Talk:Dwarka

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Untitled[edit]

The lost city portion has not been given its due. The fact that the excavation is still on and the artifacts and the man made boulders are still being recovered has not been mentioned at all. Please refer to the below link

http://www.arianuova.org/arianuova.it/arianuova.it/Components/English/A12-Dwaraka.html —Preceding unsigned comment added by Prat ran (talkcontribs) 07:04, 15 January 2010 (UTC)



Name[edit]

This city is linked as 'Dwaraka' from the Main Page. Is that a typo? – 86.42.138.61

The names Dwarka and Dwaraka seem to be used interchangeably throughout this article, a consensus needs to be reached on what the city is actually called. Can anyone with knowledge of the subject please contribute here? – Quoth 00:13, 4 March 2006 (UTC)
Dwaraka is the Sanskrit form of the name and Dwarka is probably the modern Gujarati version. The latter is most likely to be the official name.--Grammatical error 06:31, 9 June 2006 (UTC)
I modified the article so that Dvaraka (more accurate than Dwaraka) refers to the ancient city and Dwarka (Dvarka would be more accurate, but the w is used in the official name) to the modern city. Is this a suitable compromise?--Grammatical error 18:40, 21 June 2006 (UTC)jai dwarka dheesh


The name comes from old Slavic Shivait A-Rajan (people) "Dwarka, Dwarke, dVARi (like sVARga -"heaven or our galaxy") or Dverke, which means Gateway into the ... —Preceding unsigned comment added by 178.58.72.36 (talk) 9:37 am, 21 December 2010, Tuesday (1 year, 4 months, 1 day ago) (UTC+0)

Of course will western and Hindu Scholars never aloud to give Krishna's/Kresnik/Hresni's city that name.. - in Slavic (such a SHOCK! ) - instead that it is a correct "etymology" Krishna in "pagan" Slovenia: (golden haired Kresnik, flying on a golden chair(=Vimana), fighting against Queen of snakes)...http://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kresnik_%28bog%29 — Preceding unsigned comment added by 188.198.78.233 (talkcontribs) 20:18, 21 April 2012

Citation[edit]

I've removed some Sris and Srimads (no honorifics), and some wild association between archaeology and the Mahabharata. You are very welcome to discuss speculations on such identifications, you just need to cite your source every time ("Mr. X connects Y with Z, see reference"). There is more than enough cranky hand-waving on Wikipedia already. dab () 22:43, 1 July 2006 (UTC)

hi, i noticed the last couple of paragraphs are not very grammatically sound. Overall the article is very interestingbut just needs cosmetic modifications. vm


Quality[edit]

I feel that the quality of this article is not up to the mark. And I see the liberal use of peacock terms. Also unverified information such "Even in Tsunami or Earthquake the temple was not destroyed" which looks more like personal admiration put to words should not be allowed. I request the groups responsible to clear the article up.

And to vm, sign the post wioth four '~' as mentioned above. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Vijeth (talkcontribs) 09:55, 4 October 2007 (UTC)

I agree, and I am currently revising the article. --Shruti14 t c s 05:11, 21 March 2008 (UTC)

Improvements[edit]

This article needs much work. I have begun revising it, expanding short paragraphs, fixing general mistakes and omissions, and correcting grammar and style errors. It still, however, needs much work before it can move up on the quality scale. --Shruti14 t c s 05:10, 21 March 2008 (UTC)

One can use the talk page to clear out confusions as well in case there are any.इति इतिUAनेति नेति Humour Thisthat2011 19:45, 22 April 2012 (UTC)

last ice age[edit]

during last ice age, which was some 16000 years ago, sea levels were some 300 meters farther from the present coastal line. Lot more land was above sea level. So it is quite possible and probable for a civilization to exist at that location. But, the time period is something needs to be comprehended. Current understanding shows that mankind was still in hunter gatherer phase and not in settled phase. But all that could change if more evidence is presented. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 76.184.240.160 (talk) 03:07, 11 November 2012 (UTC)

As the ice started to melt, sea levels rose and land was submerged. All this happened so slowly over hundres of years so the people would have time to relocate. But, any argument saying that the city existed only 4000 years ago, which was during the early stages of Harrappan civilization, needs to be carefully examined, because the ice age reasoning does not explain the events 4000 years ag — Preceding unsigned comment added by 76.184.240.160 (talk) 03:15, 11 November 2012 (UTC)

Content[edit]

Some of this can be reinserted when written and sources well, it was a mess.

