Haplogroup N (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup N

Map-of-human-migrations.jpg

Possible time of origin Approx. 71,000 YBP[1][1]
Possible place of origin Asia[2][3][4][5][6]

or East Africa[7][8]

Ancestor L3
Descendants N1'5, N2, N8, N9, N10, N11, N13, N14, N21, N22, A, I, O, R, S, X, Y, W
Defining mutations 8701, 9540, 10398, 10873, 15301[9]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning many continents, the macro-haplogroup N, like its sibling M, is a descendant of haplogroup L3.

All mtDNA haplogroups found outside of Africa are descendants of either haplogroup N or its sibling haplogroup M. M and N are the signature haplogroups that define the out of Africa migration and the subsequent spread to rest of the world. The global distribution of haplogroups N and M, indicates that very likely, there was one particularly major prehistoric migration of humans out of Africa, and both N and M were part of the same colonization process.[10]

Origins[edit]

Suggested routes of the initial settlement of Europe based on mtDNA haplogroups M and N, Metspalu et al. 2004. A major population split near the Persian Gulf would explain the ubiquity of Haplogroup N and the absence of Haplogroup M in West Eurasia

There is widespread agreement in the scientific community concerning the African ancestry of haplogroup L3 (haplogroup N's parent clade).[11] However, whether or not the mutations which define haplogroup N itself first occurred within Asia or Africa has been a subject for ongoing discussion and study.[11]

The out of Africa hypothesis has gained generalized consensus. However, many specific questions remain unsettled. To know whether the two M and N macrohaplogroups that colonized Eurasia were already present in Africa before the exit is puzzling.

Torroni et al. 2006 state that Haplogroups M, N and R occurred somewhere between East Africa and the Persian Gulf.[12]

Also related to the origins of haplogroup N is whether ancestral haplogroups M, N and R were part of the same migration out of Africa, or whether Haplogroup N left Africa via the Northern route through the Levant, and M left Africa via Horn of Africa. This theory was suggested because haplogroup N is by far the predominant haplogroup in Western Eurasia, and haplogroup M is absent in Western Eurasia, but is predominant in India and is common in regions East of India. However, the mitochondrial DNA variation in isolated "relict" populations in southeast Asia and among Indigenous Australians supports the view that there was only a single dispersal from Africa. Southeast Asian populations and Indigenous Australians all possess deep rooted clades of both haplogroups M and N.[10] The distribution of the earliest branches within haplogroups M, N, and R across Eurasia and Oceania therefore supports a three-founder-mtDNA scenario and a single migration route out of Africa.[13] These findings also highlight the importance of Indian subcontinent in the early genetic history of human settlement and expansion.[14]

Asian origin hypothesis[edit]

The hypothesis of Asia as the place of origin of haplogroup N is supported by the following:

  1. Haplogroup N is found in all parts of the world but has low frequencies in Sub-Saharan Africa. According to a number of studies, the presence of Haplogroup N in Africa is most likely the result of back migration from Eurasia.[4]
  2. The oldest clades of macrohaplogroup N are found in Asia and Australia.
  3. It would be paradoxical that haplogroup N had traveled all the distance to Australia or New World yet failed to affect other populations within Africa besides North Africans and Horn Africans.
  4. N1 is the only sub-clade of haplogroup N that has been observed in Africa. However N1a is the only one in East Africa: this haplogroup is even younger and is not restricted to Africa, N1a has also been detected in Southern Siberia and was found in a 2,500-year-old Scytho-Siberian burial in the Altai region.[15]
  5. The mitochondrial DNA variation in isolated "relict" populations in southeast Asia supports the view that there was only a single dispersal from Africa.[10] The distribution of the earliest branches within haplogroups M, N, and R across Eurasia and Oceania provides additional evidence for a three-founder-mtDNA scenario and a single migration route out of Africa.[13] These findings also highlight the importance of Indian subcontinent in the early genetic history of human settlement and expansion.[14] Therefore N’s history is similar to M and R which have their most probably origin in South Asia.

