Kingston, Ontario

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Kingston
(Cataraqui)
City
Kingston City Skyline from Fort Henry Hill
Kingston City Skyline from Fort Henry Hill
Nickname(s): Limestone City
Motto: Antiquitate Civilitate Humanitate (Latin)
("A Civil And Creative Community With A Proud Past")
Kingston is located in Ontario
Kingston
Kingston
Coordinates: 44°14′N 76°30′W / 44.233°N 76.500°W / 44.233; -76.500Coordinates: 44°14′N 76°30′W / 44.233°N 76.500°W / 44.233; -76.500
Country Canada
Province Ontario
County Frontenac
Established 1673 (as Fort Cataraqui; later renamed Fort Frontenac)
Incorporated 1838 (as town); 1846 (as city)
Amalgamated 1998 (with Kingston and Pittsburgh Twps)
Government
 • City Mayor Mark Gerretsen
 • Governing Body Kingston City Council
 • MP (Federal) Ted Hsu (LPC)
 • MPP (Provincial) Sophie Kiwala (OLP)
Area
 • City 450.39 km2 (173.90 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,906.82 km2 (736.23 sq mi)
Elevation 70–110 m (230–360 ft)
Population (2011)
 • City 123,363
 • Density 273.4/km2 (708/sq mi)
 • Metro 159,561
 • Metro density 82.3/km2 (213/sq mi)
  source: Statistics Canada
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC−4)
Postal code span K7K through K7P
Area code(s) 613 343
Website www.cityofkingston.ca
"View of Frontenac or Cataracoui in 1759". Watercolor map depicting Fort Frontenac
Overlooking Kingston Waterfront
Line of defence: three Martello towers (Shoal Tower, Fort Frederick, Cathcart Tower). A fourth tower, Murney Tower, is located southwest of this location
Kingston waterfront, circa 1900
Watercolour depicting the naval dockyard, Point Frederick, Kingston, 1815, showing commodore's house and the ships Canada and Wolfe under construction.
Nurses' Home, Kingston General Hospital, circa 1910.

Kingston is a Canadian city located in Eastern Ontario where the St. Lawrence River flows out of Lake Ontario.

Growing European exploration in the 17th century and the desire for the Europeans to establish a presence close to local Native occupants to control trade led to the founding of a French trading post known as Fort Frontenac in 1673. The fort became a focus for settlement.

Located midway between Toronto and Montreal, Kingston was named the first capital of the Province of Canada on February 15, 1841, by Governor Lord Sydenham.[1] While its time as a political centre was short, Kingston has remained an important military installation.

Kingston was the county seat of Frontenac County until 1998. Kingston is a separated municipality from the County of Frontenac. According to the 2011 Canadian census, the population of the city proper was 123,363,[2] while the population of the census metropolitan area (CMA) was 159,561.[3]

Kingston is nicknamed the "Limestone City" because of the many heritage buildings constructed using local limestone.

History[edit]

Origins, settlement, and growth[edit]

European commercial and military influence and activities centered on the fur trade developed and increased in North America in the 17th century. Fur trappers and traders were spreading out from their centres of operation in New France. To establish a presence on Lake Ontario for the purpose of controlling the fur trade with local Natives, Louis de Buade de Frontenac, Governor of New France established Fort Cataraqui, later to be called Fort Frontenac, at a location known as Cataraqui (generally pronounced "kah-tah-ROCK-way") in 1673. The fort served as a trading post, military base and a focus for settlement until it was captured and destroyed by the British in the Battle of Fort Frontenac during the Seven Years' War in 1758. Partially reconstructed remains of the old fort can be seen to the west of the present Fort Frontenac. Settlement was interrupted after the battle, but in the early 1780s the area soon to be called Kingston became a receiving centre for Loyalist refugees who fled north because of the American Revolutionary War. Some years later, Kingston would become the primary community of southeastern Upper Canada.

United Empire Loyalists formed a significant part of an expanding population in the area at the end of the 18th century. Loyalists who had originally sought refuge at Carleton Island during the Revolutionary War arrived at Cataraqui after the area was surveyed in 1783. Notable Loyalists who settled at Cataraqui include Molly Brant (the sister of Six Nations leader Joseph Brant), businessman and political figure, Richard Cartwright, and a group of Loyalists led by Captain Michael Grass who arrived in 1784, having sailed from New York and up the St. Lawrence River. Fort Frontenac was restored to accommodate a military garrison that would defend the growing community.

Cataraqui was referred to as "the King's Town" or "King's Town" by 1787 in honour of King George III.[4][5] The name was shortened to "Kingston" in 1788.[4]

During the War of 1812, Kingston was the base for the Lake Ontario division of the Great Lakes British naval fleet, which engaged in a vigorous arms race with the American fleet based at Sackets Harbor, New York for control of Lake Ontario. The Provincial Marine quickly placed ships into service, troops were brought in and defences were built, including fortifications on Point Henry and Point Frederick, and blockhouses to the north and west of Kingston.

