Nisoish languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Nisoish
Southeastern Loloish
Ethnicity: Yi people, Phula people
Geographic
distribution:
Southern China, Vietnam
Linguistic classification: Sino-Tibetan
Glottolog: sout3212[1]

The Nisoish languages, also known in reduced scope as Southeastern Loloish, are a branch of the Loloish languages in recent classifications. It was established by Bradley (2002) from Southern Loloish, and further refined by Pelkey (2011) and Lama (2012), who includes several of Thurgood's Northern Loloish languages.

Languages[edit]

Pelkey (2011)[edit]

Jamin Pelkey (2011) calls the clade Southeastern Loloish (or Southeastern Ngwi). Within it he lists:

Pelkey (2011:353)[2] specifically excludes Pholo, noting that although it has been closely associated with speakers of Southeastern Ngwi languages historically, it does not share the defining features of the branch. Also, Pelkey (2011) notes that Southeastern Ngwi may be most closely related to Northern Ngwi (including Nosu and Nasu), which is in line with Lama's (2012) proposal of a Nisoish clade.

Pelkey (2011) lists the following sound changes from Proto-Ngwi as Southeastern Ngwi innovations.

  • *ʔ-k and *ʔ-ɡl merge as /tɬ/
  • *pl/j and *ʔ-kl merge as /tɬʰ/
  • *bl/j and *ɡl merge as /dɮ/
  • *m-pl/j and *m-bl/j merge as /ndɮ/

Lama (2012)[edit]

Lama calls the clade Nisoish. He adds a couple northern languages such as Nuosu and Nasu which were not included in Pelkey, but does not directly classify many languages which are acknowledged to be closely related to ones which are included. The languages he does address he classifies into three groups, Nisoid, Axioid, and Puoi, and arranges as follows:

 Nisoish 
 Axi–Puoid 
Puoid

Zuoke, Pholo (≈ Phowa)


 Axioid 

Azha



Sani (–Samei), AzheAxi




 Nisoid 
 (Nisu–Lope) 


Lope (Awu)




Nuosu (incl. Qumusu, Niesu)



Nasu (incl. Nesu, Gepo)





Nisu (Nishu)




Aluo is close to Nasu.

Four of the six Yi languages (fangyan 方言) officially recognized by the Chinese government belong to Lama's Nisoish clade.

  • Northern Yi (Nuosu 诺苏)
  • Eastern Yi (Nasu 纳苏)
  • Southern Yi (Nisu 尼苏)
  • Southeastern Yi (Sani 撒尼)

However, the remaining two of the six officially recognized Yi languages belong to Lama's Lisoish clade.

  • Western Yi (Lalo 腊罗)
  • Central Yi (Lolopo 倮倮泼)

Lama (2012) lists the following changes from Proto-Loloish as innovations among various branches and languages of Nisoish.

  • *NC- > NCʰ (Nasu and Gepu)
  • *s- > ɕ- (Zuoke and Polo)
  • *xl- > ɬ-, h- (Sani, Axi, Azhe, Azha)
  • *plh- > tʰ- (Nisoid)
  • *ŋg- > (n)dz-, dz- (Nisoid)

Chen (2010)[edit]

Chen (2010) recognizes three separate regional macro-languages (Chinese: fangyan 方言), Nosu (Northern Yi), Nasu (Eastern Yi), and Nesu (Southern Yi). Chen's Nosu and Nasu roughly correspond with Lama's Nisoid branch, and Nesu roughly corresponds with Lama's Axi–Puoid. Also listed are the counties where each respective dialect is spoken.

