LGBT rights in the Americas

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Laws governing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights are complex in the Americas, and acceptance of LGBT persons varies widely. Same-sex marriages have been legal in Canada nationwide since 2005, in Argentina since 2010, and in Brazil nationwide and Uruguay since 2013. In Mexico same-sex marriages are performed in Mexico City and those unions are recognized nationwide. In the United States, same-sex marriages are performed by 35 states and the District of Columbia, as well as being federally recognized, but are banned in other states. Same-sex marriages are legal in the Caribbean Netherlands, while marriages performed in the Netherlands are recognized in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten. More than 400 million people live in nations or sub-national entities in the Americas where same-sex marriages are available.

Furthermore, some other nations have laws recognizing other types of same-sex unions (Colombia and Ecuador), as well as LGBT adoption and military service by LGBT people. However, eleven other nations, all of them in the former British West Indies, still have criminal punishment for buggery on their statute books. These eleven countries include Jamaica, Dominica, Barbados, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Lucia, Antigua & Barbuda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis & Belize.

Religion and LGBT acceptance[edit]

The British, French, Spanish and Portuguese colonists, who settled most of the Americas, brought Christianity from Europe. In particular, the Roman Catholic Church and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, both of which oppose legal recognition of homosexual relationships followed by Eastern Orthodox church,[1] the Methodist Church,[2][3] and some other Mainline (Protestant) denominations, such as the Reformed Church in America[4] and the American Baptist Church,[5] as well as Conservative Evangelical organizations and churches, such as the Evangelical Alliance. The Southern Baptist Convention.[6][7][8] Pentecostal churches such as the Assemblies of God,[9] as well as Restorationist churches, like Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormons, also take the position that homosexual sexual activity is sinful.[10][11]

However, other denominations have become more accepting of LGBT people in recent decades, including the Episcopal Church in the United States, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, the Anglican Church of Canada, the United Church of Canada, the United Church of Christ, the Unitarian Universalist Association, and the Society of Friends (Quakers), and some congregations of the Presbyterian Church (U. S. A.). Most of these denominations now perform same-sex weddings or blessings. In addition, in the United States Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism, and Reconstructionist Judaism now welcome LGBT worshippers and perform same-sex weddings.


Legislation by country or territory

Tables:

Legislation in North America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti-discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Bermuda Bermuda
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1994
(Age of consent discrepancy)
No No Emblem-question.svg Yes UK responsible for defence No Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] No
Canada Canada Yes Legal since 1969
(Age of consent discrepancy, prohibition of anal intercourse in some cases)[13]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Yes Legal since 2003,
Mandatory legal status nationwide since 2005
Yes Legal nationwide, but specifics may vary by province and territory.[14] Yes Since 1992[15] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech YesLegal recognition but only granted after completion of medical intervention in most provinces and territories (not required in Ontario, British Columbia); Explicit anti-discrimination protections only in NWT, Manitoba, and Ontario, implicit elsewhere;[16][17][18]
Greenland Greenland
(constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933 Yes Registered partnership since 1996 No (pending) Yes / No Step-child adoption only Yes (Denmark responsible for defence) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Mexico Mexico Yes Legal since 1872[19]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Civil unions in Coahuila (2007),[20] Colima (2013)[21], Jalisco (2013)[22] and Campeche (2013).[23]


All states are obliged to honour same-sex marriages performed in states where it is legal.[24]

No/Yes Legal in Mexico City (2010)[24], Quintana Roo (2012) [25] and Coahuila (2014).


All states are obliged to honour same-sex marriages performed in states where it is legal.[24]


Proposed nationwide (2013).[26][27]

No/Yes Joint adoption legal in Mexico City (2010)[28] and Coahuila (2014).[29]


Nationwide, single gay persons may adopt.[30]

Yes/No No explicit ban. However, LGB persons have been reportedly discharged on the grounds of "immorality."[31] Yes Nationwide since 2003.[32] No/Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name in Mexico City since 2008.[33]
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg Saint Pierre et Miquelon
(overseas collectivity of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
United States United States Yes Legal nationwide since 2003.
+ UN decl. sign.
See Lawrence v. Texas
Yes / No Varies by state, not recognized by federal gov't

(Legal in some states where same-sex marriage is also legal. Domestic partnership benefits and civil unions granted by local level cities and counties in 15 states).