In the 1840s, the Upper Canadian government built Fort Henry and a series of distinctive Martello towers to guard the entrance to the Rideau Canal. All still exist, and Fort Henry is a popular tourist attraction.

Kingston's location at the Rideau Canal entrance to Lake Ontario made it the primary military and economic centre of Upper Canada after canal construction was completed in 1832. Incorporated as a town in 1838, the first mayor of Kingston was Thomas Kirkpatrick. Kingston had the largest population of any centre in Upper Canada until the 1840s. Kingston was incorporated as a city in 1846.

Kingston was chosen as the first capital of the united Canadas and served in that role from 1841 to 1844. The first meeting of the Parliament of the United Canadas on June 13, 1841, was held on the site of what is now Kingston General Hospital. The city was considered too small and lacking in amenities, however, and its location made it vulnerable to American attack. Consequently, the capital was moved to Montreal in 1844, and it alternated between Quebec City and Toronto from 1849 until Ottawa was selected as the permanent capital. Subsequently, Kingston's growth slowed considerably and its national importance declined.

The Kingston General Hospital site also held the remains of 1,400 Irish immigrants who had died in Kingston in fever sheds along the waterfront, during the typhus epidemic of 1847, while fleeing the Great Famine. Their remains were re-interred at the city's St. Mary's Cemetery in 1966.[6] In 1995, the hospital was designated a National Historic Site of Canada because it is "the oldest public hospital in Canada still in operation with most of its buildings intact and thus effectively illustrates the evolution of health care in Canada in the 19th and 20th centuries."[7]

Kingston was the home of Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald. One of his residences in Kingston, Bellevue House, is now a popular National Historic Site of Canada open to the public and depicting the house as it would have been in the 1840s when he lived there.

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Kingston remained an important Great Lakes port and a centre for shipbuilding and locomotive manufacturing, including the Canadian Locomotive Company, at one time the largest locomotive works in the British Empire. Most heavy industry has now left the city, and employment is now primarily in the institutional, military, and service/retail sectors.

Kingston grew moderately through the 20th century through a series of annexations of lands in adjacent Kingston Township, including a 1952 annexation of some 5,500 acres (22 km2) which encompassed areas west to the Little Cataraqui Creek (including the village of Portsmouth), where a number of large residential subdivisions were built in the late 1950s and early '60s.

Municipal governance had been a topic of discussion since the mid-1970s due to financial imbalance between the city and the surrounding townships, which now had large residential areas and a population approaching that of the city proper. On January 1, 1998, the City was amalgamated with Kingston Township and Pittsburgh Township to form a new City of Kingston. The city's boundaries now encompass large rural areas north of Highway 401 and east of the Cataraqui River.

Cataraqui name origins[edit]

A number of origins of "Cataraqui", the original name for Kingston, have been postulated. One is that it is derived from the Iroquois "Katarakne" which means "the place where one hides".[8] Another is that it is the French derivation of a Native word meaning "impregnable", "muddy river", or "place of retreat".[9] Yet another possibility is that it is derived from "Katarakoui", which means "clay bank rising out of the water".[10] The origin may also come from a Native term meaning "where the rivers and lake meet".[11]

Cataraqui today refers to an area around the intersection of Princess Street and Sydenham Road where a village that later took the name was located. Cataraqui is also the name of a municipal electoral district.

Military history[edit]

Kingston, being strategically located at the head of the St. Lawrence River and at the mouth of the Cataraqui River near the border with the United States, has been a site of military importance since Fort Frontenac was built in 1673. The French, and later, the British established military garrisons. The War of 1812 led to the bolstering of military troops, the servicing of ships, and the building of new fortifications to defend the town and the Naval Dockyard . Several defensive fortifications were constructed in the late 1840s because of tensions with the United States. These include Fort Henry, four Martello towers, and the Market Battery. Military ships were built at the Naval Dockyard at Point Frederick from 1788 to 1853.

After the British army withdrew from most locations in Canada in 1870-71, two batteries of garrison artillery were formed by the Dominion Government - one in Kingston; the other in Quebec City. The batteries were also schools of gunnery. The Kingston battery was garrisoned at Fort Henry and Tête du Pont Barracks (Fort Frontenac). Designated as the Regiment of Canadian Artillery, the regular component evolved into the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, with most of its battery housed at Tête du Pont Barracks until 1939.[12]

The withdrawal of imperial troops required a Canadian location for the training of military officers. Because of Kingston's military tradition and the fact that several military buildings already existed at the old naval dockyard, Point Frederick was chosen as the location for Canada's first military college, the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). The college opened in 1876.