  • Nosu 诺苏方言 (See)
  • Nasu 纳苏方言
    • Nàsū 纳苏次方言
      • Nàsū 纳苏 (na̱˧su˧pʰo˥): 400,000 speakers in Luquan, Wuding, Xundian, Huize, Dongchuan, Songming, etc.
      • Naso, Nàsuǒ 纳索 (na̱˧so˧pʰo˥): 300,000 speakers in Zhaotong, Ludian, Yiliang, Daguan, Yanjin, Suijiang, Yongshan, Qiaojia, Huize, etc.
      • Alo, Āluó 阿罗 (a̱˥lɒ˧): 100,000 speakers in Wuding, Fumin, Lufeng, etc.
      • Mongi, Mòqí 莫其 (mo˨˩ndʑi˨˩): 50,000 speakers in Wuding, Luquan, Songming, Kunming, Mile, etc.
    • Nersu, Nèisū 内苏次方言
      • Nersu, Nèisū 内苏 (nɤ˥su˩˧): 300,000 speakers in Weining, Shuicheng, Hezhang, Nayong, Yiliang, Huize, Xuanwei, Weixin, Zhenyong, etc.
      • Nipu, Nípǔ 尼普 (ȵi˥pʰu˥): 300,000 speakers in Bijie, Qianxi, Jinsha, Dafang, Zhijin, Nayong, Qingzhen, Pingba, Puding, Liuzhi, Guanling, Zhenning, etc.
    • Noso, Nuòsuǒ 诺索次方言
      • Noso, Nuòsuǒ 诺索 (nɔ˥so˧): 100,000 speakers in Panxian, Xingren, Pu'an, Xingyi, Qinglong, Shuicheng, Fuyuan, Luoping, etc.
      • Polo, Bǔluó 补罗 (pʰo̱˥lo̱˥): 50,000 speakers in Kaiyuan, Gejiu, Mengzi, Honghe, Wenshan, Yanshan, etc.
  • Nesu 聂苏方言
    • Nesu, Nièsū 聂苏次方言
      • Nesu, Nièsū 聂苏 (ne̱˧su˥): 500,000 speakers in Honghe, Mojiang, Yuanjiang, Yuanyang, Luchun, Jiangcheng, Jinping, Hekou, Pu'er, Jinghong, Mengla, etc.
      • Narsu, Nuósū 娜苏 (na˧su˥): 500,000 speakers in Shiping, Eshan, Tonghai, Jianshui, Kaiyuan, Gejiu, Mengzi, Pingbian, etc.
      • Zoko, Zuòkuò 作括 (dzo˨˩kʰo˦): 100,000 speakers in Wenshan, Yanshan, Xichou, Maguan, Malipo, etc.
    • Sani, Sǎní 撒尼次方言
      • Sani, Sǎní 撒尼 (nɪ˨˩): 200,000 speakers in Lunan, Yiliang, Luliang, Mile, Luxi, Shizong, Malong, Luquan, Qiubei, etc.
      • Asi, Āxì 阿细 (a˨˩ɕi˥pʰo˨˩): 200,000 speakers in Mile, Lunan, Chengjiang, Kunming, Huaning, etc.
      • Nise, Nísài 尼赛 (ni˥sɛ˨˩pʰu˥): 100,000 speakers in Lunan
    • Azi, Āzhé 阿哲次方言
      • Azi, Āzhé 阿哲 (a˨˩dʐɛ̱˨˩pʰo˨˩): 100,000 speakers in Mile, Huaning, Kaiyuan, Jianshui, etc.
      • Neshu, Nièshū 聂舒: (nɪ̱˧ʂu˥pʰo˨˩): 500,000 speakers in Xinping, Yuxi, Jiangchuan, Yimen, Puning, etc.
      • Lopo, Luópō 罗泼 (lo˨˩pʰɯ˨˩): 100,000 speakers in Mile
      • Kopo, Gépō 格泼 (ko˥pʰo˨˩): 100,000 speakers in Fuyuan, Luoping, Zhanyi, Qujing, Shizong, Huize, Lunan, Luliang, Mile, etc.
      • Sanni, Sāngní 桑尼 (ʂɛ˨˩ni˥˩): 100,000 speakers in Kunming

Demographics[edit]

The following demographics of Phula languages is from Pelkey (2011).