African origin hypothesis[edit]

According to Toomas Kivisild "the lack of L3 lineages other than M and N in India and among non-African mitochondria in general suggests that the earliest migration(s) of modern humans already carried these two mtDNA ancestors, via a departure route over the Horn of Africa.[7]

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup N is derived from the ancestral L3 haplotype that represents the 'Out of Africa' migration. Haplogroup N is the ancestral haplogroup to almost all European and Oceanian haplogroups in addition to many Asian and Amerindian ones. It is believed to have arisen at a similar time to haplogroup M. Subclades such as Haplogroup U6, are also found at moderate to low frequencies in the Northwest and East Africa, due to a back migration from Asia around 27,000 years ago.[1][3]

In popular science[edit]

In the book The Real Eve, Stephen Oppenheimer refers to haplogroup N as "Nasreen" as haplogroup N may have arisen near the Persian Gulf. In his popular book The Seven Daughters of Eve, Bryan Sykes named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup "Naomi".

Subgroups distribution[edit]

Its derived haplogroups include the macro-haplogroup R (and its descendants) and haplogroups A, I, S, W, X, and Y.

Additionally, there are some unnamed N* lineages in South Asia, among indigenous Australians and the Ket people of central Siberia.[16]

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup N subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[9] and subsequent published research.

  • N
    • N1'5
      • N1
        • N1a'c'd'e'I
          • N1a'd'e'I
            • N1a'e'I
              • N1a
                • N1a1
                  • N1a1a
              • N1e'I
                • I
                • N1e
            • N1d
          • N1c
        • N1b
          • N1b1
            • N1b1a
            • N1b1b
            • N1b1c
              • N1b1d
          • N1b2
      • N5
    • N2
      • N2a
      • W
    • N9
      • N9a
        • N9a1'3
          • N9a1
          • N9a3
        • N9a2'4'5
          • N9a2
            • N9a2a'b
              • N9a2a
              • N9a2b
            • N9a2c
            • N9a2d
          • N9a4
          • N9a5
        • N9a6
          • N9a6a
      • N9b
        • N9b1
          • N9b1a
          • N9b1b
          • N9b1c
            • N9b1c1
        • N9b2
        • N9b3
      • Y
    • N13
    • N14
    • N21
    • N22
    • A
    • O
      • O1
    • S
    • X
    • R

