List of Prime Ministers of Italy

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The Prime Minister of Italy, officially President of the Council of Ministers of Italy, is the political leader of the country since 1861. The Palazzo Chigi in Rome is the official residence of the Prime Minister. While the office is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems, the Italian prime minister has less authority than some of his counterparts. The Prime Minister is not authorized to request the dissolution of the Parliament of Italy or to dismiss ministers, and must receive a vote of approval from the Council of Ministers—which holds effective executive power—to execute most political activities.

The office was established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the current Constitution of Italy. The prime minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election. Commonly referred to in Italy as premier, the right title of the office holder is Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri, or just Presidente del Consiglio. The formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office.

History[edit]

The office was first established in 1848 in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia—although it was not mentioned in the constitution, the Albertine Statute. The candidate for office was appointed by the king, and presided over a very unstable political system. In its first 60 years of existence (1861–1921), Italy changed its prime minister 37 times. Regarding this situation, the first goal of Benito Mussolini, appointed in 1922, was to abolish the Parliament's ability to put him to a vote of no confidence, thus basing his power on the will of the king and the National Fascist Party alone. With the proclamation of the Italian Republic in 1946, the office received constitutional recognition and 25 men assumed the office in 66 years.

Prime Ministers of Italy (1861–present)[edit]

Presidents of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)[edit]

Parties
  • 1861–1900:

      Historical Right       Historical Left

  • 1900–1922:

      Liberal Party       Radical Party       Reform Socialist Party       Military

  • 1922–1943:

      National Fascist Party (sole legal party)

  • 1943–1946:

      Labour Democratic Party       Action Party       Christian Democracy

Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Term of office Political Party Government Legislature
Camillo Benso Cavour di Ciseri.jpg Camillo Benso, Conte di Cavour
(1810–1861)
23 March 1861 6 June 1861† Historical Right Cavour IV VIII (1861)
Previously Prime Minister of Sardinia under Vittorio Emanuele II. A leader of the Italian unification movement, and first Prime Minister of Italy. He had many stressful topics that all needed consideration, including how to create a national military, which legal institutions should be kept for where, the future of Rome, which most still believed must be capital of a united Italy. Cavour wished to incorporate the Papal States and Venetia in the new Italy, but did not live to see either.

†Died in office (stroke). His last words were reportedly L'Italia è fatta, tutto è a posto ("Italy is made. All is safe.").

