TV Everywhere

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TV Everywhere (also sometimes known as authenticated streaming)[1] refers to a model wherein television providers and broadcasters, particularly cable channels, allow their subscribers to access their respective content on digital platforms, including video on demand and live streaming of the channels themselves. TV Everywhere systems utilize user accounts provided by the television provider—which are used to verify whether the user is a subscriber to a particular channel, thus allowing or denying access to the content. The U.S. provider Time Warner Cable first introduced the concept in 2009; in 2010, many television providers and broadcasters began to roll out TV Everywhere services for their subscribers, including major networks such as ESPN, HBO, and NBC (particularly for its Olympics coverage).

Although providers of these services have touted the advantages of being able to access content across multiple platforms (including on the internet, and on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets) as part of their television subscription, TV Everywhere services have been criticized for being difficult for end-users to set up, while media activists have criticized the concept for merely extending the existing oligarchy of incumbent television providers to the internet so it can compete against "cord cutters" dropping cable and sattelite entirely in favor of terrestrial television and Internet video on-demand services.


TV Everywhere services were developed in an attempt to compete with the market trend of "cord cutting", where consumers drop traditional pay television subscriptions in favor of accessing TV content exclusively through over-the-air television and/or online on-demand services, including Hulu, Netflix, YouTube, and other sources. Authenticated streaming and video on-demand services allow traditional television providers to directly compete with these disruptive competitors, and add value to existing television subscriptions in an effort to retain subscribers.[2][3]

In particular, broadcasters and providers have emphasized multi-platform viewing through TV Everywhere services, including on devices such as smartphones, tablet computers, and video game consoles.[3]



ESPN first introduced a TV Everywhere-like concept with ESPN360, a service which allowed users to stream sports programming either live or on-demand through a website. However, access to ESPN360 was restricted to the users of internet service providers who had negotiated deals with ESPN to offer the service; a model closer in nature to cable television carriage. Similar tactics were soon used by several other channels, such as NFL Network (who used the technique to restrict access to its Game Extra service for Thursday Night Football) and Epix. David Preschlack, ESPN's executive vice president for affiliate sales and marketing, foresaw a future in the model, believing that access to exclusive content would soon play a greater role in competition between high-speed internet providers. Although the model was deemed a violation of the principles of net neutrality by critics, the FCC's policies on net neutrality only apply to ISPs and not content providers.[4][5][6]

Introduction and adoption[edit]

In 2009, Time Warner Cable announced an initiative known as TV Everywhere, a set of principles which were "designed to serve as a framework to facilitate deployment of online television content in a way that is consumer friendly, pro-competitive." The concept would enable users of their respective cable television services to access live and on-demand online content from channels that they subscribe to by using an account-based authentication system. TWC CEO Jeffrey Bewkes believed that the TV Everywhere principles were "good concepts" that "[are] likely to be the general direction for all TV networks and all the distribution connections that are out there." That summer, both TWC and Comcast began trials of services based off the system; Turner Broadcasting was an early supporter of the system, providing access to TBS and TNT content as part of the trials. Comcast officially launched a public beta of its TV Everywhere-based portal, Xfinity Fancast, in December 2009 for all double-play television and internet customers. Afterwards, other providers began to follow suit.[7][5][3]

In 2010, broadcasters and television providers began a wider roll-out of TV Everywhere-based services; for the 2010 Winter Olympics, NBC Sports offered live and video on-demand access to events throughout the Games that required users to authenticate for access.[8] Also in February, HBO launched HBO Go, a video on demand service exclusive to HBO subscribers on participating providers.[9] In September 2010, Disney would begin launching an array of TV Everywhere-based services, including WatchESPN (allowing users to stream ESPN's entire suite of channels), accompanied by the later launches of Watch Disney Channel and Watch Disney XD.[10]

In August 2011, Fox became the first over-the-air network to restrict on-demand access with a TV Everywhere-based system; "next day" on-demand episodes (either through its website or Hulu, itself a joint venture between Fox, NBC, and ABC at the time) would only be available online to users authenticating themselves as a subscriber to a cable or satellite provider, or those who subscribe to the Hulu Plus service. All other users would be subject to an 8-day delay.[11] On September 1, 2011, fellow Fox property Big Ten Network (a college sports network dedicated to the Big Ten Conference, operated in partnership with Fox Sports) also launched a TV Everywhere service known as BTN2Go.[12]

