||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2014)|
|The Holy City of Ujjain|
The Shri Ram Ghat on the Shipra River
|Nickname(s): The City of Temples|
|• Body||Ujjain Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Rameshwar Akhand (BJP)|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Shri Parmar|
|• Total||152 km2 (59 sq mi)|
|Area rank||78th Largest city of India|
|Elevation||522 m (1,713 ft)|
|• Density||3,400/km2 (8,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Precipitation||960 millimetres (38 in)|
|Avg. annual temperature||24.0 °C (75.2 °F)|
|Avg. summer max. temperature||Max.39 °C (102 °F)|
|Avg. summer min. temperature||Min.24 °C (75 °F)|
|Avg. winter max. temperature||Max.25 °C (77 °F)|
|Avg. winter min. temperature||Min.8 °C (46 °F)|
Ujjain // listen (help·info) also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantika, Avantikapuri is an ancient city situated on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River (Hindi: क्षिप्रा) in the Malwa region of central India. The city is today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh, and it is the administrative centre of Ujjain District and Ujjain Division.
In ancient times, the city was called Ujjayini. As mentioned in the Mahabharata epic and Buddhist literature, Ujjayini was the capital of the Avanti Kingdom. Traditionally exalted as one of the seven sacred cities (Sapta Puri) of the Hindus, Ujjain is one of the four sites that host the Kumbh Mela (also called the Simhastha Mela), a quadrennial mass pilgrimage that attracts millions of Hindu pilgrims from around the country. It is also home to the Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga, one of the twelve Jyotirlinga shrines to the god Shiva. An ancient seat of learning, Ujjain is the place where Lord Krishna, along with Balarama and Sudama, received his education from Maharshi Sandipani. It is also known as the city of Temples.
In Indian mythology, the origin of the city is ascribed to the act of Sagar Manthan, which refers to the churning of the primordial ocean performed by the demigods and demons to discover a pot containing the nectar of immortality. The story goes that after the nectar was discovered, a fierce struggle ensued between the demigods and the demons to obtain the nectar for the attainment of immortality. During the chase, a drop of nectar spilled and fell on Ujjain, thus making the city sacred. According to legend, the river Kshipra that flows across Ujjain is regarded to have originated owing to the churning of the gods and goddesses.
Apart from the rich tapestry of myths and legends surrounding the city, Ujjain has stood witness to a long and distinguished history: it was home to legendary rulers including the renowned king Chandragupta II, great scholars such as Brahmagupta and Bhaskaracharya, and literary gems like Kalidasa. Since the 4th century BC, the city was considered the prime meridian by Hindu astrologers, and it was placed as the centre of the world in numerous ancient world maps. In the past, Ujjain was variously known as Arin, Aryn or Ozein to the outside world.
- 1 History
- 2 Transport
- 3 Education
- 4 Tourism
- 5 Famous Persons
- 6 See also
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The early history of Ujjain goes back to the period of Iron Age India. By the 6th century BC, the large kingdom of Avanti, with its capital at Ujjaini, is mentioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha. Ujjain lay on the main trade route between North India and Deccan going from Mathura via Ujjain to Mahismati (Maheshwar) on the Narmada, and onto Paithan on the Godavari, western Asia and the West. The Northern black polished ware - the NBP as it is often called which is technically the finest pottery of the time, with a brilliantly burnished dressing almost of the quality of a glaze in colour from jet black to a deep grey or metallic blue and iron, found their way to the northern Deccan from the Gangetic plains through Ujjain.
The articles of export to the western Asia such as precious stones and pearls, scents and spices, perfumes, silks and muslin, reached the port of Brighukachcha from the remote north through Ujjain. All this finds a detailed and interesting description in the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, an account of an unknown Greek merchant who made a voyage to India in the second half of the 1st century AD. The Periplus talks of a city called Ozene to the east of Barygaza (Broach) which fed all commodities to trade like onyx, porcelain, fine muslin and quantities of ordinary cotton, spikenard, costus bodellium to this important port and to other parts of India.