Located east of Kingston's downtown, the army's Camp Barriefield, now McNaughton Barracks, was constructed at the beginning of the First World War and expanded during the Second World War. Camp Barriefield was named in honour of Rear-Admiral Sir Robert Barrie (May 5, 1774 – June 7, 1841), a British naval officer noted for his service in the War of 1812. It was later named McNaughton Barracks after Andrew George Latta McNaughton, a former minister of national defence. Nearby Vimy Barracks was established in 1937 for the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals (later the Royal Canadian School of Signals). Vimy and McNaughton Barracks house the Canadian Forces School of Communications and Electronics (CFSCE), the Canadian Forces' military communications training centre and several other units. McNaughton Barracks and Vimy Barracks make up most of Canadian Forces Base Kingston (CFB Kingston). Major military facilities supported by CFB Kingston include Fort Frontenac, located on the site of the original fort, and the Royal Military College of Canada.

A military aerodrome, RCAF Station Kingston, was constructed to the west of Kingston to support flying training during the Second World War.

Internment camps were set up at Fort Henry during the First and Second World Wars. During the First World war, a camp operated from August 1914 to November 1917. During the Second World War, a camp (Camp 31) operated from September 1939 to December 1943.[13]

Built heritage[edit]

Kingston is known for its historic properties, as reflected in the city's motto of "where history and innovation thrive". The municipality has nearly 700 properties listed in the heritage register it maintains pursuant to the Ontario Heritage Act.[14]

In 2007, the Rideau Canal, along with the fortifications at Kingston, was designated a World Heritage Site,[15] one of only 15 such sites in Canada.[16]

There are 21 National Historic Sites of Canada located in Kingston. Kingston has the third largest number of National Historic Sites within its boundaries of any city in Ontario, after Ottawa and Toronto.[17]

Demographics[edit]

Canada 2006 Census Population  % of Total Population
Visible minority group
Source:[18]
South Asian 1,720 1.5%
Chinese 2,365 2.1%
Black 1,030 0.9%
Filipino 445 0.4%
Latin American 710 0.6%
Arab 365 0.3%
Southeast Asian 310 0.3%
West Asian 280 0.2%
Korean 310 0.3%
Japanese 245 0.2%
Other visible minority 150 0.1%
Mixed visible minority 210 0.2%
Total visible minority population 8,150 7.1%
Aboriginal group
Source:[19]
First Nations 1,355 1.2%
Métis 790 0.7%
Inuit 75 0.1%
Total Aboriginal population 2,360 2.1%
White 103,540 90.8%
Total population 114,050 100%

According to the 2006 census, there were 152,358 people residing in the Kingston Census Metropolitan Area,[20] of whom 48.7% were male and 51.3% were female. Children under five accounted for approximately 4.8% of the resident population of Kingston. This compares with 5.5% in Ontario.

In 2001, 14.1% of the resident population in Kingston were of retirement age (65 and over) compared with 13.2% in Canada. As a result, the average age is 38.1 years of age as compared to 37.6 years of age for all of Canada. Kingston has a reputation as a suitable place for retirees to settle.

Kingston 2006 senior population in Central Kingston - source 2006 Census

In the five years between 1996 and 2001, the population of Kingston grew by 1.6%, compared with an increase of 6.1% for Ontario as a whole. Population density of Kingston averaged 77.0 inhabitants per square kilometre (199 /sq mi), compared with an average of 12.6 /km2 (33 /sq mi) for Ontario altogether.

The population of Kingston shows significant turnover because of its relatively large student population (about 10%) and the number of military residents associated with Canadian Forces Base Kingston.

According to the Government of Canada 2006 census, 94.2% of the population were Caucasian; of the visible minorities, 1.7% were Chinese, 1.2% were South Asian, and 0.8% were black.

Detailed socio-demographic analysis and information about Kingston can be found in the Kingston Community Profile, 2009: A Socio-Demographic Analysis of Kingston, Ontario Canada.[21]

Religion[edit]

Sydenham Street Methodist Church in 1910. It was built in 1852, later expanded.

In Kingston the largest faith group is non-religious, with 35,435 people, or 29.8% of the population. This is closely followed by Roman Catholics, who number 33,410 (28.1%). Other Christian groups included the United Church of Canada (15,520 or 13.0%), and the Anglican Church of Canada (12,340 or 10.5%). All Christian groups combined comprise 78,880 people, or 66.3% of the population.

Groups other than Christians and the non-religious include Muslims (1,735 or 1.5%), Jews (785 or 0.7%), and Hindus (520 or 0.4%).[22]

The Presbyterian Church was particularly influential in the 19th century development of Kingston post-secondary education. The church was a founder and financial supporter of Queen's University until 1912 when it was agreed that the university should become a secular institution.[23] Sir John A. Macdonald was also a member of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church in Kingston.