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1-6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Soares, Pedro; Ermini, Luca; Thomson, Noel; Mormina, Maru; Rito, Teresa; Röhl, Arne; Salas, Antonio; Oppenheimer, Stephen; MacAulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B. (2009). "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Journal of Human Genetics 84 (6): 740. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773. 
  2. ^ MacAulay, V.; Hill, C; Achilli, A; Rengo, C; Clarke, D; Meehan, W; Blackburn, J; Semino, O et al. (2005). "Single, Rapid Coastal Settlement of Asia Revealed by Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes". Science 308 (5724): 1034–6. doi:10.1126/science.1109792. PMID 15890885. "Haplogroup L3 (the African clade that gave rise to the two basal non-African clades, haplogroups M and N) is 84,000 years old, and haplogroups M and N themselves are almost identical in age at 63,000 years old, with haplogroup R diverging rapidly within haplogroup N 60,000 years ago." 
  3. ^ a b Richards, Martin; Bandelt, Hans-JüRgen; Kivisild, Toomas; Oppenheimer, Stephen (2006). "A Model for the Dispersal of Modern Humans out of Africa". Human Mitochondrial DNA and the Evolution of Homo sapiens. Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology 18. p. 225. doi:10.1007/3-540-31789-9_10. ISBN 978-3-540-31788-3. "subclades. L3b d, L3e and L3f, for instance, are clearly of African origin, whereas haplogroup N is of apparently Eurasian origin" 
  4. ^ a b Gonder, M. K.; Mortensen, H. M.; Reed, F. A.; De Sousa, A.; Tishkoff, S. A. (2006). "Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages". Molecular Biology and Evolution 24 (3): 757. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl209. PMID 17194802. "the presence of haplogroups N1 and J in Tanzania suggest "back" migration from the Middle East or Eurasia into eastern Africa, which has been inferred from previous studies of other populations in eastern Africa" 
  5. ^ Olivieri, A.; Achilli, A.; Pala, M.; Battaglia, V.; Fornarino, S.; Al-Zahery, N.; Scozzari, R.; Cruciani, F.; Behar, D. M.; Dugoujon, J.-M.; Coudray, C.; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. S.; Semino, O.; Bandelt, H.-J.; Torroni, A. (2006). "The mtDNA Legacy of the Levantine Early Upper Palaeolithic in Africa". Science 314 (5806): 1767. doi:10.1126/science.1135566. PMID 17170302. "The scenario of a back-migration into Africa is supported by another feature of the mtDNA phylogeny. Haplogroup M's Eurasian sister clade, haplogroup N, which has a very similar age to M and no indication of an African origin" 
  6. ^ a b c Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Larruga, José M; Cabrera, Vicente M; González, Ana M (2008). "Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula". BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 45. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-45. PMC 2268671. PMID 18269758. 
  7. ^ a b Kivisild T, Rootsi S, Metspalu M, et al. (2003). "The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations". American Journal of Human Genetics 72 (2): 313–32. doi:10.1086/346068. PMC 379225. PMID 12536373. "Also, the lack of L3 lineages other than M and N in India and among non-African mitochondria in general suggests that the earliest migration(s) of modern humans already carried these two mtDNA ancestors, via a departure route over the horn of Africa."
  8. ^ Kivisild et al (2007). "Genetic Evidence of Modern Human Dispersals in South Asia". The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia. 
  9. ^ a b van Oven M, Kayser M (2009). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–94. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. 
  10. ^ a b c MacAulay, V.; Hill, C; Achilli, A; Rengo, C; Clarke, D; Meehan, W; Blackburn, J; Semino, O et al. (2005). "Single, Rapid Coastal Settlement of Asia Revealed by Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes". Science 308 (5724): 1034–6. doi:10.1126/science.1109792. PMID 15890885. 
  11. ^ a b González, Ana M; Larruga, José M; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Shi, Yufei; Pestano, José; Cabrera, Vicente M (2007). "Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa". BMC Genomics 8: 223. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-223. PMC 1945034. PMID 17620140. 
  12. ^ Torroni, A; Achilli, A; MacAulay, V; Richards, M; Bandelt, H (2006). "Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree". Trends in Genetics 22 (6): 339. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2006.04.001. PMID 16678300. 
  13. ^ a b c Palanichamy MG, Sun C, Agrawal S, et al. (2004). "Phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup N in India, based on complete sequencing: implications for the peopling of South Asia". American Journal of Human Genetics 75 (6): 966–78. doi:10.1086/425871. PMC 1182158. PMID 15467980. 
  14. ^ a b Maji, Suvendu; Krithika, S.; Vasulu, T. S. (2008). "Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N in India with Special Reference to Haplogroup R and its Sub-Haplogroup U". International Journal of Human Genetics 8 (1–2): 85–96. 
  15. ^ a b c d Derenko, M; Malyarchuk, B; Grzybowski, T; Denisova, G; Dambueva, I; Perkova, M; Dorzhu, C; Luzina, F; Lee, H; Vanecek, Tomas; Villems, Richard; Zakharov, Ilia (2007). "Phylogeographic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations". The American Journal of Human Genetics 81 (5): 1025. doi:10.1086/522933. PMC 2265662. PMID 17924343. 
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  19. ^ "Haplogroup W". Ianlogan.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
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  21. ^ a b Kong, Qing-Peng et al 2011, Large-Scale mtDNA Screening Reveals a Surprising Matrilineal Complexity in East Asia and Its Implications to the Peopling of the Region.
  22. ^ "Haplogroup Y". Ianlogan.co.uk. 2009-09-22. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
  23. ^ Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen et al 2010, High-throughput sequencing of complete human mtDNA genomes from the Philippines
  24. ^ "Hudjashov". Ianlogan.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
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  28. ^ "Haplogroup S". Ianlogan.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
  29. ^ "Haplogroup X". Ianlogan.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
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External links[edit]