Новгородский район (Russian)
Location of Novgorodsky District in Novgorod Oblast
The village of Desyatiny in Novgorodsky District
|Federal subject||Novgorod Oblast|
|Administrative structure (as of August 2014)|
|Administrative center||city of Veliky Novgorod|
|Municipal structure (as of April 2014)|
|Municipally incorporated as||Novgorodsky Municipal District|
|Area||4,600 km2 (1,800 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||57,673 inhabitants|
|Density||12.54/km2 (32.5/sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Established||October 1, 1927|
|Novgorodsky District on WikiCommons|
Novgorodsky District (Russian: Новгородский район) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the oblast and borders with Tosnensky District of Leningrad Oblast in the north, Chudovsky District in the northeast, Malovishersky District in the east, Krestetsky District in the southeast, Shimsky District in the southwest, Batetsky District in the west, and with Luzhsky District of Leningrad Oblast in the northwest. In the south, the district is limited by Lake Ilmen. The area of the district is 4,600 square kilometers (1,800 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Veliky Novgorod (which is not administratively a part of the district). Population: 57,673 (2010 Census); 58,622 (2002 Census); 55,491 (1989 Census). In terms of both area and population, this is the largest district in Novgorod Oblast.
The district is located in the Ilmen Lowlands and is crossed by the Volkhov River from southwest to northeast, dividing the district into approximately equal areas. All rivers in the district drain into Lake Ilmen or into the Volkhov River and its main tributaries, including the Polist (left), the Vishera (right), and the Tigoda (left). A large portion of the Lake Ilmen coast belongs to Novgorodsky District. The biggest tributary of Lake Ilmen within the district is the Msta.
Woods occupy the area of 2,400 square kilometers (930 sq mi), which is more than a half of the total area of the district.
The Volkhov River served as a major waterway, a part of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, since medieval times. The city of Novgorod was one of the leading political, trading, and cultural centers of East Slavs since the 9th century, and its immediate vicinities were within the current boundaries of the district. Novgorod lands extended far to the north and to the northeast to the Arctic Ocean. In the end of the 15th century, Novgorod was defeated and annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. From that time, Novgorod lands were subdivided into pyatinas, and the banks of the Volkhov, including the current area of the district, were a part of Vodskaya Pyatina.
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the territory was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. In 1776, the area was transferred to Novgorod Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished and renamed Novgorod Governorate. The area was a part of Novgorodsky Uyezd.
In the 1810s and 1820s, military settlements were organized in Novgorod Governorate, in accordance with the project designed by Aleksey Arakcheyev, an influential statesman. The first area transferred to the military administration (in 1816) was Vysotskaya Volost of Novgorodsky Uyezd. Later, some other areas of Novgorodsky Uyezd were transferred to the military administration as well. The military settlements, however, were proven inefficient; in 1831 in particular, the local population participated in the Cholera Riots.[clarification needed] The military administration was abolished in 1856.
In 1922, Krestetsky Uyezd of Novgorod Governorate was abolished and split between Novgorodsky, Malovishersky, and Valdaysky Uyezds. In 1927, a number of ethnic German and Latvian selsoviets were created in the uyezd.[clarification needed]
In August 1927, the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Novgorodsky District, with the administrative center in the city of Novgorod, was established within Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast effective October 1, 1927. It included parts of former Novgorodsky Uyezd. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. The city of Novgorod was a part of the district until August 1930, when it was elevated in status to that of a city of oblast significance. On September 20, 1931, Medvedsky District was abolished and merged into Novgorodsky District. On January 1, 1932, a part of abolished Mstinsky District was merged into Novgorodsky District. On February 15, 1935, parts of Novgorodsky District were transferred to newly established Shimsky District. On March 11, 1941, parts of previously abolished Mstinsky District, which was merged into Novgorodsky District in 1932, were returned to Mstinsky District.