Quality of life[edit]

Kingston was recognized as one of the "best places to live and work in Canada for young professionals". The city ranked # 4 on a list of 27 Canadian cities with a population of 100,000 or more in a study of the likes and dislikes of professionals between the ages of 20-40. The study, by Next Generation Consulting, considered factors such as: earning potential (things like employment opportunities and household incomes), cost of lifestyle (the cost of food, clothing and housing), vitality (air and water quality and green space) and after hours activities (things to do during week nights and on the weekend).[24][25]

A persistently low rental housing vacancy rate has had a negative effect on housing affordability in Kingston for a number of years. Average two bedroom rents exceeded $1,000.00 per month by early 2013.[26]

Economy[edit]

Kingston's economy relies heavily on public sector institutions and establishments. The most important sectors are related to health care, education (Queen's University, the Royal Military College of Canada, and St. Lawrence College), government (including the military and correctional services), tourism and culture. Manufacturing, and research and development play a smaller role than in the past. One of Kingston's major industrial employers of the 20th century, the Canadian Locomotive Company, closed in 1969, and the former Alcan and DuPont operations employ far fewer people than in the past. But due to the city's central location between Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal and Syracuse, NY a trucking and logistics warehousing industry has developed.

According to the Kingston Economic Development Corporation, the major employers in Kingston as of November 2011 were:[27]

Transportation[edit]

Coat of Arms

Highway 401, which runs in the north part of the city, is the principal access route into Kingston. The first sections of the highway in the Kingston area were opened in 1958, although it was not fully completed for another ten years. Highway 15 is an alternative route between Kingston and the Ottawa region. From the south, Interstate 81 connects with Highway 401 east of Kingston.

Seasonal ferry service from Cape Vincent, New York, via Wolfe Island, into downtown Kingston is an alternate route to and from the United States.

Via Rail corridor service connects Kingston along the main line between Windsor, Ontario and Quebec City.

By air, Kingston is served by Norman Rogers Airport with Air Canada Jazz providing regular service to Toronto Pearson only.

Megabus (Coach Canada) and Greyhound Canada provide service from the Kingston Bus Terminal to Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal. Shuttle Kingston was reported in 2013 to connect to Watertown and Syracuse.[28][29]

Kingston Transit provides local municipal bus service.

Tourism[edit]

The logo of Tourism Kingston

According to Statistics Canada, the tourism industry in Kingston represents a vital part of the city's economy. In 2004, over 3,500 jobs were contributed to Kingston's economy due to the tourism industry. The tourism industry has been at a healthy growth rate and has become one of the most performing sectors of Kingston. Unique opportunities are presented for this industry in this time of shifting travel trends and the baby boomer generation. The success of Kingston's tourism industry is heavily dependent on information about travelers, however data availability still remains a challenge.[30]

Culture[edit]

Princess Street in downtown Kingston

Kingston hosts several festivals during the year, including the Kingston WritersFest, Limestone City Blues Festival, the Kingston Canadian Film Festival, Fanfayr, the Kingston Buskers' Rendezvous, Kingston Jazz Festival, Reelout Film Festival, Feb Fest and the Wolfe Island Music Festival.

Kingston is home to many artists who work in visual arts, media arts, literature, and a growing number who work in other time-based disciplines such as performance art. The contemporary arts scene in particular has two long standing professional non-profit venues in the downtown area, the Agnes Etherington Art Centre (founded 1957), and Modern Fuel Artist-Run Centre (founded 1977). Local artists often participate in the exhibition programming of each organization, while each also presents the work of artists from across Canada and around the world - inkeeping with their educational mandates. Alternative venues for the presentation of exhibition programs in Kingston include The Union Gallery (Queen's University's student art gallery), Verb Gallery, Open Studio 22, the Kingston Arts Council gallery, and The Artel: Arts Accommodations and Venue.

The Kingston WritersFest[31] occurs annually. For over four decades the Ukrainian Canadian Club of Kingston has hosted the "Lviv, Ukraine" pavilion as part of the Folklore tradition, holding this popular cultural and folk festival annually on the second full weekend in June (at Regiopolis-Notre Dame High School). Literary events also happen throughout the year at the Kingston Frontenac Public Library and local bookstores. Writers who are or have been residents of Kingston include Steven Heighton, Bronwen Wallace, Helen Humphreys, Michael Ondaatje, Joanne Page, Diane Schoemperlen, Eric Folsom, Michael Crummey, Melanie Dugan, Mark Sinnett, Mary Alice Downie, Robertson Davies, Judy Wearing, Douglas Fetherling, Wayne Grady, Merilyn Simonds, Ellen Stafford, Alec Ross, Jamie Swift, Carolyn Smart, Sarah Tsiang, Joanne Stanbridge, Laurie Lewis, and Alexander Scala.

