Genesis flood narrative
The Genesis flood narrative is a flood myth in the Hebrew Bible, comprising chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis. The narrative indicates that the God of Israel intended to return the Earth to its pre-Creation state of watery chaos by flooding the Earth for 370 days (the 150 days of flooding + the 220 days it took to dry up the floodwaters) because of the world's evil doings and then remake it using the microcosm of Noah's ark. Thus, the flood was no ordinary overflow but a reversal of creation. The narrative discusses the evil of mankind that moved God to destroy the world by the way of the flood, the preparation of the ark for certain animals, Noah, and his family, and God's guarantee for the continued existence of life under the promise that he would never send another flood.
Although some religious organisations still fully embrace the story of the ark, few scholars since the 18th century believe the story to be literally true. Among other issues are the immense difficulties of explaining how collecting, housing, watering, feeding and caring for very large numbers of animals in a wooden ship smaller than many modern ships could be achieved. Additionally there are the problems of how the animals subsequently travelled to where they are now geographically found. For these and many other reasons the ark story is generally considered to be apocryphal.
David W. Cotter says that most exegetes feel the Genesis narrative is composed of two different stories that were combined into the final canonical form of Genesis 6–9. Although there are differences in characteristic style and vocabulary, overall they are not contradictory. Some scholars call these the Jahwist (YHWH) source and the Priestly (Elohim) source. However, where apparent contradictions do exist, they were not typically viewed as mistakes by Jewish scholars, but as allusions to deeper meanings. Even later interpreters sought to discover the basic harmony that underlies the narrative, whether written by different authors, at different times, or within different cultures.
Cotter lists some notable difficulties: two reasons for the flood, Noah being given different instructions about what animals and birds to take on board the ark, the two different time frames for how long the flood lasts, the "nature of the flood waters", the circumstances by which Noah and the animals leave the ark, and the use of two "divine names" (elohim and Yahweh).
The Masoretic text of the Torah, or Pentateuch, places the Great Deluge 1,656 years after Creation, or 1656 AM (Anno Mundi, "Year of the World"). Many attempts have been made to place this time-span to a specific date in history. At the turn of the 17th century, Joseph Scaliger placed Creation at 3950 BC, Petavius calculated 3982 BC, and according to James Ussher's Ussher chronology, Creation begun in 4004 BC, dating the Great Deluge to 2348 BC.
- Flood Geology
The development of scientific geology had a profound impact on attitudes towards the biblical Flood narrative. Without the support of the Biblical chronology, which placed the Creation and the Flood in a history which stretched back no more than a few thousand years, the historicity of the ark itself was undermined. In 1823, William Buckland interpreted geological phenomena as Reliquiae Diluvianae: relics of the flood which "attested the action of a universal deluge". His views were supported by other English clergymen and naturalists at the time, including the influential Adam Sedgwick, but by 1830 Sedgwick considered that the evidence only showed local floods. The deposits were subsequently explained by Louis Agassiz as the results of glaciation.
In 1862, William Thompson, later Lord Kelvin, calculated the age of the Earth at between 24 million and 400 million years, and for the remainder of the 19th century, discussion focused not on whether this theory of deep time was viable, but on the derivation of a more precise figure for the age of the Earth. Lux Mundi, an 1889 volume of theological essays which is usually held to mark a stage in the acceptance of a more critical approach to scripture, took the stance that the gospels could be relied upon as completely historical, but that the earlier chapters of Genesis should not be taken literally.
Genesis 6:1–4 presents the Sons of God marrying the daughters of men and siring a race of giants, the "mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." Genesis continues, "And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." God decided to destroy what he had made and start again with the righteous Noah. God chose the flood as the instrument for destruction which is portrayed as a veritable reversal of creation.
Preparing the ark
Beginning with Genesis 6:14, God gives instructions to Noah to build a waterproof vessel that would house his immediate family, along with a sample of animal life. The vessel is an ark made of gopher wood covered in pitch inside and outside. The ark was to be 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide, and 30 cubits high, and have an opening for daylight near the top, an entrance on its side, and three decks. God told Noah that he, his sons, his wife, his sons’ wives, and two of each kind of beast — male and female — would survive in the Ark (Genesis 6:1–22). Seven days before the Flood, God told Noah to enter the Ark with his household, and to take seven pairs of every clean animal and every bird, and one pair of every other animal, to keep their kind alive (Genesis 7:1–5).