Between August 14, 1941 and February 3, 1944, parts of Novgorodsky District was occupied by German troops. On July 5, 1944, Novgorodsky District was transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast, where it remained ever since. On February 1, 1963, the district was transformed into Novgorodsky Rural District in the course of the Nikita Khrushchev's abortive administrative reform. This was reverted on January 12, 1965.
Effective October 1, 1927, Medvedsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Medved was established as well as a part of Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On September 20, 1931, Medvedsky District was abolished and merged into Novgorodsky District.
Effective October 1, 1927, Bronnitsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Bronnitsa was also established as a part of Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On March 11, 1931, the selo of Bronnitsa was renamed Msta, and the district was renamed Mstinsky. On January 1, 1932, Mstinsky District was abolished and split between Novgorodsky and Krestetsky Districts. On March 11, 1941, Mstinsky District was re-established. It also included parts of Krestetsky District. The administrative center of the district was located in Proletariy. Between October and December 1941, minor parts of Mstinsky District were occupied by German troops. On July 5, 1944, Mstinsky District was transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast. On February 1, 1963, Mstinsky District was abolished and merged into Novgorodsky Rural District. After a sequence of administrative reforms, the area of former Mstinsky District was split between Novgorodsky and Krestetsky Districts when Novgorodsky Rural District was abolished on January 14, 1965.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Novgorodsky District is one of the twenty-one in the oblast. The city of Veliky Novgorod serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as a city of oblast significance—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Novgorodsky Municipal District. The city of oblast significance of Veliky Novgorod is incorporated separately from the district as Veliky Novgorod Urban Okrug.
A number of industrial enterprises are located in the district. They specialize in the production of construction materials, textiles and clothing, ceramics, and food.
As of 2011, there were seventeen large- and mid-scale farms in the district, including two swine breeding farms, two poultry production enterprises, and a greenhouse enterprise. This constitutes the largest concentration of farms in Novgorod Oblast. The main agricultural specializations in the district are egg, meat, and milk production, as well as vegetable, potato, and crops growing.
The M10 highway connecting Moscow and St. Petersburg crosses the district, mostly following the left bank of the Volkhov River. Other roads connect Veliky Novgorod with Pskov and with Staraya Russa via Shimsk, with Luga, and with Malaya Vishera. There are also local roads.
The Volkhov and the Msta Rivers are navigable within the limits of Novgorodvsky District. However, there is no regular passenger navigation. Lake Ilmen is navigable as well.
For a long time, between the 9th and the 15th centuries, Novgorod was one of the leading political and cultural centers of Rus', and the Volkhov River, which connects Novgorod to the Baltic Sea, was the key part of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. This is why the surroundings of Veliky Novgorod and the banks of the Volkhov contain a large amount of historical, architectural, and archeological monuments, many of which were created in the Middle Ages. Some of these monuments have been included in the World Heritage list as a part of the site of Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings. In particular, the Saint Nicholas Church on Lipno Island (1292), the Nereditsa Church (1198), and the ruins of the Annunciation Church in Gorodishche (12th century) are all located within the district. Two more Middle-Age monuments, the Transfiguration Church in Kovalyovo and the Assumption Church in Volotovo, were destroyed during World War II and subsequently restored. Both contained Novgorodian frescoes of the 13th–14th centuries; the frescoes were partially restored as well. The Rurik hillfort, next to the Nereditsa Church, is an archeological site which was presumably an old location of the city of Novgorod. A number of old monasteries around Novgorod include the Khutyn Monastery (founded in the 13th century), the Derevyanitsky Monastery (1335), the Nikolo-Vyazhishchsky Monastery, and the Klopsky Monastery.
In all, the district contains 58 cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally 125 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance.