Geography[edit]

The modern city of Dwarka is located in the Devbhoomi Dwarka district of Gujarat. The city lies in the westernmost part of India.

Dwarka is a relatively flat region at sea level, having an average elevation of 0 metres.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Dwarka
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33
(91)
35
(95)
38
(100)
41
(106)
42
(108)
37
(99)
35
(95)
31
(88)
39
(102)
39
(102)
37
(99)
33
(91)
42
(108)
Average high °C (°F) 25
(77)
26
(79)
27
(81)
29
(84)
31
(88)
31
(88)
30
(86)
29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
27
(81)
28.7
(83.7)
Average low °C (°F) 15
(59)
17
(63)
21
(70)
24
(75)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27
(81)
26
(79)
25
(77)
24
(75)
20
(68)
16
(61)
22.4
(72.5)
Record low °C (°F) 5
(41)
8
(46)
7
(45)
17
(63)
20
(68)
22
(72)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
17
(63)
9
(48)
8
(46)
5
(41)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
50
(1.97)
170
(6.69)
60
(2.36)
30
(1.18)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
310
(12.2)
Avg. rainy days 0 0 0 0 0 4 11 6 3 0 0 0 24
 % humidity 53 65 71 79 80 79 81 82 80 74 64 53 71.8
Source: Weatherbase[1]

Among seven holy sites of India[edit]

Moreover, Dwarka is one of seven most holy places for Hindus in India where Varanasi is considered as the holiest of the seven holy cities.

A Kṣetra is a sacred ground, a field of active power, a place where Moksha, final release can be obtained. The Garuda Purana enumerates eight sites as giver of Moksha, They are Ayodhya, Mathura, Māyā, Kāsi, Kāñchī, Avantikā, Purī and Dvārāvatī.[2]

The Dwarakadhish Temple[edit]

Main article: Dwarakadheesh temple
Swarg Dwar
Rukmini temple at Dwarka

The present temple was built from 6th to 7th century, while the original temple was believed to have been built by Krishna's great grandson, King Vajra. The 5-storied temple is made of limestone and sand. A flag is hoisted in the temple tower five times each day. There are two gateways – Swarga Dwar, where pilgrims enter, and Moksha Dwar, where pilgrims exit. From the temple one can view the Sangam (confluence) of River Gomati flowing towards the sea. In Dwaraka, there are also shrines for Vasudeva, Devaki, Balarama and Revati, Subhadra, Rukmini Devi, Jambavati Devi and Satyabhama Devi.

There is a special temple for Rukmini Devi on the way to the Bet Dwarka temple. Bet Dwarka, a similar deity to Lord Dwarakanath, is also kept [clarification needed] in Bet Dwaraka. The temple of Bet Dwarka can be reached by boat. The temple has many shrines for Lakshmi Narayana, Trivikrama, Jambavati Devi, Satyabhama Devi and Rukmini Devi.

Holy City[edit]

The city derives its name from word dvar, meaning door or gate in Sanskrit. Dwarka is considered to be one of the holiest cities in Hinduism and one of the Char Dham along with Badrinath, Puri, Rameswaram. The city is especially respected by Vaishnavas.

The Jagatmandir temple, which houses the Dwarkadhish, a form of Krishna, is also located in Dwaraka.

Nageshvara Jyotirlinga, one of the 12 holy shrines of Shiva, is located near Dwaraka.