Demographics of Phula languages
Language Autonym(s) Speakers Ethnic population Villages Dialects
Phala pʰa˧˩la˧/˥ 12,000 13,000 33 5+
Phola pʰo˧˩la˥ 13,000 13,000 42 7+
Alo Phola pʰo˧˩la˥ 500 500 1 1
Qila Muji m˩3 dʑi3˧ 1,500 1,500 3 3
Southern Muji m˩˧dʑi˧ 26,000 28,000 104 6+
Northern Muji mɯ˨˩dʑi˧ 9,000 15,000 61 3+
Muzi m˩˧dzɿ˧ 10,000 16,000 42 5+
Bokha po˨˩kʰo˥ 10,000 12,000 31 3+
Phuma pʰɯ˥ma˨˩ 8,000 8,000 23 2
Alugu a˥lɯ˧ɡɯ˧χa˨˩ 3,500 3,500 11 2
Phupa pʰɯ˧pa˨˩ 3,000 4,000 13 3
Phupha pʰɯ˥pʰa˧ 1,300 1,500 5 3
Phuza pʰɯ˥za˧˩ 6,000 8,000 28 2+
Ani Phowa pʰo˨˩va˧ 10,000 10,000 30 3+
Labo Phowa pʰo˨˩va˧ 17,000 21,000 70 Dialect chain
Hlepho Phowa pʰo˨˩va˧ 36,000 50,000 187 Dialect chain
Azha a˧tsa˨˩, a˥tʂa˧ 53,000 54,000 98 5+
Zokhuo tso˨˩kʰuo˥ 13,000 17,000 56 2
Khlula kɬʰu˨˩la˧ 21,000 34,000 114 3+
Moji - 2,000 7,000 45 2+
Phukha - 10,000 14,000 41? Unknown
Laghuu la˨˩ɣɯ˦ 500 1,500 7 Unknown
Pholo pho˥lo˥ 30,000 34,000 112 3+
Thopho tʰo˨˩pʰo˧ 200 500 2 1

The following datapoints (i.e., sample locations) for Phula languages are from Pelkey (2011:26-27).

Datapoints for Phula languages (Pelkey 2011)
Language County Township Village Datapoint Code
Alugu Gejiu Manhao 蔓耗镇 Chongtianling 冲天岭[3] CTL
Azha Yanshan County Ganhe 干河彝族乡 Faduke Dazhai 法都可大寨
("Dafa 大法")
DFC
Azha Wenshan County Dongshan 东山彝族乡 Huangzhai 荒寨[4] HZC
Azha Wenshan County Binglie 秉烈彝族乡 Luojiayi 倮家邑[5] LJY
Azha Wenshan County Binglie 秉烈彝族乡 Xiaopingba 小平坝[6] XPB
Bokha Pingbian County Dishuiceng 滴水层乡 Yibaizu 邑佰租[7] YBZ
Bokho Jinping County Ma'andi 马鞍底乡 Dixibei 地西北[8] DXB
Khlula Wenshan County Liujing 柳井彝族乡 Laozhai 老寨[9][10][11] LZC
Khlula Maguan County Muchang 木厂镇 Maxi 马西[12] MXC
