The nickname "Eagle Owls" comes from fighters who defended Lwów (now Lviv; German: Lemberg) in Galicia, Poland from invading Ukrainian forces in the Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918–1919, who were referred to as the Lwów Eaglets (Polish: Orlęta Lwowskie). The nickname is also appropriate to a night fighter squadron, as the eagle owl is a predator that flies at night.
After its formal formation in Blackpool on 24 August 1940 No. 307 squadron was assembled at RAF Kirton-in-Lindsey on 5 September 1940 as a night fighter unit, flying the Boulton Paul Defiant turret-fighter and took up residence at RAF Jurby, Isle of Man. An example of the Boulton Paul Defiant, with serial number N1671, EW-D, the sole complete surviving Defiant is to be seen on display at the RAF Museum at RAF Hendon. In August 1941 the squadron converted to Beaufighters which it flew until being re-equipped with Mosquitoes in late 1942. From 1943 the squadron was based at RAF Predannack, Cornwall, and was active as a night intruder unit over airfields in occupied France. This changed in January 1945, when its role was switched to bomber support, combating German night fighters. The squadron was disbanded on 2 January 1947 after the end of World War II.
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