Dwarka is also the site of Dvaraka Pitha, one of the four cardinal mathas established by Adi Shankara, the others being those at Shringeri, Puri and Jyotirmath.

Sri Dwaraknath Mahatyam[edit]

Sri Dwarakanath
Dwarakdish.jpg
Sri DwarakaNath Temple
Temple Name: Sri Dwarakanath Temple
Alias Name:
God Name: Kalyana Narayanan
Goddess Name: Kalyana Nachiyaar, Rukmini Devi
Pushkarni: Gomati Pushkarni
Vimanam: HemaKoota Vimanam
Location: Jamnagar
State and Country: Gujarat, India

Adi Shankara had visited Dvarakadisha Shrine and had established the Dvaraka Pitha. The Lord here is dressed in Kalyana Kolam where he appears to be a Royal Wedding costume. It is one of the 108 Divya desams.

Darshan, Sevas and Festivals[edit]

There are many Darshan and Sevas for Lord Dwaraknath. The dress is changed accordingly. The Darshans follow the Pushti Marg Vaishnava scriptures established by Shree Vallabhacharya and Shree Vitheleshnathji. Dwarkadhish temple is a Pushti Marg Temple. The Darshan are

  • Mangala
  • Shringar
  • Gval
  • Rajbhog
  • Uthapan
  • Bhog
  • Sandhya Aarati
  • Shayan

Dwarka Kingdom[edit]

A Painting depicting Krishna's Dwarka made during Akbar's reign from the Smithsonian Institution
Main article: Dwaraka Kingdom

Dwarka is mentioned in the Mahabharata, the Harivansha, the Bhagavata Purana, the Skanda Purana, and the Vishnu Purana. It is said that this Dwarka was located near the site of the current city of Dwarka, but was eventually deserted and submerged into the sea.

Characteristics of the City[edit]

The city was built by Vishwakarma on the order of Lord Krishna. Land was reclaimed from the sea near the western shores of Saurashtra. A city was planned and built here. Dwarka was a planned city, on the banks of Gomati River. This city was also known as Dvaramati, Dvaravati and Kushsthali. It had six well-organized sectors, residential and commercial zones, wide roads, plazas, palaces and many public utilities. A hall called "Sudharma Sabha" was built to hold public meetings. The city also had a good sea harbour. The city had 700,000 palaces made of gold, silver and other precious stones. Each one of Lord Krishna's wives had her own palace. Also, the city had beautiful gardens filled with flowers of all seasons and beautiful lakes.[citation needed]

Sudama bows at the glimpse of Krishna's golden palace in Dwarka. ca 1775–1790 painting
Dwarakadheesh temple in present Dwarka city, believed to have been originally built by Lord Krishna's grandson, Vajranabha, over the hari-griha (Lord Krishna's residential place)

Submersion into the Sea[edit]

After Krishna left the earth for Vaikuntha,about 36 years after the Mahabharat War (3138 BC), and the major Yadava leaders were killed in disputes among themselves, Arjuna went to Dwarka to bring Krishna's grandsons and the Yadava wives to Hastinapur, to safety. After Arjuna left Dwarka, it was submerged into the sea. Following is the account given by Arjuna, found in the Mahabharata:

...imposed on it by nature. The sea rushed into the city. It coursed through the streets of the beautiful city. The sea covered up everything in the city. I saw the beautiful buildings becoming submerged one by one. In a matter of a few moments it was all over. The sea had now become as placid as a lake. There was no trace of the city. Dwaraka was just a name; just a memory.

The Vishnu Purana also mentions the submersion of Dwarka, stating

On the same day that Krishna departed from the earth the powerful dark-bodied Kali Age descended. The oceans rose and submerged the whole of Dwarka.