The earliest known epigraphic record of the Paramaras, the Harsola Granth, issued at the beginning of the 10th century, maintains that the kings of the Paramara dynasty were born in the family of the Rastrakutas in the Deccan. The early Paramara chiefs of Malwa were probably vassals of the Rastrakutas. The Udaypur Prasati, mentions Vakpati Vakpati I as the king of Avanti and it was probably in his region that the Rastrakuta Indra III halted at Ujjain while advancing with his army against the Pratihara Mahipala I.
Malwa was lost in the time of Vakpati's successor, Vairisimha II, to the invading forces of Mahipala I who avenged his defeat at the hands of Indra III by invading the empire of Rastrakuta. Mahipala and his Kalachuri confederate Bhamanadeva are said to have conquered the territory up to the banks of the Narmada including Ujjain and Dhar. The Paramara sovereignty in the Malwa ceased around AD 946 when Vairsimha II became dominant in the area.
It is in his son Siyaka II's reign that the independent Paramara rule in Malwa began. It is believed that it was this time that the capital was shifted to the area of the Mahakala Vana in Ujjain. From the 9th to the 12th centuries, the Paramaras became so identified with Ujjain that subsequent tradition has converted Vikramaditya into a Paramara. The last Paramara ruler, Siladitya, was captured alive by the Sultans of Mandu, and Ujjain passed into the hands of the Muslims.
Thus began a long era of misfortune and decay and the ancient glory of Ujjayini was lost in a morass of repeated inroads of attacking hordes. The invasion of Ujjain by Iltutmish in 1234 triggered off a systematic desecration and despoiling of temples. This tide of destruction was stemmed only in the time of Baz Bahadur of Mandu. The Mughal rule heralded a new era in reconstruction. Emperor Akbar put an end to Baz Bahadur's hegemony over Malwa and had a city wall constructed for the defense of Ujjain.
The Nadi Darwaza, Kaliadeh Darwaza, Sati Darwaza, Dewas Darwaza and Indore Darwaza were the various entrances to the city. In 1658 took place a battle near Ujjain in which Aurangzeb and Murad defeated Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur, who was fighting on behalf of Prince Dara. The actual scene of the battle is Dharmatpura renamed Fatehbad by Aurangzeb, after the victory.
The cenotaph of Raja Rattan Singh of Ratlam, who fell in the battle, still stands at the site. In the reign of Mahmud Shah, Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh was made the Governor of Malwa. A great scholar of astronomy, he had the observatory at Ujjain reconstructed and built several temples.
At the beginning of the 17th century, Ujjain and Malwa went through another period of seizure and invasion at the hands of the Marathas, who gradually captured the entire region. The Maratha domination of Malwa gave impetus to a cultural renaissance in the region and modern Ujjain came into being. Most of the temples of Ujjain were constructed during this period.
It was during this time that Ujjain became the meeting ground of painters of the Poona and Kangra styles. The impact of the two different styles of painting is distinctive. The examples of Maratha style are found in the temples of Ram Janardan, Kal Bhairava, Kalpeshwar and Tilakeshwar while the traditional Malwa style can be seen in the Sandipani Ashram and in many large houses of the local seths.
In the Maratha period, the art of wood work also developed. Wood carvings were done on the galleries and balconies. But many excellent examples have either been sold as junk or destroyed. Ujjain finally passed into the hands of the Scindias in 1750 and until 1810, when Daulat Rao Scindia founded his new capital at Gwalior, it was the chief town of his dominions. The shifting of the capital to Gwalior led to a decline in the commercial importance of Ujjain.
But the opening of Ujjain-Ratlam-Godhra branch of the Bombay-Baroda line corrected the balance. A considerable volume of trade mainly with Bombay, existed in cotton, grain and opium during the British Indian period.
There is much to demonstrate that in the perspective of India's long history, Ujjain enjoyed great importance in the battle for the empire and the constant struggle for supremacy. