 23(12) 2480–2491. (2006) doi:10.1093/molbev/msl124 PMID 16982817
  7. ^ Catherine Hill, Pedro Soares, Maru Mormina et al., "A Mitochondrial Stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia", Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007;80:29–43.
  8. ^ Asari M et al., "Utility of haplogroup determination for forensic mtDNA analysis in the Japanese population", Leg Med (2007), doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2007.01.007
  9. ^ a b Bo Wen, Xuanhua Xie, Song Gao et al., "Analyses of Genetic Structure of Tibeto-Burman Populations Reveals Sex-Biased Admixture in Southern Tibeto-Burmans", Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74:856–865 (2004)
  10. ^ Bo Wen, Hui Li, Song Gao et al., "Genetic Structure of Hmong-Mien Speaking Populations in East Asia as Revealed by mtDNA Lineages", Mol. Biol. Evol. 22(3) 725–734. (2005) doi:10.1093/molbev/msi055
  11. ^ Derenko M, Malyarchuk B, Denisova G, Perkova M, Rogalla U, et al. (2012), "Complete Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Eastern Eurasian Haplogroups Rarely Found in Populations of Northern Asia and Eastern Europe." PLoS ONE 7(2) e32179. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032179
  12. ^ Sayaka Maruyama, Kiyoshi Minaguchi, and Naruya Saitou, "Sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA control region and phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA lineages in the Japanese population", Int J Legal Med (2003) 117 : 218–225 doi:10.1007/s00414-003-0379-2
  13. ^ Supannee Kaewsutthi, Nopasak Phasukkijwatana, Yutthana Joyjinda et al., "Mitochondrial Haplogroup Background May Influence Southeast Asian G11778A Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy", Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, June 2011, Vol. 52, No. 7
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External links[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T