Yes / No Varies by state, recognized by federal gov't.

(Legal in Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho,Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, 21 Native American Tribal Jurisdictions, St. Louis, MO, and the District of Columbia. Recognized in Missouri).

Yes / No Single bisexual, gay, and lesbian persons may adopt, laws on couples vary by state Yes / No Since 2011 for bisexuals, gays, and lesbians only; openly transgender and intersex individuals still banned. No / Yes Federal executive order prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation for employees in the federal civilian workforce, along with the government employment in the District of Columbia, and the United States Postal Service, since 1998 (see Executive Order 12968 and Executive Order 13087). Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009.

(Sexual orientation discrimination in public and private employment)

No / Yes Gender identity discrimination in employment and healthcare insurance banned since 2012.[34][35] Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009.

(Gender identity discrimination in public and private employment)

Legislation in Central America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti- discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Belize Belize No Male llegal since September 19, 2003
(Penalty: 10 year prison sentence). Yes Female legal. (Foreign LGBT males and females are rejected from entering the country due to the Belize Immigration Act)
No No No No No No
Costa Rica Costa Rica Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes (for some purposes such as conjugal visit, health-related decisions and social insurance)[36] No No N/A
Has no armed forces
Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
El Salvador El Salvador Yes Legal since 1800's[19]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Guatemala Guatemala Yes Legal since 1871[19]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Honduras Honduras Yes Legal since 1899[19]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No
(Constitutional ban)
No
(Constitutional ban)
No No No
Nicaragua Nicaragua Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[19] No
Panama Panama Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No No No No

Legislation in the Caribbean islands

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti-discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Anguilla Anguilla
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes UK responsible for defence No No
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda No Illegal
(Penalty: 15 year prison sentence)
No No No No No No
Aruba Aruba
(Autonomous country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal No
Only unions made in the Netherlands recognised
No
Only same-sex marriages made in the Netherlands recognised
No Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence No No
The Bahamas Bahamas Yes Legal since 1991
(Age of consent discrepancy)
No No No Yes No No
Barbados Barbados No Illegal
(Penalty: life sentence, Not enforced)
No No No No No No
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands
(Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba; special municipalities of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal Yes Yes Legal since 2012 Yes[37] Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000 No No Emblem-question.svg Yes UK responsible for defence Emblem-question.svg No
Cuba Cuba Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.
No
(but proposed)
No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[38][39] Yes
Curaçao Curaçao
(Autonomous country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal No
Only unions made in the Netherlands recognised
No
Only same-sex marriages made in the Netherlands recognised
No Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence No No
Dominica Dominica No Illegal
(Penalty: 10 year prison sentence or incarceration in a psychiatric institution )
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No No No No
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Yes Legal since 1822[19]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No
Constitutional ban since 2010
No No[40] No No
Grenada Grenada No Male illegal
(Penalty: 10 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité
since 1999
Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Haiti Haiti Yes Legal since 1986 No No No No No No
Jamaica Jamaica No Male Illegal
(Penalty: 10 years hard labor)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Martinique Martinique
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité
since 1999
Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Montserrat Montserrat
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Discrimination banned by the constitution[41] No
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico
(Commonwealth of the United States)
Yes Legal since 2003 No No No Yes Since 2011 Yes Bans hate crimes since 2002, anti–employment discrimination since 2013. U.S. hate crime laws also apply Yes Bans hate crimes since 2002, anti–employment discrimination since 2013. U.S. hate crime laws also apply
Flag of Saint Barthelemy (local).svg Saint Barthélemy
(overseas collectivity of France since 2007)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis No Male illegal
(Penalty: 10 years)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia No Male illegal
(Penalty: fine and/or 10 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Flag of France.svg Saint Martin
(overseas collectivity of France since 2007)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines No Illegal
(Penalty: fine and/or 10 year prison sentence)
No No No No No No
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten
(Autonomous country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal No
Only unions made in the Netherlands recognised
No
Only same-sex marriages made in the Netherlands recognised
No Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence No No
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago No Illegal
(Penalty: 25 year prison sentence, Not enforced)
No No No No No No
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes UK responsible for defence No No
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands
(Insular area of the United States)
Yes Legal since 1984 No No No Yes Since 2011 Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well