Bettino Ricasoli.jpg Bettino Ricasoli
(1809–1880)
6 June 1861 3 March 1862 Historical Right Ricasoli I
Previously Minister of the Interior in Tuscany. Unsuccessfully attempted to reconcile with the Holy See. Resigned.
Urbano Rattazzi-lookingleft.jpg Urbano Rattazzi
(1808–1873)
3 March 1862 8 December 1862 Historical Left Rattazzi I
First leftist to become Prime Minister of Italy. He became president of the lower chamber in the first Italian Parliament. Due to his policy of repression towards Garibaldi at Aspromonte, he was driven from office.
Luigi Carlo Farini 1.jpg Luigi Carlo Farini
(1812–1866)
8 December 1862 24 March 1863 Historical Right Farini
Previously a Sardinian minister under Cavour. Farini took office after the reisgnation of Rattazzi. Resigned due to ill health.
Riccio G. - ritratto di Marco Minghetti.jpg Marco Minghetti
(1818–1886)
24 March 1863 28 September 1864 Historical Right Minghetti I
Minister of the Interior under Cavour in the first Italian government. Minghetti concluded the September Convention with France, under which Napoleon III removed all French troops from Rome, and the Italian government was transferred from Turin to Florence. This led to violent protest in Turin, causing Minghetti to resign.
Alfonso Lamarmora.jpg Alfonso Ferrero la Marmora
(1804–1878)
28 September 1864 31 December 1865 Historical Right La Marmora I
31 December 1865 20 June 1866 La Marmora II IX (1865)
He took part in the war of 1859 against the Empire of Austria. In April 1866 La Marmora concluded an alliance with Prussia against Austria-Hungary, and, on the outbreak of the Third Italian War of Independence in June, took command of an army corps.
Bettino Ricasoli.jpg Bettino Ricasoli
(1809–1880)
20 June 1866 10 April 1867 Historical Right Ricasoli II
Upon the departure of the French troops from Rome at the end of 1866 he again attempted to conciliate the Vatican with a convention, in virtue of which Italy would have restored to the Church the property of the suppressed religious orders in return for the gradual payment of 24,000,000. The Vatican accepted his proposal, but the Italian Chamber of Deputies proved refractory, and, though dissolved by Ricasoli, returned more hostile than before. Without waiting for a vote, Ricasoli resigned office and thenceforward practically disappeared from political life.
Urbano Rattazzi-lookingleft.jpg Urbano Rattazzi
(1808–1873)
10 April 1867 27 October 1867 Historical Left Rattazzi II X (1867)
He was re-elected in 1867, from April to October. Popular reaction to his hostility to Garibaldi again drove him from office.
Luigi Federico Menabrea.gif Federico Luigi, Conte Menabrea
(1809–1896)
27 October 1867 5 January 1868 Historical Right Menabrea I
5 January 1868 13 May 1869 Menabrea II
13 May 1869 14 December 1869 Menabrea III
In 1860 he became lieutenant-general and conducted the siege of Gaeta. He was appointed senator and received the title of count. Menabrea disavowed Garibaldi and instituted judicial proceedings against him. After a series of changes in the cabinet, and many crises, Menabrea resigned in December 1869 on the election of a new chamber in which he did not command a majority. He was made marquis of Valdora in 1875.
Giovanni Lanza iii.jpg Giovanni Lanza
(1810–1882)
14 December 1869 10 July 1873 Historical Right Lanza XI (1870)
He took an active part in the rising of 1848 and was elected to the Piedmontese parliament in that year. His cabinet had seen the accomplishment of Italian unity and the installation of an Italian government in Rome after the defeat of the Papal States in late 1870.
Riccio G. - ritratto di Marco Minghetti.jpg Marco Minghetti
(1818–1886)
10 July 1873 25 March 1876 Historical Right Minghetti II XII (1874)
During his premiership he inaugurated the rapprochement between Italy, Austria and Germany, and reformed the naval and military administration; and before his ouster he was able, as finance minister, to balance the State budget for the first time since 1860.
Agostino Depretis.jpg Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
25 March 1876 25 December 1877 Historical Left Depretis I XIII (1876)
26 December 1877 24 March 1878 Depretis II
Upon the death of Rattazzi in 1873, Depretis became leader of the Left. During his cabinet, he thrown out Giuseppe Zanardelli and Alfredo Baccarini in order to please the Right, and subsequently bestowing portfolios upon Cesare Ricotti-Magnani, Robilant and other Conservatives, so as to complete the political process known as trasformismo.
Benedetto Cairoli iii.jpg Benedetto Cairoli
(1825–1889)
24 March 1878 19 December 1878 Historical Left Cairoli I
He permitted the Irredentist agitation to carry the country to the verge of a war with Austria. General irritation was caused by his and Count Corti's policy of clean hands at the Berlin Congress, where Italy obtained nothing, while Austria-Hungary secured a European mandate to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina. A few months later the attempt of Giovanni Passannante to assassinate King Humbert at Naples (12 December 1878) caused his downfall, in spite of the courage displayed and the severe wound received by him in protecting the king's person on that occasion.
Agostino Depretis.jpg Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
19 December 1878 14 July 1879 Historical Left Depretis III
He defeated Benedetto Cairoli in December, becoming Prime Minister, but after few months we was overthrown by Cairoli, who formed a new government with Depretis.
Benedetto Cairoli iii.jpg Benedetto Cairoli
(1825–1889)
14 July 1879 25 November 1879 Historical Left Cairoli II
25 November 1879 29 May 1881 Cairoli III XIV (1880)
On 3 July 1879 Cairoli returned to power, and in the following November formed with Depretis a coalition ministry, in which he retained the premiership and the foreign office. Confidence in French assurances, and belief that Britain would never permit the extension of French influence in North Africa, prevented him from foreseeing the French occupation of Tunis (11 May 1881). In view of popular indignation he resigned in order to avoid making inopportune declarations to the chamber.
Agostino Depretis.jpg Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
29 May 1881 25 May 1883 Historical Left Depretis IV
25 May 1883 30 March 1884 Depretis V XV (1882)
30 March 1884 29 June 1885 Depretis VI
29 June 1885 30 May 1886 Depretis VII
30 May 1886 4 April 1887 Depretis VIII XVI (1886)
4 April 1887 29 July 1887† Depretis IX
During his long term of office he abolished the grist tax, extended suffrage, completed the railway system, aided Mancini in forming the Triple Alliance, and initiated colonial policy by the occupation of Massawa; but, at the same time, he vastly increased indirect taxation, corrupted and destroyed the fibre of parliamentary parties, and, by extravagance in public works, impaired the stability of Italian finance. †Died in office on 29 July 1887.
Francesco Crispi.jpg Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901)
29 July 1887 9 March 1889 Historical Left Crispi I
9 March 1889 6 February 1891 Crispi II XVII (1890)
Crispi was the first Prime Minister from Southern Italy. True to his initial progressive leanings he moved ahead with stalled reforms, abolishing the death penalty, revoking anti-strike laws, limiting police powers, reforming the penal code and the administration of justice with the help of his Minister of Justice Giuseppe Zanardelli, reorganising charities and passing public health laws and legislation to protect emigrants that worked abroad. His desire to make Italy a colonial power led to conflicts with France, which rejected Italian claims to Tunisia and opposed Italian expansion elsewhere in Africa. One of his first acts as premier was a visit to the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, whom he desired to consult upon the working of the Triple Alliance.
Rudini.jpg Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì
(1839–1908)
6 February 1891 15 May 1892 Historical Right Rudinì I