Music and theatre venues include The Grand Theatre, and The Wellington Street Theatre, which host performances from international, national, and local groups like Domino Theatre, Theatre Kingston, The Vagabond Repertory Theatre Company, Hope Theatre Projects, Bottle Tree Productions, and other small groups that dot the downtown area. The Kingston Symphony performs at The Grand Theatre, as do several amateur and semi-professional theatre groups. The K-Rock Centre, a 5,800-seat entertainment venue and ice rink, opened in February 2008.

The city has spawned several musicians and musical groups, most of whom are known mainly within Canada, but a few of whom have achieved international success. These include John Kay, lead singer, harmonica and organ player, and occasional guitarist of the heavy metal late 60s/early 70s band Steppenwolf, members of The Tragically Hip, The Mahones, jazz singer Andy Poole, Bedouin Soundclash, Sarah Harmer, The Arrogant Worms, The Headstones, The Inbreds, PS I Love You and David Usher, formerly of Moist.

Kingston is also the birthplace of Bryan Adams. The first winner of the television series Canadian Idol was Kingston native Ryan Malcolm.

Poet Michael Andre was raised in Kingston. Zal Yanovsky of The Lovin' Spoonful lived in Kingston until his death in 2002.

Comedian and actor Dan Aykroyd has a residence just north of Kingston and is a frequent face in town. He was briefly a minor partner in a restaurant called Aykroyd's Ghetto House Café on upper Princess Street during the 1990s which prominently featured a Blues Brothers' car projecting out from the second story wall.

Education[edit]

Theological Hall at Queen's University

Kingston is the site of two universities, Queen's University and the Royal Military College of Canada, and a community college, St. Lawrence College. According to Statistics Canada, Kingston has the most PhD-holders per capita of any city in Canada.[32]

Queen's University[edit]

Queen's University is one of Canada's oldest universities and offers a variety of degree programs. The university was founded in 1841 under royal charter from Queen Victoria. It currently has an enrollment of more than 13,000 undergraduate and 4,000 graduate students. Queen's Campus is rather self-contained but is in close walking distance to downtown Kingston, making it a pedestrian friendly university for students and faculty alike.

Royal Military College of Canada[edit]

The Royal Military College of Canada, established in 1876, is Canada's only military university (Collège Militaire Royal in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec is a military college), providing academic and leadership training to officer cadets, other members of Canada's armed forces and civilians. There are currently 1,100 undergraduate students and 500 full and part-time graduate students.[33]

St. Lawrence College[edit]

St. Lawrence College offers baccalaureate degree programs at its Kingston campus, in behavioural psychology, industrial trades, microelectronics, nursing and business administration (the latter via a partnership with Laurentian University[34]), in addition to certificate, diploma, and advanced diploma programs.

Primary and secondary education[edit]

The Limestone District School Board serves students in the City of Kingston and the counties of Frontenac and Lennox and Addington. Along with the Limestone School of Community Education, which provides adult education and training programs, approximately 21,000 students attend 70 elementary and secondary schools along with supporting education centres. The Algonquin and Lakeshore Catholic District School Board serves students of the Roman Catholic faith. Approximately 12,800 students attend 36 elementary schools and 5 secondary schools in this district. The Catholic high schools in the immediate Kingston area include Regiopolis Notre-Dame and Holy Cross Catholic High Schools. The francophone community is served by two school boards, the Conseil des écoles publiques de l'Est de l'Ontario and the Conseil des écoles catholiques du Centre-Est, each providing one secondary school in the area.

Secondary schools located in Kingston:

Correctional institutions and facilities[edit]

Kingston has the largest concentration of federal correctional facilities in Canada. The facilities are operated by the Correctional Service of Canada. Of the nine institutions located in the Kingston area, seven of them are located within the municipal boundaries of the city.

Collins Bay Institution
  • Regional Treatment Centre (multi-level security), co-located within Kingston Penitentiary
  • Joyceville Institution (medium security)
  • Pittsburgh Institution (minimum security), co-located with Joyceville
  • Collins Bay Institution (medium security)
  • Frontenac Institution (minimum security), co-located with Collins Bay
  • Millhaven Institution (maximum security), and Bath Institution (medium security), are located in the nearby village of Bath.

Until 2000, Canada's only federal correctional facility for women, the Prison for Women (nicknamed "P4W") was also located in Kingston. As a result of the report of the Commission of Inquiry into Certain Events at the Prison for Women in Kingston, the facility was closed in 2000. Queen's University purchased the property with the intention of renovating it to house the Queen's Archives, but the interior of the building was awarded a heritage designation and Queen's lost the ability to renovate the interior and is currently considering its options.

Geography and climate[edit]

Kingston is located in hardiness zone 5. Kingston has a moderate humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb), but with cooler summers and colder winters than most of Southern Ontario. Although proximity to Lake Ontario has a moderating effect on the climate, it also tempers the heat and can on occasion increase precipitation, especially during heavy snowfall events. Mild to strong breezes off of Lake Ontario make Kingston one of the most consistently windy cities in Canada, especially near the water.

The central part of the city is located between the Cataraqui River to the east and the Little Cataraqui Creek to the west, with outlying areas extending in both directions. The eastern part of the city is accessible by the La Salle Causeway on Highway 2.

Major features of Kingston's waterfront include Flora MacDonald Confederation Basin, Portsmouth Olympic Harbour, Collins Bay, Wolfe Island, Garden Island, the Cataraqui River (including the Inner Harbour and, within that, Anglin Bay).

Cities and towns nearby[edit]

North West
Tweed 89.6 km (55.7 mi)
Tamworth 55.7 km (34.6 mi)
Enterprise 50.2 km (31.2 mi)
^
North
Elginburg 10 km (6 mi)
Sydenham 20 km (12 mi)
Westport 50 km (31 mi)
Sharbot Lake 65 km (40 mi)
North East
Ottawa 150 km (93 mi)
Brockville 75 km (47 mi)
< West
Amherstview 12 km (7 mi)
Odessa 14 km (9 mi)
Bath 23 km (14 mi)
Greater Napanee 37 km (23 mi)
Belleville 70 km (43 mi)
KINGSTON
East >
Howe Island 12 km (7 mi)
Gananoque 28 km (17 mi)
Clayton, New York 32 km (20 mi)
Alexandria Bay, New York 47 km (29 mi)
 
Amherst Island 11 km (7 mi)
Picton 58 km (36 mi)
Prince Edward County South West
 
Lake Ontario
Syracuse, New York 134 km (83 mi)


South

Wolfe Island 5 km (3 mi)
Cape Vincent (village), New York 16 km (10 mi)
Watertown, New York 53 km (33 mi)
Jefferson County, New York
South East

Major parks and features nearby[edit]

North West

Sharbot Lake Provincial Park
Bon Echo Provincial Park

Algonquin Provincial Park
^
North

Gould Lake Conservation Area
Frontenac Provincial Park
Holleford crater
Silver Lake Provincial Park
Murphys Point Provincial Park
Trans Canada Trail

Rideau Trail
North East

Charleston Lake Provincial Park

Rideau River Provincial Park
< West
Stoco Fen Provincial Nature Reserve
KINGSTON

Lemoine Point Conservation Area
Lake Ontario Park

Little Cataraqui Creek Conservation Area
East >
St. Lawrence Islands National Park
Lake on the Mountain Provincial Park

Timber Island Provincial Nature Reserve

Sandbanks Provincial Park

South West
Lake Ontario
South
v
Adirondack Park, New York
South East

Sports[edit]

Postcard of the Y.M.C.A. Building in Kingston, Ontario, Canada c. 1908

Hockey[edit]

Although contested, Kingston lays claim to being the birthplace of ice hockey. This is supported by a journal entry of a British Army officer in Kingston in 1843. He wrote "Began to skate this year, improved quickly and had great fun at hockey on the ice.".[37] Kingston is also home to the oldest continuing hockey rivalry in the world by virtue of a game played in 1886 on the frozen Kingston harbour between Queen's University and the Royal Military College of Canada. To mark this event, the city hosts an annual game between the two institutions, played on a cleared patch of frozen lake with both teams wearing period-correct uniforms and using rules from that era. The two schools also contest the annual Carr-Harris Cup, named for Lorne Carr-Harris, under modern competitive conditions to commemorate and continue their rivalry.

The Memorial Cup, which serves as the annual championship event for the Canadian Hockey League, began in 1919 on the initiative of Kingstonian James T. Sutherland. The first championship was held in Kingston. Sutherland, a member of the Hockey Hall of Fame, also helped establish the annual exhibition game between the Royal Military College of Canada and the United States Military Academy (West Point) in 1923.

Kingston is represented in the Ontario Hockey League (OHL) by the Kingston Frontenacs, and in Ontario Junior Hockey League (OJHL) by the Kingston Voyageurs. The Frontenacs General Manager is Kingston native Doug Gilmour.

The International Hockey Hall of Fame, established in 1943 with a building constructed in 1965, is located in Kingston, near the Kingston Memorial Centre (which was opened in 1950). New to the city is the K-Rock Centre, located in the downtown core. The arena opened in February 2008, and serves as home ice for the Frontenacs. The Voyageurs play at the new Invista Centre, located in the city's west end.

Many notable hockey people, National Hockey League (NHL), World Hockey Association (WHA), and other players, coaches and personalities have been associated with Kingston including:

Soccer[edit]

The city is represented in the Canadian Soccer League by Kingston FC. They have both First and Reserve Division teams and have been playing in the CSL since 2012. The team currently plays home games at Queen's University's West Campus Turf Field.

Sailing[edit]

The city is famous for its fresh-water sailing, and hosted the sailing events for the 1976 Summer Olympics. CORK — Canadian Olympic-training Regatta, Kingston — now hosted by CORK/Sail Kingston Inc. is still held every August. Since 1972, Kingston has hosted more than 40[38] World and Olympic sailing championships. Kingston is listed by a panel of experts among the best yacht racing venues in the USA,[39] even though Kingston is, of course, in Canada.

Kingston sits amid excellent cruising and boating territory, with easy access to Lake Ontario, the St. Lawrence River, and the Thousand Islands including the St. Lawrence Islands National Park.

Kingston is also home to the youth sail training ship called the St. Lawrence II.

During the summers, the RMC campus in Kingston plays host to a Royal Canadian Sea Cadets camp called HMCS Ontario, which provides sail training along with lots of other training to youth from across Canada. The Kingston Yacht Club located in downtown Kingston has a learn to sail program for both children and adults.

Diving[edit]

Kingston is a well-known destination for fresh-water wreck diving. Some of Kingston's wrecks can be classed among the best fresh water wrecks in the world. Kingston's shipwrecks are well preserved by its cool fresh water, and the recent zebra mussel invasion has caused a drastic improvement in water clarity that has enhanced the quality of diving in the area.

Golf[edit]

The Kingston area has eight golf courses, two of which are entirely public.[40] The Kingston Golf Club, established in 1884, was a founding member of the Royal Canadian Golf Association in 1895; however, this club ceased operating in the mid-1920s. The first winner of the Canadian Amateur Championship that same year was Kingstonian Thomas Harley, a Scottish immigrant carpenter. Richard H. (Dick) Green, who immigrated to the area from England in the late 1920s, was the longtime club professional for nearly 40 years at Cataraqui Golf and Country Club (founded in 1917 and redesigned by Stanley Thompson in 1930). Green also helped design several courses in eastern Ontario, including Smiths Falls (1949), Glen Lawrence (1955), Rideau Lakes (1961), Amherstview (1971), Garrison (1971), Evergreen (1972), Belle Park Fairways (1975), Rivendell (1979), and Colonnade (1984). Matt McQuillan, a professional player on the PGA Tour for the 2011 and 2012 seasons, was born and raised in Kingston, and developed his game at the Garrison Golf and Curling Club. McQuillan won the 2005 Telus Edmonton Open on the Canadian Professional Golf Tour.

Curling[edit]

Three curling clubs are located in the Kingston area: the Cataraqui Golf & Country Club, Garrison Golf & Curling Club, and the Royal Kingston Curling Club.[41] The Royal Kingston Curling Club (RKCC) was founded in 1820, and was granted Royal patronage in 1993. In 2006, the RKCC moved to a new facility at 130 Days Road, to make way for the construction of a new complex at Queen's University, the Queen's Centre.

Rugby[edit]

The Kingston Panthers Rugby Football Club (KPRFC) was founded in 1959, and from that moment onward has established a reputation as a strong community player. KPRFC is a non-profit organization answering directly to the Eastern Ontario Rugby Union (EORU), the Ontario Rugby Union (ORU), and Rugby Canada (RC). The Kingston Panthers R.F.C, recently celebrated their fortieth anniversary with an EORU championship in the Division 1 championship game at Twin Elm Rugby Park in Ottawa, Ontario.

Football[edit]

The earliest known incarnation of an organized football team in Kingston is the Kingston Granites which played in the predecessor league to the Canadian Football League, the Ontario Rugby Football Union, (ORFU). The team played for four seasons between 1898 and 1901 winning 1 ORFU title in 1899 defeating the Ottawa Rough Riders 8-0. Kingston also hosted the 10th Grey Cup on December 2, 1922. The Limestone Grenadiers now represent Kingston and the surrounding area in the OVFL. The Club franchise catchment area draws players from Frontenac, Hastings, Lanark, Leeds, Lennox and Prince Edward counties. League play runs from late May through August. The Junior and Varsity teams' main schedule pits the Grenadiers against eastern Ontario opponents and cross-over games with western Ontario teams leading to a provincial title championship game. Many notable football people, CFL, NFL players, coaches and personalities have been associated with Kingston including:

Notable residents[edit]

This is a list of notable people who currently live, or have lived in Kingston. This list does not include notable sports players; such people are listed in the sports section.

Media[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ City of Kingston City Hall: Canada's Would-Be First Parliament.
  2. ^ "Statistics Canada 2011 Census for Kingston". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-08. Retrieved 2012-02-09. 
  3. ^ "Statistics Canada 2011 Census for Census Metropolitan Area of Kingston". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-08. Retrieved 2012-02-09. 
  4. ^ a b Armstrong 1973, p.67.
  5. ^ "Chronology of the History of Kingston". Kingston Historical Society. Retrieved 2012-06-28. 
  6. ^ "The Typhus Epidemic 1847". Ontario's Historical Plaques. Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario. Retrieved 24 January 2012. 
  7. ^ "Kingston General Hospital National Historic Site of Canada". Parks Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  8. ^ Quebec History - Cataraqui Retrieved 12 April 2014
  9. ^ Cataraqui Archaeological Research Foundation Retrieved 12 April 2014
  10. ^ All About Canada, Kingston, Ontario-Settlement and Early Days Retrieved 12 April 2014
  11. ^ Histoires de Bâtiment - Naval Historic Sites - Kingston Retrieved 12 April 2014
  12. ^ The Victorian Solder - History and Uniform of the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, 1871 to 1970 Retrieved 2011-09-10
  13. ^ "Internment Camps in Canada during the First and Second World Wars". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  14. ^ "Heritage". Official site. City of Kingston. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  15. ^ "Rideau Canal". World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  16. ^ "Canada". World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  17. ^ Kingston, Directory of Federal Heritage Designations, Parks Canada
  18. ^ [1], Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision
  19. ^ [2], Aboriginal Peoples - Data table
  20. ^ Statistics Canada 2006 Census for Kingston Metropolitan Area
  21. ^ "Kingston Community Profile 2009: A Socio-Demographic Analysis of Kingston,Ontario,Canada". Spckingston.ca. 2009-06-30. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  22. ^ "National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011". Statistics Canada. 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2013-08-29. 
  23. ^ "History of the University". website. Queen's University. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  24. ^ "Next Cities-Canada Version Press Release (PDF, 324 KB)" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  25. ^ McNeill, Murray (2009-07-30). "Delighted to be a 'Pegger". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  26. ^ CMHC (Spring 2012). "Housing Market: Kingston CMA". www.cmhc.ca/housingmarketinformation. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. p. 5. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  27. ^ Kingston Major Employers Retrieved: 2012-02-17
  28. ^ syracuse.com: "New Kingston to Syracuse shuttle targets shoppers, air travelers" 10 Apr 2013
  29. ^ thewhig.com: "Shuttling off to Syracuse" 3 Apr 2013
  30. ^ Fritsche, Alexander. "Kingston’s Tourism Industry". May 21, 2008. KingstonCanada.com. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  31. ^ Kingston WritersFest
  32. ^ "CANOE Travel - Canada - Smartest city in Canada". Travel.canoe.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  33. ^ "Directory of Canadian Universities - RMC". Aucc.ca. 2011-02-25. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  34. ^ "Degree Programs". St. Lawrence College. Retrieved 2009-04-14. 
  35. ^ "Kingston penitentiary closes it's doors", CTV News. Retrieved 2013-09-30
  36. ^ "Kingston A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved September 22, 2013. 
  37. ^ "Hockey night in Kingston". Retrieved June 21, 2006. [dead link]
  38. ^ "List of Major Regattas in Kingston - Kingston , Ontario waterfront". K7waterfront.org. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  39. ^ "Scuttlebutt News Center: Best Racing Venues in the US". Sailingscuttlebutt.com. 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  40. ^ OnGolf.ca - Kingston Golf Courses - Ontario Canada Retrieved 2011-03-02
  41. ^ CurlingRink.ca - Kingston Curling Clubs and Rinks - Kingston, Ontario Retrieved 2011-03-02
Bibliography
  • Adams, Nick.Iroquois Settlement at Fort Frontenac in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries. Ontario Archaeology, No. 46: 4-20. 1986.
  • Armstrong, Alvin. Buckskin to Broadloom - Kingston Grows Up. Kingston Whig-Standard, 1973. No ISBN.
  • Mika, Nick and Helma et al. Kingston, Historic City. Belleville: Mika Publishing Co., 1987. ISBN 0-921341-06-7.
  • Mika, Nick and Helma. Kingston Heritage, Buildings, Monuments, Plaques Belleville: Mika Publishing Co., 1983, 160 pages.
  • Osborne, Brian S. and Donald Swainson. Kingston, Building on the Past for the Future. Quarry Heritage Books, 2011. ISBN 1-55082-351-5
  • Roy, James. Kingston: The King's Town. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1952.

External links[edit]