Ingrid of Sweden
|Ingrid of Sweden|
|Queen consort of Denmark|
|Tenure||20 April 1947 – 14 January 1972|
|Spouse||Frederick IX of Denmark|
|Issue||Margrethe II, Queen of Denmark
Anne-Marie, Queen of the Hellenes
|House||House of Bernadotte|
|Father||Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden|
|Mother||Princess Margaret of Connaught|
28 March 1910|
|Died||7 November 2000
Fredensborg Palace, Fredensborg, Denmark
Born into the House of Bernadotte, she was the daughter of King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden and his first wife Princess Margaret of Connaught. She was the mother of Margrethe II, the present Queen of Denmark, Princess Benedikte of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, the wife of King Constantine II. She was also an aunt of the present King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf.
Princess Ingrid was born on 28 March 1910, at the Royal Palace in Stockholm as the third child and only daughter of Gustaf Adolf, Crown Prince of Sweden and his first wife, Princess Margaret of Connaught. Her father was the eldest son of King Gustaf V of Sweden by his wife, Princess Victoria of Baden. Her mother was a daughter of Queen Victoria's third son Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn by his wife Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia.
She was baptised Ingrid Victoria Sofia Louise Margareta in Slottskyrkan (the Royal Chapel) in Stockholm, Sweden on 5 May 1910. Her godparents were: her paternal grandparents, King Gustav V and Queen Victoria; her paternal great-grandmother, The Dowager Queen; her maternal grandparents, the Duke and Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn; her paternal great-grandmother, The Dowager Grand Duchess of Baden; The Grand Duchess of Baden; The Dowager Duchess of Dalarna; The Empress of Russia; Princess Alexander of Teck; Prince Adalbert of Prussia; and The Prince of Wales.
She was raised at the Royal Palace in Stockholm, but also spent much of her childhood at her parents' summer residence, Sofiero Castle in Scania. In 1920, when Ingrid was just ten years old, her mother died from meningitis while in the eighth month of her sixth pregnancy. Her father married Lady Louise Mountbatten three years later. Louise was a second cousin of Ingrid's. Only a stillborn daughter resulted from her father's second marriage.
In 1928, Ingrid met the Prince of Wales and was seen by some as a possible wife for the heir-apparent to the British throne, who was her second cousin. Her mother, Margaret of Connaught, and the then-Prince of Wales' father, King George V, were first cousins, both being grandchildren of Queen Victoria. However, no engagement took place.
Princess Ingrid married Frederick, Crown Prince of Denmark and Iceland, in Stockholm on 24 May 1935. They were related in several ways. As descendants of Oscar I of Sweden, they were third cousins. Through Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden, they were third cousins. And finally through Paul I of Russia, Frederick was a fourth cousin of Ingrid's mother. Her wedding was one of the greatest media events of the day in Sweden in 1935, and received so much attention that the media were criticised for it. Ingrid also appeared on the radio in 1935 and read a poem, something which was also given much attention.
As a Crown Princess, she was the Official Patron of the Girl Guides (1936), after having taken, and passed, the same tests all applicants were given. In 1940, before the occupation, she was the leader of the Danske Kvinders Beredskab (The Danish Women's war-effort society). During the German occupation of Denmark in World War II, Ingrid, with her personal courage and integrity, influenced the Danish Royal House and its conduct in relation to the occupation forces, and won great popularity as a symbol of silent resistance and public patriotic moral. She showed solidarity toward the Danish population, and could often be seen on her bicycle or with her baby carriage on the streets of Copenhagen during the war. Her open defiance of the occupation forces made her grandfather, King Gustav of Sweden, worry about the risks, and in 1941, he sent a demand to her to be more discreet "for the sake of the dynasty" and its safety, but she reacted with anger and refused to obey, and she had the support of her spouse, who shared her views. One display of defiance shown by Ingrid was her positioning of the flags of Denmark, Sweden and the United Kingdom in the window of the nursery at Amalienborg, the royal residence in the centre of Copenhagen.
She became the Queen of Denmark upon her husband's accession to the throne on 20 April 1947. As such, she reformed the traditions of Danish court life, abolished many old-fashioned customs at court and created a more relaxed atmosphere at official receptions. She was interested in gardening and art, and renovated the Gråsten Slot according to her own historical research about the Palace's original appearance.
In 1972, Ingrid was widowed. That same year, after having sworn to respect the Danish constitution, she was appointed Rigsforstander (formal Regent) and representative of the Monarch whenever her daughter (and later her grandsons) were absent, a task she performed on many occasions. This was exceptional; since the constitution of 1871, only the Crown Prince had been allowed to act as Regent in the absence of the Monarch.
