Midian (Hebrew: מִדְיָן), Madyan (Arabic: مدين), or Madiam (Greek: Μαδιάμ, Μαδιανίτης for a Midianite) is a geographical place and a people mentioned in the Bible and in the Qur'an. Scholars generally consider it to have been located in the "northwest Arabian Peninsula, on the east shore of the Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea", and have long associated it with the region of Modiana reported in that same area by Ptolemy.
Hadad the Edomite is specifically stated in 1 Kg 11:17-18 to have passed through Midian and Paran while fleeing from Edom to Egypt. Even so, some scholars have claimed Midian was not a geographical area but a league of tribes.
The Midianites were the descendants of Midian, who was a son of Abraham through his wife Keturah: ". . . again Abraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah. And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah." (Genesis 25:1-2, King James Version)
The Midianites through their apparent religio-political connection with the Moabites are thought to have worshipped a multitude of gods, including Baal-peor and the Queen of Heaven, Ashteroth. An Egyptian temple of Hathor at Timna continued to be used during the Midianite occupation of the site. However, whether Hathor or some other deity was the object of devotion during this period is impossible to ascertain.
- Joseph is sold by his brothers to Midianites
- Midian was where Moses spent forty years in voluntary exile after murdering an Egyptian.
- Moses married Zipporah the daughter of Jethro, the priest of Midian (also known as Reuel).
- Cozbi, daughter of the Midianite chief Zur, was speared by Phinehas together with Zimri. Zimri was the son of a Simeonite chief, while Cozbi was a Midianite woman taken into his family by Zimri. The Midianite women's seductions of Israelites to their idol Baal-phegor is stated as the cause of offense to God; they were racially akin to the Israelites as descendants of Abraham, and Moses own wife Zipporah was Midianite. Ignoring this, at least one modern day movement has interpreted this story as a prohibition against racial miscegenation.
- Soon after, God instructs Moses to collect an army and destroy Midian. The Israelites kill every Midianite male including Zur and four other named chiefs, and every woman who has slept with a man (Book of Numbers 31:17), but share out 32,000 girls who have never slept with a man as plunder (Book of Numbers 31:35).
- Israel is oppressed by Midian for seven years during the time of the Judges. Gideon is called by God to deliver Israel from Midian's armies. He kills the Midianite princes Oreb and Zeeb, then pursues their kings Zebah and Zalmunna as far as Karkor, slaying them as well.
- Isaiah (60:6) speaks of camels from Midian and Ephah coming to "cover your land," along with the gold and frankincense from Sheba. This passage, taken by the Gospel of Matthew as a foreshadowing of the Magi's gifts to the infant Jesus, has been incorporated into the Christmas liturgy.
In the Qur'an
The people of Midian are also mentioned extensively (10 times) in the Qur'an, where the name appears in Arabic as Madyan. Sura 9, verse 70 says "Has not the story reached them of those before them? - The people of Nuh (Noah), 'Ad, and Thamud, the people of Ibrahim (Abraham), the dwellers [literally, comrades] of Madyan (Midian) and the cities overthrown [i.e. the people to whom Lūt (Lot) preached], to them came their Messengers with clear proofs. So it was not Allah who wronged them, but they used to wrong themselves."
In Sura 7 (Al-A`rāf) Madyan is mentioned as one of several peoples who were warned by prophets to repent lest judgment fall on them. The story of Madyan is the last, coming after that of Lot preaching to his people (referring to the destruction of the Cities of the Plain). Madyan was warned by Shu'aib to repent of using false weights and measures and lying in wait along the road. But they rejected Shu`ayb, and consequently were destroyed by a tremor (rajfa, v. 91). Abdullah Yusuf Ali in his commentary (1934) writes, "The fate of the Madyan people is described in the same terms as that of the Thamūd in verse 78 above. An earthquake seized them by night, and they were buried in their own homes, no longer to vex Allah's earth. But a supplementary detail is mentioned in [Qur'an] 26:189, 'the punishment of a day of overshadowing gloom,' which may be understood to mean a shower of ashes and cinders accompanying a volcanic eruption. Thus a day of terror drove them into their homes, and the earthquake finished them." (The volcano Hala-'l Badr is in Madyan.)
- History of ancient Israel and Judah
- The Bible and history
- Midian war
- Dever, William G. Who were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? William B Eerdmans Publishing Co (24 May 2006) ISBN 978-0-8028-4416-3 p.34
- Bromiley Geoffrey W . The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1996 ISBN 978-0-8028-3783-7 p.350
- Genesis 36:35; Numbers 22:4,7; Numbers 25:1,6
- Qur'an, Al-Araf, 7:85
- Genesis 37:28
- Exodus 2:11-15
- Exodus 2:21
- Numbers 25:6-8,14-15
- Numbers 31:1
- Judges 6
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Jewish Encyclopedia. 1901–1906.
- Clines, David and John Sawyer, eds. "Midian, Moab and Edom: The History and Archaeology of Late Bronze and Iron Age Jordan and North-West Arabia". Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, Supplement Series, No. 24. Sheffield Academic Press, 1983.
- Singer, Isidore and M. Seligsohn. "Midian and Midianites". Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk and Wagnalls, 1901–1906, which cites to:
- Archaeology of Timna
- Another Timna archaeology site
- Richard Burton's account of his travels in "The Land of Midian"
- Spring of Harod - Ma'ayan Harod