His administration proved vacillating, but it initiated the economic reforms by virtue of which Italian finances were put on a sound basis and also renewed the Triple Alliance. He was overthrown in May 1892.
Giolitti2.jpg Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
15 May 1892 15 December 1893 Historical Left Giolitti I XVIII (1892)
Giolitti's first term as Prime Minister was marked by misfortune and misgovernment. Giolitti's political position, and the ensuing Banca Romana scandal obliged him to resign. His fall left the finances of the state disorganised, the pensions fund depleted, diplomatic relations with France strained in consequence of the massacre of Italian workmen at Aigues-Mortes.
Francesco Crispi.jpg Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901)
15 December 1893 10 March 1896 Historical Left Crispi III XIX (1895)
In the three weeks of uncertainty before Crispi formed a government on 15 December 1893, the rapid spread of violence drove many local authorities to defy Giolitti’s ban on the use of firearms. In December 1893, 92 peasants lost their lives in clashes with the police and army. Government building were burned as well as flour mills and bakeries that refused to lower their prices when taxes were lowered or abolished. Army reservists were recalled and General Roberto Morra di Lavriano was dispatched with 40,000 troops. The repression of the Fasci turned into outright persecution. Crispi’s uncompromising suppression of disorder, and his refusal to abandon either the Triple Alliance or the Eritrean colony, but the humiliating defeat of the Italian army at Adwa in March 1896 in Ethiopia during First Italo-Ethiopian War, brought about his resignation after riots broke out in several Italian towns.
Rudini.jpg Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì
(1839–1908)
10 March 1896 11 July 1896 Historical Right Rudinì II
11 July 1896 14 December 1897 Rudinì III
14 December 1897 1 June 1898 Rudinì IV XX (1897)
1 June 1898 29 June 1898 Rudinì V
He signed the Treaty of Addis Ababa that formally ended the First Italo–Ethiopian War recognizing Ethiopia as an independent country. He endangered relations with Great Britain by the unauthorized publication of confidential diplomatic correspondence in a Green-book on Abyssinian affairs. To satisfy the anti-colonial party, he ceded Kassala to Great Britain. Indignation at the results of his policy left him without support of both the Left – who blamed him for the bloodshed – and the Right – who blamed him for the permissiveness that allegedly had promoted the uprisings and led to his overthrow in June 1898.
Luigi Pelloux.png General Luigi Pelloux
(1839–1924)
29 June 1898 14 May 1899 Military Pelloux I
14 May 1899 24 June 1900 Pelloux II
He took stern measures against the revolutionary elements in southern Italy. The Public Safety Bill for the reform of the police laws, taken over by him from the Rudinì cabinet, and eventually promulgated by royal decree. The new coercive law was fiercely obstructed by the Socialist Party of Italy (PSI), which, with the Left and Extreme Left, succeeded in forcing General Pelloux to dissolve the Chamber in May 1900, and to resign office after the general election in June.
Giuseppe Saracco.gif Giuseppe Saracco
(1821–1907)
24 June 1900 15 February 1901 Liberals Saracco XXI (1900)
In June 1900 he succeeded in forming a Cabinet of pacification after the Obstructionist crisis which had caused the downfall of General Pelloux. His term of office was clouded by the assassination of King Umberto (29 July 1900), and his administration was brought to an end in February 1901 by a vote of the chamber condemning his weak attitude towards a general dock strike at Genoa.
Giuseppe Zanardelli iii.jpg Giuseppe Zanardelli
(1826–1903)
15 February 1901 3 November 1903 Liberals Zanardelli
Zanardelli was unable to achieve much during his last term of office, as his health was greatly impaired. His Divorce Bill, although voted in the Chamber of Deputies, had to be withdrawn on account of the strong opposition of the country. He retired from the administration on 21 November 1903.
Giolitti2.jpg Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
3 November 1903 12 March 1905 Liberals Giolitti II XXII (1904)
He courted the left and labour unions with social legislation, including subsidies for low-income housing, preferential government contracts for worker cooperatives, and old age and disability pensions. However, he, too, had to resort to strong measures in repressing some serious disorders in various parts of Italy, and thus he lost the favour of the Socialists. In March 1905, feeling himself no longer secure, he resigned, indicating Alessandro Fortis as his successor.
Tommaso Tittoni 01.jpg Tommaso Tittoni
(1855–1931)
12 March 1905 28 March 1905 Liberals Tittoni
Ater the resignation of Giolitti in March 1905, Tittoni became interim Premier for a few days and remained in Alessandro Fortis's cabinet as Foreign Minister.
Alessandro Fortis.jpg Alessandro Fortis
(1842–1909)
28 March 1905 24 December 1905 Liberals Fortis I
24 December 1905 8 February 1906 Fortis II
With Giolitti, Fortis formed his government, but after less than a year he was forced to resign.
Sidney sonnino.jpg Sidney Sonnino
(1847–1922)
8 February 1906 29 May 1906 Liberals Sonnino I
During his short cabinet Sonnino formed an alliance with France on the colonial espansion in North Africa. His government lasted only few months.
Giolitti2.jpg Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
29 May 1906 11 December 1909 Liberals Giolitti III
Many critics accused Giolitti of manipulating the elections, piling up majorities with the restricted suffrage at the time, using the prefects just as his contenders. However, he did refine the practice in the elections of 1904 and 1909 that gave the liberals secure majorities.
Sidney sonnino.jpg Sidney Sonnino
(1847–1922)
11 December 1909 31 March 1910 Liberals Sonnino II XXIII (1909)
After a vote of confidence on transports Sonnino resigns.
Luigi Luzzatti.jpg Luigi Luzzatti
(1841–1927)
31 March 1910 30 March 1911 Liberals Luzzatti
His administration, which lasted until 18 March 1911, was not very successful. Although a man of first-class financial ability, great honesty and wide culture, he had not the strength of character necessary to lead a government: he showed lack of energy in dealing with opposition and tried to avoid all measures likely to make him unpopular. Furthermore, he never realised that with the chamber, as it was then constituted, he only held office at Giolitti's good pleasure.
Giolitti2.jpg Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
30 March 1911 21 March 1914 Liberals Giolitti IV
XXIV (1913)
During this time, he bowed to nationalist pressure and fought the controversial Italo-Turkish War which made Libya an Italian colony. In 1912, Giolitti had the parliament approve an electoral reform bill that expanded the electorate from 3 million to 8.5 million voters – introducing near universal male suffrage – while commenting that first "teaching everyone to read and write" would have been a more reasonable route. Considered his most daring political move, the reform probably hastened the end of the Giolittian Era because his followers controlled fewer seats after the elections of 1913.
Antonio Salandra.png Antonio Salandra
(1853–1931)
21 March 1914 5 November 1914 Liberals Salandra I
5 November 1914 18 June 1916 Salandra II
As choice of Giolitti, Salandra came in power in March 1914. However, he soon fell out with Giolitti over the question of Italian participation in World War I. While Giolitti supported neutrality, Salandra and his foreign minister, Sidney Sonnino, supported intervention on the side of the Allies, and secured Italy's entrance into the war despite the opposition of the majority in parliament. Following the success of an Austrian offensive from the Trentino in the spring of 1916, Salandra was forced to resign.
Paolo Boselli.jpg Paolo Boselli
(1838–1932)