She was patron of a long line of social organizations, positions which, one after another, she eventually left to Princess Benedikte as years passed: Røde Kors, Ældre Sagen, Red Barnet, Løgum Klosters Refugium, and Fonden for Træer og Miljø. She also founded the organizations Kong Frederik og Dronning Ingrids fond til humanitære og kulturelle formål, Ingridfondet for South Jutland, Det kgl. Grønlandsfond, and Dronning Ingrids Romerske Fond til støtte af kulturelle og videnskabelige formål. She was described as dutiful, well-prepared and energetic. She learned Danish quickly. She was also a feminist  and felt strongly for gender equality.
Queen Ingrid died on 7 November 2000 at Fredensborg Palace, Fredensborg, with her three daughters—Queen Margrethe II, Princess Benedikte and Queen Anne-Marie of Greece—and ten grandchildren at her bedside. Thousands gathered outside Amalienborg Palace, her official residence, after her death was announced; flowers were left, candles were lit and hymns were sung in her honour. Her funeral took place on 14 November 2000, and Ingrid was interred next to her husband, King Frederick IX, outside Roskilde Cathedral near Copenhagen. The funeral was attended by many crowned heads of Europe and other heads of state, among them the King and Queen of Sweden, Queen of Spain, Queen of the Netherlands, King and Queen of Norway, King and Queen of the Belgians, Grand Duke and Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, Prince of Wales, Hereditary Prince of Monaco, President of Iceland and Mauno Koivisto, former President of Finland.
- Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, born 16 April 1940, married to Henri de Laborde de Monpezat and has two sons
- Princess Benedikte of Denmark, born 29 April 1944, married to Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and has three children
- Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, born 30 August 1946, married to King Constantine II of Greece and has five children
Titles, styles and honours
- 28 March 1910 – 24 May 1935: Her Royal Highness Princess Ingrid of Sweden
- 24 May 1935 – 20 April 1947: Her Royal Highness The Crown Princess of Denmark
- 20 April 1947 – 14 January 1972: Her Majesty The Queen of Denmark
- 14 January 1972 – 7 November 2000: Her Majesty Queen Ingrid of Denmark
- National honours
- Sweden: Member of the Order of the Seraphim
- Sweden: Royal Family Order of King Gustav V
- Sweden: Royal Family Order of King Gustav VI Adolf
- Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant(R.E.)
- Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Dannebrog(S.Kmd.)
- Denmark: Royal Family Order of King Christian X
- Denmark: Royal Family Order of King Frederick IX
- Denmark: Commemorative Medal of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Margrethe II
- Denmark: Commemorative Medal of the Silver Anniversary of Queen Margrethe II and Prince Henrik
- Foreign honours
- Austrian-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Family: Dame of the Order of the Starry Cross
- Austria: Grand Cross of the Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria
- Belgium: Dame Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold
- Ethiopian Imperial Family: Dame Grand Officer with Collar of the Order of the Queen of Sheba
- France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour
- Greek Royal Family: Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Olga and Sophia
- Iceland: Grand Cross of the Order of the Falcon
- Iranian Imperial Family: Grand Cross of the Order of the Pleiades, 1st class
- Empire of Iran: Medal of the 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire
- Italy: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- Luxembourg: Grand Cross of the Order of Adolphe of Nassau
- Netherlands: Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
- Norway: Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav
- Spain: Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic
- Thailand: Knight of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri
Notes and references
- Roger Lundgren, Ingrid, Prinsesse af Sverige, Dronning af Danmark, People's Press, 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Börge Outze & Aage Svendstorp (in Swedish): 5 år i bojor. Danmark under ockupationen 1940–1945 (5 years in chains. Denmark during the occupation) Aktiebolaget boktryck (1945) Hälsingborg
- Danish Queen Mother dies, BBC, 7 November 2000, retrieved 22 August 2013
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 134. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/1980/04/24/pdfs/A08890-08890.pdf Boletín Oficial del Estado
- http://www.kvinfo.dk/side/597/bio/648/origin/170/ (In Danish)
- Staffan Skott: Alla dessa Bernadottar (All of the Bernadottes) (1996) (In Swedish)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Queen Ingrid of Denmark.|
- Obituary in The Telegraph, 8 November 2000
- Queen Ingrid Exhibition, Danish Royal Collections, Amalienborg Museum
Ingrid of SwedenBorn: 28 March 1910 Died: 7 November 2000
Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
|Queen consort of Denmark
Henri Laborde de Monpezat
as prince consort