The priestly (Elohim) source of Genesis 7:11;8:1-2 describes the nature of the flood waters as a cosmic cataclysm, by the opening of the springs of the deep and the floodgates, or windows, of heaven. This is the reverse of the separation of the waters recounted in the Genesis creation narrative of chapter 1. After Noah and the remnant of animals were secured, the fountains of the great deep and the floodgates, or windows, of the heavens were opened, causing rain to fall on the Earth for 40 days. The waters elevated, with the summits of the highest mountains under 15 cubits (22 feet 6 inches) of water,  flooding the world for 150 days, and then receding in 220 days.
The Jahwist (YHWH) version of how the flood waters came to be, is indicated in Genesis 7:12 where it develops by way of a torrential downpour that lasts 40 days, then recedes in seven day periods. During this time, the Ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat where Noah opens the window and sends out a raven that went to and fro. Then he sends out a dove to see if the waters had decreased from the ground, but the dove could not find a resting place, and returned to the Ark. He waited another seven days, and again sent out the dove, and the dove came back toward evening with an olive leaf. He waited another seven days and sent out the dove, and it did not return. When Noah removed the covering of the Ark, he saw that the ground was drying. (Genesis 8:1–13)
God makes a pledge of commitment to Noah in Genesis 9:1–17. The priestly (Elohim) version takes the form of a covenant arrangement. This is the first explicit act of a covenant in the Hebrew Bible and is used seven times in this episode. God commits to continue both human and animal life and vows to never again use a second deluge against humanity. The covenant is sealed with the sign of a rainbow, after a storm, as a reminder.
God blesses Noah and his sons using the same language as the priestly source of the Genesis creation narrative, "Be fruitful and increase and fill the earth." Before the flood, animals and humans coexisted in a realm of peace only knowing a vegetarian diet. After the flood, God maintained that mankind would be in charge over the animals, granting that they may be eaten for food under the condition that their blood be removed. God set these purity rules well before any transaction with Ancient Israel, effectively not confining such precedence solely to the Jewish faith. Human life receives special divine sanction because humanity is in the image of Elohim.
The Qu'ran states that Noah (Nūḥ) was inspired by the God in Islam, believed in the oneness of God, and preached Islam. God commands Noah to build a ship. As he was building it, the chieftains passed him and mocked him. Upon its completion, the ship was loaded with only the animals in Noah's care as well as his immediate household, along with 76 who did submit to God. The people who denied the message of Noah, including one of his own sons, drowned. The final resting place of the ship was referred to as Mount Judi.
According to the Yazidi Mishefa Reş, two flood events occur. The first Deluge involved Noah and his family whose ark landed at a place called Ain Sifni in the region of Nineveh Plains, 40 kilometres (25 mi) north-east of Mosul. In the second flood, the Yazidi race was preserved in the person of Na'mi (or Na'umi), surnamed Malik Miran, who became the second founder of their race. His ship was pierced by a rock as it floated above Mount Sinjar, but settled in the same location as it is in Islamic tradition, Mount Judi.
In Europe, the Renaissance saw much speculation on the nature of the ark that might have seemed familiar to early theologians such as Origen and Augustine. At the same time, however, a new class of scholarship arose, one which, while never questioning the literal truth of the Ark story, began to speculate on the practical workings of Noah's vessel from within a purely naturalistic framework. In the 15th century, Alfonso Tostada gave a detailed account of the logistics of the ark, down to arrangements for the disposal of dung and the circulation of fresh air. The 16th-century geometrician Johannes Buteo calculated the ship's internal dimensions, allowing room for Noah's grinding mills and smokeless ovens, a model widely adopted by other commentators.
Various editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica reflect the collapse of belief in the historicity of the ark in the face of advancing scientific knowledge. Its 1771 edition offered the following as scientific evidence for the ark's size and capacity: "...Buteo and Kircher have proved geometrically, that, taking the common cubit as a foot and a half, the ark was abundantly sufficient for all the animals supposed to be lodged in it...the number of species of animals will be found much less than is generally imagined, not amounting to a hundred species of quadrupeds". By the eighth edition (1853–1860), the encyclopedia said of the Noah story, "The insuperable difficulties connected with the belief that all other existing species of animals were provided for in the ark are obviated by adopting the suggestion of Bishop Stillingfleet, approved by Matthew Poole...and others, that the Deluge did not extend beyond the region of the Earth then inhabited". By the ninth edition, in 1875, no attempt was made to reconcile the Noah story with scientific fact, and it was presented without comment. In the 1960 edition, the article on the ark stated that "Before the days of 'higher criticism' and the rise of the modern scientific views as to the origin of the species, there was much discussion among the learned, and many ingenious and curious theories were advanced, as to the number of animals on the ark".