Muji Pingbian County Xinxian 新现乡 Luoshuidong 落水洞[13] LSD
Muji Jinping County Adipo 阿德博乡 Pujiazhai 普家寨 PJZ
Muji Jinping County Jinshuihe 金水河镇 Qila 期腊[14] QLC
Muji Mengzi County Shuitian 水田乡 Xiepo 斜坡[15] XPC
Muzi Gejiu Laochang 老厂镇 Malutang 马鹿塘[16] MLT
Muzi Gejiu Kafang 卡房镇 Nuoguzhai 糯谷寨[17] NGZ
Muzi Jinping County Tongchang 铜厂乡 Shizitou 狮子头[18] SZT
Phala Honghe County Baohua 宝华乡 Beishe 碑赊[19] BSC
Phala Honghe County Yisa 迤萨镇 Feinishao 斐尼哨[20] FNS
Phola Honghe County Menglong 勐龙傣族乡 Adipo 阿底坡[21] ADP
Phola Yuanjiang County Wadie 洼垤乡 Luodie 罗垤[22] LDC
Phola Yuanjiang County Lijiang 澧江镇 Natang 那塘[23] NTC
Phole Wenshan County Dehou 德厚镇 Chekabai 扯卡白[24] CKB
Pholo Guangnan County Wuzhu 五珠乡 Fayi Xiazhai 法衣下寨[25] FYX
Pholo Yanshan County Ganhe 干河彝族乡 Shangxinzhai 上新寨[26] SXZ
Pholo Guangnan County Zhulin 珠琳镇 Xiji 西吉[27] XJC
Phowa Pingbian County Xinhua 新华乡 Feizuke 菲租克[28][29] FZK
Phowa Kaiyuan County Beige 碑格乡 Jiaji 架吉[30] JJC
Phowa Mengzi County Mingjiu 鸣鹫镇 Meizichong 梅子冲[31] MZC
Phowa Mengzi County Beige 碑格乡 Weibazhu Xiaozhai 尾巴猪小寨 WBZ
Phowa Kaiyuan County Mazheshao 马者哨乡 Wudupi 乌都皮[32] WDP
Phowa Mengzi County Xibeile 西北勒乡 Daheineng 大黑能[33] DHN
Phowa Kaiyuan County Beige 碑格乡 Lugumu 鲁姑母[34] LGM
Phowa Wenshan County Baxin 坝心彝族乡 Suozhiwan 所支弯 SZW
Phowa Mengzi County Xibeile 西北勒乡 Xibeile 西北勒[35] XBL
Phuma Pingbian County Baihe 白河乡 Yanzitou 岩子头[36] YZT
Phupa Mengzi County Shuitian 水田乡 Gamadi 嘎马底[37][38] GMD
Phupha Gejiu Jiasha 贾沙乡 Fengkou 风口[39] FKC
Phuza Mengzi County Lengquan 冷泉镇 Bujibai 补鸡白[40] BJB
Thopho Guangnan County Zhetu 者兔乡 Xinzhaicun 新寨村[41][42] XZC
Zokhuo Wenshan County Zhuiligai 追栗街镇 Daxingzhai 大兴寨[43] DXZ
Moji Xichou County Lianhuatang 莲花塘乡 Luchaichong 芦差冲[44][45] LCC