- Law #559-OZ
- Resolution #121
- Law #400-OZ
- О районе (Главная) (in Russian). Администрация Новгородского муниципального района и органы местного самоуправления поселений. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Snytko et al., p. 85
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Snytko et al., p. 27
- Snytko et al., p. 37
- Snytko et al., pp. 120–123
- Snytko et al., pp. 87–88
- Snytko et al., pp. 114–115
- Snytko et al., pp. 118–119
- Snytko et al., pp. 204–205
- Snytko et al., p. 202
- Snytko et al., pp. 209–210
- Oblast Law #284-OZ
- Итоги социально-экономического развития Новгородского муниципального района за 2011 год (in Russian). Администрация Новгородского муниципального района и органы местного самоуправления поселений. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- Сельское хозяйство (in Russian). Администрация Новгородского муниципального района и органы местного самоуправления поселений. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
- Перечень памятников истории и культуры г. Великий Новгород и его окрестностей, имеющих выдающуюся универсальную ценность, включенных в 1992 году Решением юбилейного заседания Комитета Всемирного наследия ЮНЕСКО в Список Всемирного наследия (in Russian). Комитет культуры Новгородской области. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
- Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- Новгородская областная Дума. Областной Закон №559-ОЗ от 11 ноября 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области», в ред. Областного закона №533-ОЗ от 1 апреля 2014 г. «О преобразовании некоторых муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории Новгородского муниципального района, и внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы». Вступил в силу 1 января 2006 г. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №75, 23 ноября 2005 г. (Novgorod Oblast Duma. Oblast Law #559-OZ of November 11, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Novgorod Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #533-OZ of April 1, 2014 On the Transformation of Several Municipal Formations On the Territory of Novgorodsky Municipal District and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of January 1, 2006.).
- Администрация Новгородской области. Постановление №121 от 8 апреля 2008 г. «Об реестре административно-территориального устройства области», в ред. Постановления №408 от 4 августа 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориального устройства области». Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №49–50, 16 апреля 2008 г. (Administration of Novgorod Oblast. Resolution #121 of April 8, 2008 On the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Novgorod Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #408 of August 4, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Novgorod Oblast. ).
- Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №400-ОЗ от 17 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории Новгородского муниципального района, наделении их статусом городских и сельских поселений, определении административных центров и перечня населённых пунктов, входящих в состав территорий поселений», в ред. Областного закона №533-ОЗ от 1 апреля 2014 г. «О преобразовании некоторых муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории Новгородского муниципального района, и внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня, следующего за днём официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №11–12, 26 января 2005 г. (Novgorod Oblast Duma. Oblast Law #400-OZ of January 17, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Within the Territory of Novgorodsky Municipal District, on Granting Them the Status of Urban and Rural Settlements, on Establishing Their Administrative Centers, and on Compiling the Lists of Inhabited Localities Within the Settlement Territories, as amended by the Oblast Law #533-OZ of April 1, 2014 On the Transformation of Several Municipal Formations On the Territory of Novgorodsky Municipal District and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication.).
- Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №284-ОЗ от 7 июня 2004 г. «О наделении сельских районов и города Великий Новгород статусом муниципальных районов и городского округа Новгородской области и утверждении границ их территорий», в ред. Областного закона №818-ОЗ от 3 сентября 2010 г «О внесении изменения в областной Закон "О наделении сельских районов и города Великий Новгород статусом муниципальных районов и городского округа Новгородской области и утверждении границ их территорий"». Вступил в силу со дня, следующего за днём официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №86, 22 июня 2004 г. (Novgorod Oblast Duma. Oblast Law #284-OZ of June 7, 2004 On Granting the Status of Municipal Districts and Urban Okrug of Novgorod Oblast to the Rural Districts and the City of Veliky Novgorod and on Establishing the Borders of Their Territories, as amended by the Oblast Law #818-OZ of September 3, 2010 On Amending the Oblast Law "On Granting the Status of Municipal Districts and Urban Okrug of Novgorod Oblast to the Rural Districts and the City of Veliky Novgorod and on Establishing the Borders of Their Territories". Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication.).
- Снытко, О. В.; et al. (2009). С. Д. Трифонов, Т. Б. Чуйкова, Л. В. Федина, А. Э. Дубоносова, ed. Административно-территориальное деление Новгородской губернии и области 1727-1995 гг. Справочник (in Russian). Saint Petersburg. Retrieved June 12, 2012.