Legislation in South America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti- discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Argentina Argentina Yes Legal since 1887[19]
+ UN decl. sign.
No / Yes Cohabitation not registered across the country. Yes Legal since 2010.[42] Yes Legal since 2010. Yes Since 2009.[43] No/Yes (Legal in some states) Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial permission[44]
Bolivia Bolivia Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.
No (Proposed) No
(Constitutional ban)
No No Not until 2015 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Legal recognition but only granted after completion of medical intervention [45]
Brazil Brazil Yes Decriminalized since 1824,
Legal since 1830
[19]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes "Stable unions" legal since 2004,
All rights as recognized family entities available nationwide since 2011
[46][47]
Yes Legal since 2011 (given interpretation of "stable union" legislation),
Nationwide since 2013
[48][49]
Yes Single gay persons explicitly accepted since 1996,
Legal since 2010.
[50]
Yes Since 1969,[51]
Official discrimination illegal since 1988,
Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 1999[52][53]
Yes/No All state-sanctioned social discrimination of citizens since 1988,
Legal protection in many jurisdictions, expansion of anti-discrimination (all) national Constitutional amendment discussed in the Senate
.[54]
Yes Legal gender and name changes since 2009, though SRS – legal in loco only for diagnosed transsexuals – is required for male-to-female and HRT for female-to-male.[55][56][57]
Chile Chile Yes Legal since 1998 [19]
(Age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.
No (Civil Unions vote pending by congress) [58] No (Pending) [59][60] No / Yes Single gay persons may adopt (Step-child adoption and full adoption pending) [61] Yes [62][63] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination [64] Yes since 2007. Whether surgical intervention is necessary depends on the judge at the moment of request. Currently, a broader gender identity law (which would not require any surgeries or judicial permission) is being discussed by the congress.[65] [66]
Colombia Colombia Yes Legal since 1981
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 2007 No / Yes Judges are able to marry same-sex couples using a 2011 Court Ruling.[67] Yes / No As single people and Step-child adoption.[68] Yes since 1999. Since 2009: the military special social security system can be used by same sex couples in the army Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech [69] Yes[70] Since 1993. The name's gender can be changed easily in the National ID Card, to change the sex field a surgery is required.
Ecuador Ecuador Yes Legal since 1997
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Civil unions legal since 2009[71] No
(Constitutional ban)
No
(Constitutional ban)
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Legal recognition but only granted after completion of medical intervention
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1989[19] No No No Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Discrimination banned by the constitution[72] No
French Guiana French Guiana
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Guyana Guyana No Illegal
(Penalty: Up to life imprisonment)
No No No Yes [73] No Added to constitution in 2004, but withdrawn afterwards by the government. No
Paraguay Paraguay Yes Legal since 1880 (Age of consent discrepancy) [19]
+ UN decl. sign.
No
(Constitutional ban since 1992)[74]
No
(Constitutional ban since 1992)[74]
No Emblem-question.svg No No
Peru Peru Yes Legal since 1836-37[19] No (Pending)[75] No No Yes Since 2009[76] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Yes Possible via Civil Code and Legal Process, but no specific law.
Suriname Suriname Yes Legal since 1869 (Age of consent discrepancy)[19] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Uruguay Uruguay Yes Legal since 1934
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Civil unions since 2008.[77] Yes Legal since 2013.[78] Yes Legal since 2009.[79] Yes Since 2009.[80] Yes Legal protection since 2004.[81] Yes Legal protection since 2004.[81]

Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name since 2009.[82]

Venezuela Venezuela Yes Legal since 1997[83][84].
+ UN decl. sign.
there was not an illegal or legal status before.
No/YesMérida No No Yes Since 1999 Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[19] No