Yiyu Fangyan Bijiao Yanjiu (彝语方言比较研究) by Wang Chengyou (王成有) (2003) gives phonological inventories for the following datapoints.

  1. Miyajing, Sanhe, Nanhua County 南华县三河底米丫井村
  2. Zhuangke, Zhuangke, Yao'an County 姚安县庄科乡庄科村
  3. Langzhe, Yunshan, Yongsheng County 永胜县云山乡朗者村
  4. Gen'e, Gen'e, Yongsheng County 永胜县茛莪乡茛莪村
  5. Zhijuxiao, Zhonghe, Yongren County 永仁县中和乡直苴小村
  6. Hongmai, Lijiang 丽江红麦; Tanglang language 堂郎语
  7. Huazhuqing, Xin'an, Mojiang County 思茅地区墨江县新安乡滑竹箐
  8. Hemezha, Tanhua, Da'yao County 大姚县昙华乡[补期地耕作]黑么乍村
  9. Aiguo, Yangjiang, Weishan County 巍山县漾江农场爱国村
  10. Sanjia, Chongfeng, Weishan County 巍山县冲锋乡三家村
  11. Lewuju, Wule, Nanjian County 南涧县五乐乡五具村
  12. Yanzijiao, Jingxing, Mojiang County 思茅地区墨江县景星乡官厅岩子脚村
  13. Xiaoguangshan, Baoxiu, Shiping County 红河州石屏县宝秀乡小光山村
  14. Zuoluo, Honghe County 红河州红河县座落村
  15. Zhuyuan, Zhuyuan, Laochang District, Xinping County 新平县老厂区竹园乡竹园村
  16. Suomili, Laowudou, Xinping County 新平县老五斗乡梭咪里村
  17. Washaozong, Tadian, Weishan County 峨山县塔甸乡瓦哨宗村
  18. Suxiong, Ganluo County 凉山州甘洛县苏雄乡
  19. Laodashu, 2nd Township, Huili County 凉山州会理县第二乡老大树
  20. Lizi, Hongma, Xide County 凉山州喜德县红玛乡李子村
  21. Damaichong (upper cluster), Hejia, Liangshan, Yuanmou County 元谋县凉山乡何家村大麦冲上队
  22. Daxingzhai, Wenshan County 文山县大兴寨; Zuoke language 坐柯
  23. Huangzhai (small cluster), Gaodeng, Wenshan County 文山县高登乡村公所荒寨小队; Azhapu language 阿扎仆
  24. Longshu, Qiubei County 丘北县龙树村; Axi Touruo language 阿细拖若
  25. Anwang, Guangnan County 广南县安王村; Flowery Lolo 花倮
  26. Long'an, Funing County 富宁县龙安; White Lolo 白倮
  27. Musang, Funing County 富宁县木桑村; Black Lolo 黑倮
  28. Sayingpan, Luquan, Kunming 昆明市禄劝撒营盘
  29. Banaji, Wuding County 武定县罢纳吉村
  30. Chijiabi, Biji, Xishan, Kunming 昆明市西山区碧鸡乡赤甲碧村
  31. 2nd Village, Wafei, 5th District, Zhenxiong County 镇雄县五区娃飞乡二村
  32. Laolin, Yanshan District, Zhaotong County 昭通县盐山区老林乡
  33. Jingdi, Sayu, Zhaotong County 昭通县洒渔乡井底村
  34. Longjie, 9th Township, Weining County 威宁县九乡龙街
  35. Dafang County 大方县
  36. Pan County 盘县
  37. De'e, Longlin County 隆林县德峨
  38. Axi 阿细: Xiaolongpu, Huakou, Xishan, Mile County 弥勒县西三镇花口村公所小龙铺村
  39. Azhe 阿哲: Zhongzhai, Wushan, Mile County 弥勒县五山中寨村
  40. Gupo 古泼: Songshulin, Niupo, Wushan, Mile County 弥勒县五山乡牛坡村公所松树林村
  41. Sani 撒尼: Fengwu, Wujiepu, Luxi County 泸西县午街铺镇凤午村
  42. Pula 濮拉: Wudupi, Chongmen, Mazheshao, Kaiyuan County 开远县马者哨乡冲门村委会乌都皮村
  43. Nisu 尼苏: Baishengzhai (upper cluster), Baishengzhai, Yuanyang County 元阳县百胜寨乡百胜寨上村
  44. Naisu 乃苏: Weisuo, Wushan, Mile County 弥勒县五山乡围锁村

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Nisoish". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Pelkey, Jamin. 2011. Dialectology As Dialectic: Interpreting Phula Variation. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
  3. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=158814
  4. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=222807
  5. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=204764
  6. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=204621
  7. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=191092
  8. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=188500
  9. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=215029
  10. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=215016
  11. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=214995
  12. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=99682
  13. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=188201
  14. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=188162
  15. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=98499
  16. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=158595
  17. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=158891
  18. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=189464
  19. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=174483
  20. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=195115
  21. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=195112
  22. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=252120
  23. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=251969
  24. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=236381
  25. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=205588
  26. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=90464
  27. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=86791
  28. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=189530
  29. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=189531
  30. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vindex.aspx?departmentid=154164
  31. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=27868
  32. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vindex.aspx?departmentid=148444
  33. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=98774
  34. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=148110
  35. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=98750
  36. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=189623
  37. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=98505
  38. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=98504
  39. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=159045
  40. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=99258
  41. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=93177
  42. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=93172
  43. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=214938
  44. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=190993
  45. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=190994
  • Chen Kang [陈康]. 2010. A study of Yi dialects [彝语方言研究]. Beijing: China Minzu University Press.
  • Lama, Ziwo Qiu-Fuyuan (2012), Subgrouping of Nisoic (Yi) Languages, thesis, University of Texas at Arlington
  • Pelkey, Jamin. 2011. Dialectology as Dialectic: Interpreting Phula Variation.

Further reading[edit]