Marine archaeological findings[edit]

On 19 May 2001, India's Science and Technology Minister Murli Manohar Joshi announced the finding of ruins in the Gulf of Khambhat. The ruins, known as the Gulf of Khambhat Cultural Complex (GKCC), are located on the seabed of a nine-kilometer stretch off the coast of Gujarat province at a depth of about 40 m. The site was discovered by a team from the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) in December 2000 and investigated for six months with acoustic techniques.[3]

A follow up investigation was conducted by the same institute in November 2001, which included dredging to recover artefacts. A round of further underwater explorations was made in the Gulf of Khambhat site by the NIOT team from 2003 to 2004, and the samples obtained of what was presumed to be pottery were sent to laboratories in Oxford, UK and Hannover, Germany, as well as several institutions within India, to be dated.[4]

One of the main controversies is a piece of wood that was carbon dated to around 7500 BCE, a date which is used in arguments for a very early date for a city here.[5] Dr. D.P. Agrawal, chairman of the Paleoclimate Group and founder of Carbon-14 testing facilities in India stated in an article in Frontline Magazine that the piece was dated twice, at separate laboratories.[5] The NGRI in Hyderabad returned a date of 7190 BC and the BSIP in Hannover returned a date of 7545–7490 BC.[4] Some archaeologists, Agrawal in particular, contest that the discovery of an ancient piece of wood does not imply the discovery of an ancient civilisation. Agrawal argues that the wood piece is a common find, given that 20,000 years ago the Arabian Sea was 100 meters lower than its current level, and that the gradual sea level rise submerged entire forests.[5]

"The sacred town and temples of Dwarka," from Grindlay's 'Scenery, Costumes and Architecture chiefly on the Western Side of India', London, 1826–30

Bet Dwarka[edit]

Bet Dwarka is famous for its temples dedicated to Lord Krishna and is of great importance in the ancient Hindu tradition. It and other coastal sites have ample antiquities, mainly potsherds, suggesting maritime trade and commerce with the Mediterranean countries around the Christian era.[6] This flourishing harbour and religious capital is believed to have submerged under the sea after the Krishna left dwarka for vaikunth.[6]

A team of archaeologists have carried out onshore and inter-tidal zone explorations and a few trial trenches were laid to trace a proper cultural sequence. The most potential sites, where a large number of antiquities were recovered are the sectors, Bet Dwarka-I, II, VI, and IX.

The findings of Bet Dwarka may be divided into two broad periods: Pre-historic period which includes a small seal of conch shell engraved with a three-headed animal motif,[7] two inscriptions, a copper fishhook and late Harappan pottery (circa 1700–1400 BC) and the Historical period consisting of coins and pottery. Onshore and inter-tidal zone explorations have indicated some kind of shoreline shifting around the Bet Dwarka island as a few sites get submerged during high tide.

Offshore explorations near present Bet Dwarka brought to light a number of stone anchors of different types that include triangular, grapnel and ring stones. They are made out of locally available rocks and their period may also be similar to those found at Dwarka and other places. Recently, Roman antiquities including shreds of amphorae and a lead ingot and lead anchors were found. There is also an indication of a shipwreck of Roman period in Bet Dwarka waters.

The archaeological explorations at Bet Dwarka Island have brought to light a large number of data on India's external overseas trade and commerce with western countries. Recent findings at the Bet Dwarka have shown evidence of Indo-Roman trade. India had an active maritime trade with Rome from the fourth century BCE to 4th century CE. These findings would concentrate on the time period from the first century BCE to the 2nd century CE. The discovery of the amphoras in Bet Dwarka is significant in view of the maritime history of India in concerned. There are remains of seven amphoras from which a black encrustation can be seen. This ware was mainly used for exporting wine and olive oil from the Roman Empire; it is most likely that these were wine amphoras. The discovery of a large quantity of amphora sherds suggests that Bet Dwarka had international trade contact during the early centuries of the Christian era.[6] The findings present the possibility of a shipwreck in this area associated with Roman trade, though it is unlikely that the remains of the hull of the wreck survive.[6] Thus the presence of Roman amphoras show that Roman ships reached Bet Dwarka waters earlier than has been previously noted. These same archaeological findings along with anchors have indicated the existence of several ports, jetties and anchoring points along the west coast of Indian. Though there are no remains of an ancient jetty at Bet Dwarka, the presence of stone anchors in the intertidal one indicates that the high tide was effectively used for anchoring the boats.[8] The presence of a large number and variety of stone anchors in Bet Dwarka suggests that this was one of important ports in ancient times. The location of Bet Dwarka was favourable for safe anchorage in the past since it was protected from high waves and storms.