18 June 1916 29 October 1917 Liberals Boselli
In June 1916 he was a relatively undistinguished center-right politician and one the oldest members of the Italian parliament, when he was appointed Prime Minister, following the collapse of the Salandra government as a result of military defeats. His government fell in October 1917 as a result of the Italian military defeat in the Battle of Caporetto.
VittorioEmanuelleOrlando28379v cropped.jpg Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
(1860–1952)
23 October 1917 23 June 1919 Liberals Orlando
After the Italian military disaster in World War I at Caporetto on 25 October 1917, which led to the fall of the Boselli government, Orlando became Prime Minister, and continued in that role through the rest of the war. He had been a strong supporter of Italy's entry in the war. Orlando was encouraged in his support of the Allies because of secret promises made by the latter promising significant Italian territorial gains in Dalmatia (at the 1915 London Pact). The Italians later won the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in November 1918, a feat that coincided with the collapse of Austro-Hungarian Army and the end of the First World War on the Italian Front, as well as the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The fact that Italy recovered and ended up on the winning side in 1918 earned for Orlando the title "Premier of Victory." He was the head of the Italian delegation at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. His political position was seriously undermined by his failure to secure Italian interests at the Paris Peace Conference. Orlando resigned on 23 June 1919, following his inability to acquire Fiume for Italy in the peace settlement. In December 1919 he was elected president of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, but never again served as prime minister.
Francesco Saverio Nitti.jpg Francesco Saverio Nitti
(1868–1953)
23 June 1919 21 May 1920 Radical Party Nitti I XXV (1919)
21 May 1920 15 June 1920 Nitti II
Nitti had great difficulty keeping the administration functioning at all, thanks to the enmity between the extremely divergent political factions: the communists, anarchists and fascists. After less than a year as head of government, he resigned, and was succeeded by the veteran Giolitti on 16 June 1920.
Giolitti2.jpg Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
15 June 1920 4 July 1921 Liberals Giolitti V
He became Prime Minister for the last time from 1920–1921 during Italy's "red years", when workers’ occupation of factories increased the fear of a communist takeover led the political establishment to tolerate the rise of the fascists of Benito Mussolini. Giolitti enjoyed the support of the fascist squadristi and did not try to stop their forceful takeovers of city and regional government or their violence against their political opponents.
Ivanoe Bonomi portrait.png Ivanoe Bonomi
(1873–1951)
4 July 1921 26 February 1922 Reform Socialist Party Bonomi I XXVI (1921)
He became Prime Minister of Italy for the first time, in a coalition government. Early in 1922, his government collapsed, and he was replaced as Prime Minister by Luigi Facta.
FACTA Luigi.gif Luigi Facta
(1861–1930)
26 February 1922 1 August 1922 Liberal Party Facta I
1 August 1922 31 October 1922 Facta II
Facta was appointed Prime Minister in February 1922. At the time, Italy was in political turmoil, and was dealing with Benito Mussolini's fascist insurgency. Facta did not openly oppose Mussolini, even though the latter had openly called for his resignation, and he was slow to react to insurrectionist attitudes within the population. When Facta did finally react to the mounting situation, it was to declare martial law.
Mussolini biografia.jpg Benito Mussolini
(1883–1945)
(Head of the Government and
Duce
of Fascism
from 1925)
31 October 1922 25 July 1943 National Fascist Party Mussolini
XXVII (1924)
XXVIII (1929)
XXIX (1934)
XXX ( •••• )
Mussolini is the longest-service Prime Minister of Italy. Mussolini took the power with the March on Rome on October 1922. The first years of Mussolini's government were characterized by violence, repression and murders. In 1924 he nominated himself Duce. Mussolini's foremost priority was the subjugation of the minds of the Italian people and the use of propaganda to do so. Press, radio, education, films, all were carefully supervised to create the impression that fascism was the doctrine of the twentieth century, replacing liberalism and democracy. A lavish cult of personality centered on Mussolini was promoted by the regime. In 1929, Mussolini signed with the Holy See the Lateran Treaty. In 1936 Mussolini founded the Italian Empire after the winning of the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. In 1939 signed the Pact of Steel with Nazi Germany of Adolf Hitler. With Mussolini, Italy entered in the World War II in 1940 with the Axis Powers; but after three years the Allies invaded Italy and Mussolini was forced to resign, and was imprisoned by the King on Gran Sasso in Abruzzo. Rescued by the Nazis, the dictator reorganised his forces in the north of Italy, at the head of a puppet-state, called Italian Social Republic. In 1945, after two years of fighting, the Allies broke through the Gothic Line in Northern Italy. After few days Mussolini was captured by Italian partisans and executed on 24 April.
Pbadoglio.jpg Marshal Pietro Badoglio
(1871–1956)
25 July 1943 17 April 1944 Military Badoglio I Constitutional Transition
22 April 1944 18 June 1944 Badoglio II
Badoglio was appointed after the arrest of Mussolini. On 8 September the armistice document was published by the Allies in the Badoglio Proclamation. It was published before Badoglio could communicate news of the switch to the Italian armed forces. All the units of the forces were generally surprised by the switch and unprepared for German actions to disarm them. In the early hours of 9 September, Badoglio, King Victor Emmanuel III, some military ministries, and the Chief of the General Staff escaped to Pescara and Brindisi seeking Allied protection. Following the German rescued of Mussolini, the liberation of Rome, and increasingly strong opposition, he was replaced on 9 June 1944 by Ivanoe Bonomi.
Ivanoe Bonomi portrait.png Ivanoe Bonomi
(1873–1951)
18 June 1944 10 December 1944 Labour Democratic Party Bonomi II
12 December 1944 19 June 1945 Bonomi III
He led Italy as the country was being gained from the Fascist Italian Social Republic and the Nazi German occupiers, and helped the country's transition to democracy. He remained Prime Minister until 1945, by which time World War II in Europe had ended, and stayed active in the Italian government after that moment, serving on the Constituent Assembly's committee on treaties, and also representing Italy in councils of foreign ministers until 1946.
Ferruccio Parri.jpg Ferruccio Parri
(1890–1981)
21 June 1945 8 December 1945 Action Party Parri
He was appointed leader of a government supported, among the others, by the Action Party, the Christian Democracy, the Communist Party, the Socialist Party and the Liberal Party. A middle-of-the-road man, he had been chosen as the compromise leader of a compromise Cabinet. He was also the Minister of the Interior (in charge of the police). When the Liberals withdrew their support from the coalition government, Parri resigned from his position.
Alcide de Gasperi 2.jpg Alcide De Gasperi
(1881–1954)
10 December 1945 10 July 1946 Christian Democracy De Gasperi I
Last Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy. In December 1945, he took the power for the first time, leading a coalition government that included the Italian Communist Party and Italian Socialist Party. Communist party leader Palmiro Togliatti acted as vice-premier. He tried soften the terms of the pending Allied peace treaty with Italy and secured financial and economic aid through the European Recovery Program (Marshal Plan), which was opposed by the Communists.

Presidents of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (1946–present)[edit]

Parties
  • 1946–1993:

      Christian Democracy       Republican Party       Socialist Party       Independent

  • Since 1994:

      Forza Italia/The People of Freedom       The Olive Tree       Democrats of the Left       Democratic Party

Coalitions

      DC coalition       CdL/PdL coalition       Ulivo/Unione       Grand coalition

Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Term of office Political Party Government Composition Legislature
Alcide de Gasperi.jpg Alcide De Gasperi
(1881–1954)
10 July 1946 2 February 1947 Christian Democracy De Gasperi II DC-PSI-PCI-PRI Const.
(1946)
2 February 1947 31 May 1947 De Gasperi III DC-PSI-PCI
31 May 1947 23 May 1948 De Gasperi IV DC-PSDI-PLI-PRI
23 May 1948 27 January 1950 De Gasperi V I (1948)
27 January 1950 26 July 1951 De Gasperi VI DC-PSDI-PRI
26 July 1951 16 July 1953 De Gasperi VII DC-PRI
16 July 1953 17 August 1953 De Gasperi VIII DC II (1953)
His eight-year rule remains a landmark of political longevity for one leader in modern Italian politics. During his successive governments Italy became a Republic (1946), signed a Peace Treaty with the Allies (1947), a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949 and an ally of the United States, which helped to revive the Italian economy through the Marshall Plan. In the same years, Italy also became a member of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which eventually transformed into the European Union (EU). One his most striking achievements in foreign policy was the Gruber-De Gasperi Agreement with Austria in September 1946 that established his home region, southern Tirol, as an autonomous region. When the Christian Democrats did not gain a majority in the elections of 1953, De Gasperi was unable to establish a workable government and was forced to resign as Prime Minister. The following year he also had to give up the leadership of the party.
Giuseppe Pella.jpg Giuseppe Pella
(1902–1981)
17 August 1953 12 January 1954 Christian Democracy Pella DC and Independents
After the political crisis caused by the failure of the Cheat Law, Pella was appointed Prime Minister in a deliberately provisional government. Pella gained further critics when, by issuing nationalistic declarations, he created strife with Josip Tito regarding the Free Territory of Trieste. Pella resigned on 12 January 1954.
Amintore Fanfani.jpg Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
18 January 1954 8 February 1954 Christian Democracy Fanfani I DC
Fanfani's I cabinet lasted only 21 days when it failed to win approval in the Parliament; it is one of the shortest government in the history of Italian politics.
Mario Scelba.jpg Mario Scelba
(1901–1991)
10 February 1954 6 July 1955 Christian Democracy Scelba DC-PSDI-PLI
He sought strong relations with the United States and helped resolve outstanding wartime issues like the recovery of Trieste for Italy and pushed through the Paris Peace Treaties of 1947 with the wartime Allied powers. Scelba's fall was accomplished by his own party, due to political manoeuvring of party rivals like former Premier Giuseppe Pella and party Secretary Amintore Fanfani. His chief regret, said Scelba, was that he had been overthrown not by a parliamentary vote but by party manoeuvring.
Antonio Segni.jpg Antonio Segni
(1891–1972)
6 July 1955 15 May 1957 Christian Democracy Segni I DC-PSDI-PLI
During Segni’s government the treaties instituting the European Economic Community (EEC) were signed on 25 March 1957, and Italy co-founded the community.
Adone Zoli-1.jpg Adone Zoli
(1887–1960)
19 May 1957 1 July 1958 Christian Democracy Zoli DC
Zoli, an anti-fascist, resigned the post of Prime Minister soon after it became clear that he would have needed to rely on the votes of the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement to form a majority in the Parliament. He was then convinced by President of the Republic, Giovanni Gronchi, to remain in the post until the natural dissolution of the Italian Parliament in 1958. Zoli was the sole Italian Senator in office to become Prime Minister.
Amintore Fanfani.jpg Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
1 July 1958 15 February 1959 Christian Democracy Fanfani II DC-PSDI III (1958)
He became head of government again from July 1958 to January 1959, when his steamroller tactics lost him the support of his own Christian Democratic colleagues. He learned from the experience, and became wiser in the ways of cooperating and compromising. He had been a leading proponent of such an "opening to the centre-left" for years.
Antonio Segni.jpg Antonio Segni
(1891–1972)
15 February 1959 23 March 1960 Christian Democracy Segni II DC
Politically, Segni was a moderate conservative opposed to "opening to the centre-left" enabling coalition governments between the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and the Christian Democrats. Segni was later accused of having tried to instigate a coup d'état (known as Piano Solo) along with General Giovanni De Lorenzo to frustrate the opening to the left.
Fernando Tambroni-1.jpg Fernando Tambroni
(1882–1963)
25 March 1960 26 July 1960 Christian Democracy Tambroni DC
Tambroni's politics soon appeared strongly right-wing: having abandoned the alliance with the Italian Socialist Party, he was elected with votes coming also from the post-fascist Italian Social Movement. On 21 May 1960, a street assembly led by the communist leader was stopped by police, with the support of the government. This caused a series of riots. On 30 June 1960, a large demonstration summoned by the left-wing CGIL trade union and by other democratic forces in the streets of Genoa was heavily suppressed by the Italian police. Then Tambroni was forced to resign.
Amintore Fanfani.jpg Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
26 July 1960 21 February 1962 Christian Democracy Fanfani III DC
21 February 1962 21 June 1963 Fanfani IV DC-PSDI-PRI
Fanfani become Prime Minister again and securing the support of the Italian Socialist Party (Italian: Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI), thus involving the centre-left in Italian politics. In February 1962 he reorganised his cabinet and gained the benign abstention of the PSI leader Pietro Nenni. But he was too powerful to be allowed to be the Prime Minister of the first such government which actually included the Socialists in the coalition of the 1963 government that was headed by Aldo Moro.
Leone303.jpg Giovanni Leone
(1908–2001)
21 June 1963 4 December 1963 Christian Democracy Leone I DC IV (1963)
A member of the right-wing faction of his party, he was elected to the Italian Chamber of Deputies in 1948, being confirmed until 1963. In 1955–1963 he was also President of the Chamber, from which he resigned for a brief stint as Premier.
Aldo Moro headshot.jpg Aldo Moro
(1916–1978)
4 December 1963 22 July 1964 Christian Democracy Moro I DC-PSI-PSDI-PRI
22 July 1964 23 February 1966 Moro II
23 February 1966 24 June 1968 Moro III
In 1963 he was nominated Prime Minister of Italy for the first time. His government was unevenly supported by the DC, but also by the Italian Socialist Party, along with the minor Italian Republican Party and Italian Democratic Socialist Party. The centre-left coalition, a first for the Italian post-war political panorama, stayed in power until the 1968 general elections. His 3rd cabinet (1966–68) stayed in power for 833 days, a record for Italy's so-called "First Republic".
Leone303.jpg Giovanni Leone
(1908–2001)
24 June 1968 12 December 1968 Christian Democracy Leone II DC V (1968)
Leone formed a transitionary government and remained in power for few months since the 1968 elections.
Mariano Rumor-1.jpg Mariano Rumor
(1915–1990)
12 December 1968 5 August 1969 Christian Democracy Rumor I DC-PSI-PSDI-PRI
5 August 1969 27 March 1970 Rumor II DC
27 March 1970 6 August 1970 Rumor III DC-PSI-PSDI-PRI
During Rumor's cabinets had been approved the Worker's Status and the creation of new Regions.
Colombo7779.jpg Emilio Colombo
(1920–2013)
6 August 1970 17 February 1972 Christian Democracy Colombo DC-PSI-PSDI-PRI
During his ministry led on several occasions important ministerial departments such as Treasury, Finance, Budget and Foreign.
Andreotti 1991.jpg Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
17 February 1972 26 June 1972 Christian Democracy Andreotti I DC
26 June 1972 7 July 1973 Andreotti II DC-PSDI-PLI VI (1972)
In his two consecutive centre-right cabinets, Andreotti strengthened the alliance with NATO.
Mariano Rumor-1.jpg Mariano Rumor
(1915–1990)
26 July 1973 14 March 1974 Christian Democracy Rumor IV DC-PSI-PSDI-PRI
14 March 1974 23 November 1974 Rumor V DC-PSI-PSDI
Rumor was re-elected Prime Minister in 1973, but after a year because of students and workers protests and the riot due to the 1974 divorce referendum, Rumor was forced to resign.
Aldo Moro headshot.jpg Aldo Moro
(1916–1978)
23 November 1974 12 February 1976 Christian Democracy Moro IV DC-PRI
12 February 1976 29 July 1976 Moro V DC
In 1974–1976 he re-gained the post of Prime Minister of Italy, and concluded the Osimo Treaty with Yugoslavia, defining the official partition of the Free Territory of Trieste. In 1976 he was elected President of the DC National Council.
Andreotti 1991.jpg Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
29 July 1976 11 March 1978 Christian Democracy Andreotti III DC VII (1976)
11 March 1978 20 March 1979 Andreotti IV
20 March 1979 4 August 1979 Andreotti V DC-PSDI-PRI
After the 1976 elections, Moro and Fanfani, with a proposal to bring forward the so-called "historic compromise", a political pact proposed by Moro which would see a government coalition between DC and PCI for the first time. Andreotti was called in to lead the first experiment in that direction: his new cabinet, formed in July 1976, included only DC members but had the indirect support of the other parties, except the post-fascist Movimento Sociale Italiano. This support was based on the so-called non-sfiducia ("non-challenge"), meaning that these parties would abstain in any confidence vote. Another cabiner was formed on 16 March 1978, the day on which Aldo Moro was kidnapped by the communist terrorist group the Red Brigades. The dramatic situation which followed brought PCI to vote for Andreotti's cabinet for the sake of what was called "national solidarity", despite its refusal to accept several previous requests.Andreotti's role during the kidnapping of Moro is controversial. He refused any negotiation with the terrorists, and was sharply criticised for this by Moro's family and by a segment of public opinion. Moro, during his imprisonment, wrote a statement expressing very harsh judgements against Andreotti. Moro was killed by the Red Brigades in May 1978. After his death, Andreotti continued as Prime Minister of the "National Solidarity" government with the support of the PCI. Laws approved during his tenure include the reform of the Italian National Health Service.
Cossiga Francesco.jpg Francesco Cossiga
(1928–2010)
4 August 1979 4 April 1980 Christian Democracy Cossiga I DC-PSDI-PLI VIII (1979)
4 April 1980 18 October 1980 Cossiga II DC-PSI-PRI
During his ministry Cossiga signed pacts with the German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt. He resign after less than two years since he was appointed the first time.
Forlani.jpg Arnaldo Forlani
(1925– )
18 October 1980 28 June 1981 Christian Democracy Forlani DC-PSI-PSDI-PRI
As Prime Minister he had to deal with corruption scandals within his party, an earthquake in southern Italy and a renewed bout of left-wing terrorism. He was known as an unflamboyant politician who attempted to stay out of the factionalism in his party. During his presidency, the list of who belonged to the secret lodge P2 was published. However, the lateness with which they were published gained Forlani heavy criticism. He was therefore compelled to resign from the position. With his resignation, the unbroken line since 1945of DC Prime Ministers came to an end.
Giovanni Spadolini.jpg Giovanni Spadolini
(1925–1994)
28 June 1981 23 August 1982 Italian Republican Party Spadolini I DC-PSI-PSDI-PRI-PLI
23 August 1982 1 December 1982 Spadolini II
First not-DC post-war Prime Minister. In 1982 Spadolini was forced to resign because of the leader of the Socialist Party Bettino Craxi deprived the government of his support.
Amintore Fanfani.jpg Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
1 December 1982 4 August 1983 Christian Democracy Fanfani V DC-PSI-PSDI-PLI
From 1982 to 1983, Fanfani was Prime Minister for the fifth time. He continued his policy to closer Christian Democrats with Socialists and Communists.
Bettino Craxi-1.jpg Bettino Craxi
(1934–2000)
4 August 1983 1 August 1986 Italian Socialist Party Craxi I DC-PSI-PRI-PSDI-PLI IX (1983)
1 August 1986 17 April 1987 Craxi II
During Craxi's tenure as Prime Minister, Italy became the fifth largest industrial nation and gained entry into the G7. Inflation was however often in the two-digits, and this was dealt with eliminating a wage-price increase link known as scala mobile ("escalator"); under this system, wages had been increased automatically depending on inflation. Abolishing the system did help reduce inflation, which was falling in other major countries as well, but inevitably increased strikes in the long term, as workers had to bargain for better salaries. In any case, the victory of the "No" front in the referendum called by the Italian Communist Party was also a major victory for Craxi. As a result of his spending policies, the Italian national debt skyrocketed during the Craxi era, passing 100% of the gross national product. After four years of government due to the Mani Pulite's investigation on the corruption scandals in the government coalition and the people's protests, Craxi was forced to resign in 1987 and came out of politics in 1992.
Amintore Fanfani.jpg Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
17 April 1987 28 July 1987 Christian Democracy Fanfani VI DC and independents
From April to July 1987, he was Prime Minister of Italy for the sixth time. Fanfani was elected to the prestigious post of chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Senate from 1994–1996.
Giovanni Goria.jpg Giovanni Goria
(1943–1994)
28 July 1987 13 April 1988 Christian Democracy Goria DC-PSI-PRI-PSDI-PLI X (1987)
After less than a year in power, Goria resigned in 1993 during a corruption scandal which ruined his party. Goria himself was charged with corruption.
Luigi Ciriaco de Mita.jpg Ciriaco De Mita
(1928– )
13 April 1988 22 July 1989 Christian Democracy De Mita DC-PSI-PRI-PLI
De Mita served as Prime Minister for a year, maintaining the party chairmanship. At the beginning of that service, on 16 April 1988, in Forlì, Red Brigades killed Senator Roberto Ruffilli, an advisor of De Mita.
Andreotti 1991.jpg Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
22 July 1989 12 April 1991 Christian Democracy Andreotti VI DC-PSI-PRI-PSDI-PLI
12 April 1991 24 June 1992 Andreotti VII DC-PSI-PSDI-PLI
In 1992, at the end of the legislature, Andreotti resigned as Prime Minister. The previous year, Cossiga had appointed him senator for life. He run for the seat of President of Italy, but he was defeated bt Oscar Luigi Scalfaro. Due to the impeachment of Mani Pulite, Andreotti resigned. He was the last Christian Democratic Prime Minister of Italy.
Giuliano Amato - Festival Economia 2013.JPG Giuliano Amato
(1938– )
28 June 1992 28 April 1993 Italian Socialist Party Amato I DC-PSI-PLI-PSDI XI (1992)
During those ten months, a series of corruption scandals rocked Italy and swept away almost an entire class of political leaders. Amato himself was never implicated, notwithstanding how close he was to Bettino Craxi, a central figure in the corruption system. As Prime Minister, Amato responded effectively to two devaluations of the lira in the wake of currency speculation that led Italy to be expelled from the European Monetary System by cutting the budget deficit drastically, thus taking the first steps in the road that would bring Italy to adopt the Euro.
Ciampi ritratto.jpg Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
(1920– )
28 April 1993 10 May 1994 Independent Ciampi DC-PSI-PDS-PLI-PSDI-FdV
Ciampi led a coalition government supported by most of the parties in the Parliament. His government continued the reforms to adopt Euro. Ciampi was the last Prime Minister of the First Republic.
Berlusconi-2010-1.jpg Silvio Berlusconi
(1936– )
10 May 1994 17 January 1995 Forza Italia Berlusconi I PdL-PdBG
(FI-LN-AN-CCD-UdC)
XII (1994)
Berlusconi is the first Prime Minister of the so-called "Second Republic". He launched a massive campaign of electoral advertisements on his three TV networks. He subsequently won the elections, with Forza Italia garnering 21% of the popular vote, the highest percentage of any single party. He was appointed Prime Minister in 1994, but his term in office was short because of the inherent contradictions in his coalition: the Lega Nord, a regional party with a strong electoral base in northern Italy, was at that time fluctuating between federalist and positions, and the National Alliance was a nationalist party that had yet to renounce neo-fascism at the time. After losing majority, Berlusconi was forced to resign.
Lamberto dini.jpg Lamberto Dini
(1931– )
17 January 1995 17 May 1996 Independent Dini Independents
(supported by
PDS, PSI, FdV, Net, CS, LN)
In January 1995, Dini was appointed Prime Minister by President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro. Dini also took the portfolio for treasury in the cabinet and was a non-elected Prime Minister and minister. Though he was not noted as a left-winger, he was given the confidence vote of the left-wing parties (apart from the Communist Refoundation) and by Lega Nord, whereas his erstwhile partners in the right-wing government chose to abstain whilst citing benevolence. In theory, his cabinet was a technocratic one.
Romano Prodi in Nova Gorica (2c).jpg Romano Prodi
(1939– )
17 May 1996 21 October 1998 The Olive Tree Prodi I Ulivo (PDS-PPI-RI-FdV-UD) XIII (1996)
Prodi's programme consisted in continuing the past governments' work of restoration of the country's economic health, in order to pursue the then seemingly unreachable goal of leading the country within the strict European Monetary System parameters and make the country join the Euro currency. He succeeded in this in little more than six months. His government fell in 1998 when the Communist Refoundation Party withdrew its support. This led to the formation of a new government led by Massimo D'Alema as Prime Minister. There are those who claim that D'Alema deliberately engineered the collapse of the Prodi government to become Prime Minister himself. As the result of a vote of no confidence in Prodi's government, D'Alema's nomination was passed by a single vote.
Massimo D Alema - Prato 1 - resize, head.jpg Massimo D'Alema
(1949– )
21 October 1998 22 December 1999 Democrats of the Left D'Alema I Ulivo
(DS-PPI-RI-SDI-FdV-PdCI-UDR)
22 December 1999 25 April 2000 D'Alema II
First former Communist to become Prime Minister of a NATO country. In 1998, succeeding Romano Prodi, he became Prime Minister, as the leader of The Olive Tree centre-left coalition. While D'Alema was Prime Minister, Italy took part in the NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1999. The attack was supported by Silvio Berlusconi and the centre-right opposition, but the far left strongly contested it. In the internal life of his party, mostly during its transition from PCI to PDS, D'Alema stressed that its roots in Marxism should be renovated, with the aim to create a modern European social-democratic party.
Giuliano Amato - Festival Economia 2013.JPG Giuliano Amato
(1938– )
25 April 2000 11 June 2001 The Olive Tree Amato II Ulivo (DS-PPI-Dem-FdV-PdCI-UDEUR-RI-SDI)
Amato promoted economic competitiveness as well as social protection. In addition to economic reforms, he pushed ahead with political and institutional reforms, trying to deal with a weak executive and fragmented legislature.
Berlusconi-2010-1.jpg Silvio Berlusconi
(1936– )
11 June 2001 23 April 2005 Forza Italia Berlusconi II CdL
(FI-AN-LN-UDC-NPSI-PRI)
XIV (2001)
23 April 2005 17 May 2006 Berlusconi III