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ On Marriage, Family, Sexuality, and the Sanctity of Life
  2. ^ "The Christian Life - Christian Conduct". Free Methodist Church. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  3. ^ "British Methodists reject blessing of same-sex relationships". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 2007-05-16. 
  4. ^ "Summaries of General Synod Discussions and Actions on Homosexuality and the Rights of Homosexuals". Reformed Church in America. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  5. ^ "We Are American Baptists". American Baptist Churches USA. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  6. ^ Position Statements/Sexuality
  7. ^ Statement on Homosexuality
  8. ^ Position Paper on Homosexuality
  9. ^ Homosexuality
  10. ^ Homosexuality —How Can I Avoid It?
  11. ^ Same-Gender Attraction - LDS Newsroom
  12. ^ Johnson, Ayo (June 15, 2013). "MPs approve historic Human Rights Act changes". The Royal Gazette. Retrieved June 15, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Criminal Code (R.S., 1985, c. C-46), Section 159, Subsection (1)". Department of Justice Canada. 21 May 2010.
  14. ^ Status differs in provinces and territories:
  15. ^ "Canadian Armed Forces". The Canadian Lesbian & Gay Archives. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  16. ^ Northwest Territories Human Rights Act, S.N.W.T. 2002, c.18. Section 5.
  17. ^ "Ontario passes law to protect transgender people". CBC News. June 13, 2012. Retrieved June 13, 2012. 
  18. ^ http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/topic.page?id=C53953157EE344A681EFD28325B526F4
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n State-sponsored Homophobia A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults
  20. ^ (Spanish) Leopoldo Ramos (11 January 2007). "Aprueba Coahuila la figura del pacto civil de solidaridad". La Jornada. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  21. ^ (Spanish) Pedro Zamora Briseño (29 July 2013). "Aprueba Colima "enlace conyugal" entre parejas del mismo sexo". Proceso. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  22. ^ (Spanish) "Jalisco avala Ley de Libre Convivencia para regular parejas del mismo sexo". CNN México. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  23. ^ http://www.sdpnoticias.com/gay/2013/12/23/legalizan-bodas-gays-en-campeche
  24. ^ a b c David Agren (10 August 2010). "Mexican States Ordered to Honor Gay Marriages". New York Times. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  25. ^ (Spanish) Varillas, Adriana (3 May 2012). "Revocan anulación de bodas gay en QRoo". El Universal. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  26. ^ (Spanish) Mauricio Torres (14 November 2013). "Senadores proponen legalizar el matrimonio gay en todo México". CNN México. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  27. ^ (Spanish) "Propone Fernando Mayans Canabal reconocer el matrimonio sin distinción de preferencia sexual". Senado de México. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  28. ^ Associated Press (4 March 2010). "Mexico City's gay marriage law takes effect". MSNBC. Retrieved 6 March 2010. 
  29. ^ (Spanish) Jesús Castro (12 February 2014). "Ya pueden parejas gay adoptar en Coahuila; PAN vota en contra". Vanguardia. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  30. ^ "Intercountry Adoption: Mexico". Office of Children Issues, U.S. Dept. of State. November 2009. 
  31. ^ (Spanish) Milenio Semanal (17 October 2010). "Homosexualidad y Ejército". Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  32. ^ International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC) (23 April 2003). "Mexico protects its gay and lesbian citizens with new law". Retrieved 27 November 2009. 
  33. ^ International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) Trans (29 August 2008). "Mexico City extends official rights to transgender individuals". Retrieved 27 November 2009. 
  34. ^ Geidner, Chris (23 April 2012). "Transgender Breakthrough". Metro Weekly. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  35. ^ HHS: Health Reform Law Prohibits Antitransgender Bias in Care
  36. ^ http://www.nacion.com/nacional/salud-publica/CCSS-aprobo-extender-seguro-parejas_0_1416058622.html
  37. ^ "Burgerlijk Wetboek, Boek 1 (Civil Code, Book 1)". Government of the Netherlands. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  38. ^ (Spanish) Gaceta Oficial No. 29 Extraordinaria de 17 de junio de 2014
  39. ^ (Spanish) Entra en vigor nuevo Código de Trabajo
  40. ^ Dominican Republic reiterates ban on gay cops and soldiers