Matt Strauss, Comcast senior vice president of digital and emerging platforms, considered the 2012 Summer Olympics to be a "watershed" event for TV Everywhere services; NBCUniversal announced that a total of nearly 10 million authenticated devices accessed its online coverage during the Games (across both the site and NBC Olympics Live Extra app); in particular, parent company Comcast accounted for 3.3 million devices from 1.5 million users.[13] TV Everywhere services also began to appear in Canada, with the Canadian launch of HBO Go in 2012,[14] and the 2013 announcement of TV Everywhere services from Bell Media (beginning with Bravo, expanded later to CTV) and Shaw Media (beginning with Global). The majority of Canadian television networks are already vertically integrated; both of their parent companies operate internet, cable and satellite television providers.[15][16]

In May 2013, ABC launched its Watch ABC mobile app, which allows viewers on participating providers to access live streams from participating ABC affiliates.[17][18] In December 2013, ABC confirmed that it would impose a similar restriction to Fox for "next day" on-demand episodes beginning on January 6, 2014, with 7-day exclusivity for authenticated users and Hulu Plus subscribers.[19]


The TV Everywhere concept has been met with mixed reception. Some broadcasters have been hesitant to introduce TV Everywhere services, with concerns that they may affect advertising revenue and not be adequately counted by Neilsen ratings.[3] Media activists have criticized the system for protecting the existing closed, regionalized oligarchy of multichannel television by tying internet-based content to traditional television providers, thus harming competitors that are purely internet-based. Public Knowledge believed that "under the 'TV Everywhere' plan, no other program distributors would be able to emerge, and no consumers will be able to 'cut the cord' because they find what they want online. As a result, consumers will be the losers."[5] In 2010, Free Press released a report entitled "TV Nowhere: How the Cable Industry Is Colluding to Kill Online TV", contending that "under TV Everywhere, traditional cable TV distributors will continue to serve only consumers within their current geographically limited footprints, not competing with providers in other areas" and that "by tying programming to local cable subscriptions, while denying content to pure online TV distributors, the incumbent industry hopes to artificially reproduce the lack of competition for TV distribution to which it is accustomed, based on geographical fiefdoms and turf." The National Cable and Telecommunications Association (NCTA) denied many of Free Press' arguments, stating that "[TV Everywhere] is an effort to ensure more content than ever is distributed over the Internet at no extra charge to consumers." On the other hand, Songwriters Guild of America president Rick Carnes praised the TV Everywhere concept and other recent developments for helping to provide easier, legal access to premium content online.[20]

Despite efforts by broadcasters to educate viewers (including Fox, who featured a promotional video with Jane Lynch as her Glee character Sue Sylvester, describing the process as being less painful than waterboarding), critics and end-users criticized the registration and authentication process for being frustrating and difficult. In response, providers took steps to improve the user experience of the process; Disney reported that use of its TV Everywhere services increased after it simply changed its process to use the term "verify" instead of "authenticate", Comcast and Cablevision introduced systems that automatically verify users with their residential gateways, and Synacor (a provider of authentication platforms used by providers) added the ability for users to link their provider account to a social network login, such as Facebook or Twitter.[21][22][23][13]

For the 2012 Summer Olympics and 2014 Winter Olympics, NBC worked closer with providers to help educate users, and produced customized marketing materials and video tutorials featuring Carson Daly (2012) and Ryan Seacrest (2014) to help inform users. As an incentive, NBC also allowed authenticated users to enter a sweepstakes to win a trip to London (2012) or Rio de Janeiro (2014).[24][25] However, user frustration with the TV Everywhere system NBC used for its Olympics coverage (along with complaints surrounding the quality of its coverage) led to an increase in the use of virtual private network (VPN) services to access the more comprehensive coverage of the Games provided by foreign broadcasters, such as the BBC in the U.K. or CBC in Canada—which, locally, did not require a television subscription to access.[26][27] Despite this, on February 21, 2014, coverage of the Men's hockey semi-final featuring the U.S. and Canada recorded the largest authenticated streaming audience in NBC Sports history, with 2.12 million unique viewers, augmenting the average NBCSN television audience of 3.9 million.[28][29]


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