Berlusconi is the longest-serving post-war Prime Minister of Italy. Berlusconi II cabinet is the longest one in the history of Italian Republic. Berlusconi's governments were characterized by an economic immobilisation and also by many attempts to reform Italian Constitution and attacks to the freedom (Editto Bulgaro). After five years of Berlusconi Italy was at the on the last places of the Freedom of the press index in Europe. Berlusconi attributed the widespread failure to recognise these achievements to a campaign of mystification and vilification in the printed media, asserting that 85% of newspapers were opposed to him. During his cabinet he approved reforms to undertake tax simplification and to reduce crime. In 2001 Berlusconi supported the War in Afghanistan and in 2003 the Invasion of Iraq with a massive deployment of troops. During his governments Berlusconi fostered friendship with Putin's Russia and Gaddafi's Libya, and for these he was criticised by the opposition.
Romano Prodi in Nova Gorica (2c).jpg Romano Prodi
(1939– )
17 May 2006 8 May 2008 The Olive Tree Prodi II Unione (DS-DL-PRC-RnP-PdCI-IdV-FdV-UDEUR) XV (2006)
On 18 May 2006 Prodi laid out some sense of his new foreign policy when he pledged to withdraw Italian troops from Iraq and called the Iraq war a "grave mistake that has not solved but increased the problem of security". In his earlier months as PM, Prodi had a key role in the creation of a multinational peacekeeping force in Lebanon following the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. Prodi's government faced a crisis over policies in early 2007, after just nine months of government. Three ministers in Prodi's Cabinet boycotted a vote in January to continue funding for Italian troop deployments in Afghanistan. Lawmakers approved the expansion of the US military base Caserma Ederle at the end of January, but the victory was so narrow that Deputy Prime Minister Francesco Rutelli criticised members of the coalition who had not supported the government. At around the same time, Justice Minister Clemente Mastella, of the coalition member UDEUR Populars, said he would rather see the government fall than support its unwed couples legislation. After two years since his election, Prodi was forced to resign, after losing the majority in Senate.
Berlusconi-2010-1.jpg Silvio Berlusconi
(1936– )
8 May 2008 16 November 2011 The People of Freedom Berlusconi IV PdL-LN-MpA XVI (2008)
Berlusconi IV cabinet is the second longest in history of the Italian Republic. After the 2008 elctions Berlusconi gained a large majority. During his government, he continued the relationships between Russia, Libya and the United States. In April 2009 Berlusconi's government must faced the disaster of the earthquake in L'Aquila which caused the death of more than 300 people; the emergency management and the award of contracts for the rebuilding was strongly criticized by the centre-left opposition and the public opinion. In 2009 Berlusconi was hit in the face with an alabaster statuette of Milan Cathedral after a rally in Milan's Piazza del Duomo. Berlusconi was accused to restrict the freedom, in fact while he was in power his government approved some gag laws against freedom of information, including one against Wikipedia. In 2011 a part of the PdL, led by the President of the Chamber of Deputies Gianfranco Fini split from the coalition government, creating a new party called Future and Freedom; the government was near collapse. In 2011, after people's protests and riots, sexual scandals and debt crisis, Berlusconi was forced to resign. As he arrived at the Quirinal Palace, a hostile crowd gathered with banners shouting insults at Berlusconi and throwing coins at the car. After his resignation, the booing and jeering continued as he left in his convoy, with the public shouting words such as "buffoon", "dictator" and "mafioso".
Il Presidente del Consiglio incaricato Mario Monti (cropped).jpg Mario Monti
(1943– )
16 November 2011 28 April 2013 Independent Monti Independent
(supported by
PdL, PD, UDC, FLI)
Monti led a technocratic government. On 4 December 2011, Monti's government introduced emergency austerity measures intended to stem the worsening economic conditions in Italy and restore market confidence, especially after rising Italian government bond yields began to threaten Italy's financial stability. The austerity package called for increased taxes, pension reform and measures to fight tax evasion. Monti's government tried to modify Article 18 of the Italian Work Law (Statuto dei Lavoratori), which is about workers' rights, causing several protests. On the 8 December 2012, after losing his majority due to the PdL, Monti announced his resignation, and he officially resigns on the 21 December after the approval of the Stability Pact by the Parliament. He founded Civic Choice party and ran to 2013 general elections as leader of a center coalition. Monti continued to be Prime Minister until 28 April 2013, when a huge government coalition was formed.
Enrico Letta 2013.jpg Enrico Letta
(1966– )
28 April 2013 22 February 2014 Democratic Party Letta PD-NCD-SC-PI
Independent
XVII (2013)
Letta received from the President Giorgio Napolitano, on 24 April 2013 the task of forming a new government, after weeks of deadlock following the 2013 general election. On 27 April 2013, Letta formally accepted the task of heading a new grand coalition government, the first one in the history of the Republic, with support from his party, the right-wing People of Freedom and the centrist Civic Choice. The government's proposals were the abolition of annuities of politicians, the easing of austerity measures imposed by the government of Mario Monti and to give assurance and credibility to the Italian politics. During the swearing ceremony, a man shot outside Palazzo Chigi and wounded two Carabinieri and a bystander. On November 2013 Silvio Berlusconi announced the reborn of Forza Italia, in opposition to the government. A group of more than sixty deputies of PdL, led by the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior Angelino Alfano, founded on 17 November a political force named New Centre-Right in support of the Letta Cabinet. On 13 February 2014, following tensions with his left-wing rival Matteo Renzi, Letta announced he would resign as Prime Minister the following day.
Matteo Renzi cropped.png Matteo Renzi
(1975– )
22 February 2014 Incumbent Democratic Party Renzi PD-NCD-SC-PI
Independent
At the age of 39, Matteo Renzi is the youngest Prime Minister in the history of Italy and his rise to become Prime Minister was widely seen as a sign of much-needed generational change. On 17 February 2014 he received the task to form a new government by the President Giorgio Napolitano. He sworn as Prime Minister on 22 February. Renzi proposed several reforms, including the abolition of the Senate, a new electoral law and the reduction of the costs of politics.

Living former Prime Ministers[edit]

There are ten living former Italian Prime Ministers:

See also[edit]

References[edit]