  41. ^ "Constitution of Montserrat Part I: Fundamental Rights & Freedoms". Government of Montserrat. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  42. ^ Argentina Passes Gay Marriage Bill
  43. ^ AG magazine (2 March 2009). "A New Argentina Overturns Gay Military Ban". Queerty. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  44. ^ Página12, 10 May 2012
  45. ^ Constitución Política del Estado VIGENTE Bolivia
  46. ^ [1]
  47. ^ http://www.stf.jus.br/portal/cms/verNoticiaDetalhe.asp?idConteudo=178931
  48. ^ CNJ obriga cartórios de todo o país a celebrar casamento entre gays
  49. ^ CNJ obriga cartórios a celebrar casamento entre homossexuais
  50. ^ http://www.athosgls.com.br/noticias_visualiza.php?contcod=29208
  51. ^ (Portuguese) Patricia Silva Gadelha (March 2006). "A prática da pederastia é crime militar". Jus Navigandi. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  52. ^ Homosexuality is not deviant - Federal Council of Psychologists of Brazil (Portuguese)
  53. ^ Psychiatrist Jairo Bouer talks about the "collateral effects" of "gay cure" bill (Portuguese)
  54. ^ (Portuguese) Iara Bernardi (December 2010). "Projeto de Lei 122/2006". Retrieved 31 December 2010. 
  55. ^ (Portuguese) Expresso da Notícia (13 January 2006). "Justiça autoriza alteração no registro de transexual que trocou de sexo". Jus Brasil. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  56. ^ (Portuguese) Expresso da Notícia (25 December 2005). "Justica autoriza mudança de sexo em documentos". Jus Brasil. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  57. ^ Changing name and sex in documentation – Brazilian Association of Trans Men (Portuguese)
  58. ^ http://noticias.terra.cl/nacional/politica/aprueban-idea-de-legislar-proyecto-de-avp-en-el-senado,fd6b7b7e4ee63410VgnVCM4000009bcceb0aRCRD.html
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  62. ^ (Spanish) Claudio Ortiz Lazo. "Reflexiones en torno a la homosexualidady fuerzas armadas". Revista Fuerzas Armadas y Sociedad. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  63. ^ (Spanish) Movilh (February 2011). "IX Informe Anual de Derechos Humanos de la Diversidad Sexual en Chile". Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  64. ^ "Chile Congress passes anti-discrimination law". Jurist.org. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  65. ^ http://www.biobiochile.cl/2014/01/21/senado-aprueba-idea-de-legislar-proyecto-de-ley-de-identidad-de-genero.shtml
  66. ^ http://noticias.terra.cl/nacional/,08dc7e10cb6b3410VgnVCM20000099cceb0aRCRD.html
  67. ^ http://www.enewspaper.mx/archivos/98136
  68. ^ "Histórico fallo: Corte aprueba adopción de niña a compañera lesbiana de su madre biológica". (Spanish)
  69. ^ "Este miércoles el presidente Santos sanciona ley antidiscriminación". ElTiempo.com. 29 November 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2011. (Spanish)
  70. ^ Mora, Manuel Velandia. "Cambio de nombre es posible en Colombia". Manuel Antonio Velandia Mora Autobiografía y artículos. Retrieved 30 September 2010. (Spanish)
  71. ^ Rodríguez, Yesyd. "Ecuador celebró la primera unión de hecho entre personas del mismo sexo, desatando la indignación de la iglesia católica". Dos Manzanas. Retrieved 30 September 2010. (Spanish)
  72. ^ The Falkland Islands Constitution Order 2008
  73. ^ http://www.thedailyherald.com/regional/2-news/33563-army-wont-discriminate-against-its-gay-soldiers-.html
  74. ^ a b "Paraguay - Constitution". International Contitutional Law. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  75. ^ (Spanish) La unión civil y unión solidaria volverán a debatirse en agosto en Perú
  76. ^ "El Tribunal Constitucional de Perú considera que no se puede excluir de la Polícia o el Ejército a las personas homosexuales". Dos Manzanas. 13 December 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  77. ^ Hilary Burke (18 December 2007). "Uruguay OKs gay unions in Latin American first". Reuters. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  78. ^ http://archivo.presidencia.gub.uy/sci/leyes/2013/05/mec_913.pdf
  79. ^ Reuters (9 September 2009). "Lawmakers in Uruguay Vote to Allow Gay Couples to Adopt". New York Times. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  80. ^ Rachel Weiner (15 May 2009). "Uruguay Lifts Ban On Gays In The Military". Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  81. ^ a b (Spanish) Congress of Uruguay (18 August 2004). "Ley N° 17.817". Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  82. ^ Free Speech Radio News (11 December 2009). "Uruguay passes bill to allow citizens to choose gender identity". Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  83. ^ http://www.juridicas.unam.mx/publica/librev/rev/indercom/cont/27/leg/leg8.pdf
  84. ^ http://www.zur2.com/objetivos/senvenez/vagos.html