By the 17th century, it was becoming necessary to reconcile the exploration of the New World and increased awareness of the global distribution of species with the older belief that all life had sprung from a single point of origin on the slopes of Mount Ararat. The obvious answer was that man had spread over the continents following the destruction of the Tower of Babel and taken animals with him, yet some of the results seemed peculiar. In 1646, Sir Thomas Browne wondered why the natives of North America had taken rattlesnakes with them, but not horses: "How America abounded with Beasts of prey and noxious Animals, yet contained not in that necessary Creature, a Horse, is very strange".
Browne, who was among the first to question the notion of spontaneous generation, was a medical doctor and amateur scientist making this observation in passing. However, biblical scholars of the time, such as Justus Lipsius (1547–1606) and Athanasius Kircher (c.1601–80), were also beginning to subject the Ark story to rigorous scrutiny as they attempted to harmonize the biblical account with the growing body of natural historical knowledge. The resulting hypotheses were an important impetus to the study of the geographical distribution of plants and animals, and indirectly spurred the emergence of biogeography in the 18th century. Natural historians began to draw connections between climates and the animals and plants adapted to them. One influential theory held that the biblical Ararat was striped with varying climatic zones, and as climate changed, the associated animals moved as well, eventually spreading to repopulate the globe.
There was also the problem of an ever-expanding number of known species: for Kircher and earlier natural historians, there was little problem finding room for all known animal species in the ark. Less than a century later, discoveries of new species made it increasingly difficult to justify a literal interpretation for the Ark story. By the middle of the 18th century only a few natural historians accepted a literal interpretation of the narrative.
- Bandstra 2009, p. 61.
- Cotter 2003, p. 49, 50.
- All quotations from the article "Ark" in the 1960 Encyclopædia Britannica
- Young 1995, p. History of the Collapse of "Flood Geology" and a Young Earth.
- Browne 1983.
- Cotter 2003, p. 50.
- Byron, John (2011). Cain and Abel in text and tradition : Jewish and Christian interpretations of the first sibling rivalry. Leiden: Brill. p. 5. ISBN 9789004192522.: References Kugel. HU Center for Jewish Studies, 2001, p. 18
- Timeline for the Flood. AiG, 9 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
- Barr 1984–85, 582.
- Davis A. Young, Ralph F. Stearley, The Bible, Rocks, and Time: Geological Evidence for the Age of the Earth, p. 45.
- James Barr, 1984–85. "Why the World Was Created in 4004 BC: Archbishop Ussher and Biblical Chronology", Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 67:604 
- Herbert, Sandra (1991). "Charles Darwin as a prospective geological author". British Journal for the History of Science (24). pp. 171–174. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
- Dalrymple 1991, pp. 14–17
- James Barr (4 March 1987). "Biblical Chronology, Fact or Fiction?" (PDF). The Ethel M. Wood Lecture 1987 (University of London). p. 17. ISBN 978-0718708641. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
- Genesis 6:5
- Bandstra 2009, p. 59, 60.
- Bandstra 2009, p. 62.
- Bandstra 2009, p. 65.
- Bandstra 2009, p. 65, 66.
- Bandstra 2009, p. 66: Genesis 1:28
- Blenkinsopp 2004, p. 45: Genesis 9:3–4
- Blenkinsopp 2004, p. 45.
- Bandstra 2009, p. 66: Genesis 9:6
- Quran 4:163, Quran 26:105–107
- Quran 11:35–41
- Quran 7:64
- Quran 11:44
- Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, London Institution, Volume 2 (1921). University of London: School of Oriental Studies. Missing or empty
- "Cameo with Noah's Ark". The Walters Art Museum.
- Cohn 1996
- Bandstra, Barry L. (2009). Reading the Old Testament : an introduction to the Hebrew Bible (4th ed. ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Cengage Learning. pp. 59–66. ISBN 0495391050.
- Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2004). Treasures old and new : essays in the theology of the Pentateuch. Grand Rapids, Mich. [u.a.]: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. p. 45. ISBN 0802826792.
- Cotter, David W. (2003). Genesis. Collegeville (Minn.): Liturgical press. pp. 49–64. ISBN 0814650406.
- Hamilton, Victor P (1990). The book of Genesis: chapters 1–17. Eerdmans.
- Kessler, Martin; Deurloo, Karel Adriaan (2004). A commentary on Genesis: the book of beginnings. Paulist Press.
- McKeown, James (2008). Genesis. Eerdmans.
- Rogerson, John William (1991). Genesis 1–11. T&T Clark.
- Sacks, Robert D (1990). A Commentary on the Book of Genesis. Edwin Mellen.
- Towner, Wayne Sibley (2001). Genesis. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Wenham, Gordon (2003). "Genesis". In James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson. Eerdmans Bible Commentary. Eerdmans.
- Whybray, R.N (2001). "Genesis". In John Barton. Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press.