The proposal for the Dwarka museum, submitted by the Marine Archaeology Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography in 1999, involves laying a submarine acrylic tube through which visitors can view through glass windows the ruins of the city. The State Government of Gujarat and the Travel & Tourism Department of Gujarat are working on this proposal. When completed, it will be the first museum to be built under the sea.

Attack during Indo-Pakistani War of 1965[edit]

Dwarka was attacked on the night of 7 September 1965 by Pakistan Navy under Operation Dwarka. Dwarka was chosen for its proximity (200 km from Karachi Port). The Pakistani vessels fired over the main temple of Dwarka for more than 20 minutes. The ships fired around 50 shells each. Nearly all the shells remained unexploded.[9]


Compositions[edit]

Mirabai, Surdas had composed lot of songs on Dwarakdish. The Alwars like Thirumalisai Alvar, Nammalvar, Periyalvar, Andal, Thondaradippodi Alvar, Tirumangai Alvar have sung in praise of Dwarakanath in Tamil.


Gurudwara[edit]

Gurdwara Sri Guru Nanka Dev Ji is located at Bet Dwaraka. Bhai Mohkam Singh (one of the Panj Pyaras of Guru Gobind Singh Ji) was born at Bet Dwarka.

Gurudwara at Bet Dwarka

The origin of the name?[edit]

Dwarka (Listen) also spelled Dvarka, Dwaraka, and Dvaraka.........

Dwaraka = Dwa - Raka = Two cancers = Two arms = Двa ракa = две ръце....

Dwaraka = Dwa - Raka = Two rivers = Two kings = Две реки = двама царе...

Old Bulgarian City? — Preceding unsigned comment added by 78.90.230.235 (talk) 07:00, 31 August 2014 (UTC)

This is what we call "original research", see WP:NOR. We rely on what "reliable sources" say. See WP:VERIFY and WP:RS. Dougweller (talk) 11:20, 31 August 2014 (UTC)

...

  1. ^ "Dwarka Climate Record". Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  2. ^ The Hindu temple, Volume 1 By Stella Kramrisch, Raymond Burnier p.3
  3. ^ Mudur, G.S. "Forgotten Metropolis on Seabed." The Telegraph [Calcutta, India] 19 May 2001. [1].
  4. ^ a b Kathiroli, S. "Recent Marine Archaeological Finds in Khambhat, Gujarat." Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology 2004: 141–149. Online.
  5. ^ a b c Bavadam, Lyla. "Questionable claims: Archaeologists debunk the claim that underwater structures in the Gulf of Khambat point to the existence of a pre-Harappan civilisation." Frontline 2–15 March 2002. [2].
  6. ^ a b c d • Gaur, A., Sundaresh, S. Tripati. 2005. Evidence for Indo-Roman trade from Bet Dwarka Waters, west coast of India, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 35: 117–127.
  7. ^ Rao, S.R., (1994). New Frontiers of Archaeology, Bombay: Popular Prakashan, ISBN 81-7154-689-7, p.70
  8. ^ • Gaur, A. S., K. H. Vora. 2007. Ancient technology of jetties and anchoring points along the west coast of India, Current Science 93.7: 986–91.
  9. ^ Madan, Ramesh. "The Shelling Of Dwarka, 1965 War". Bharat-Rakshak.com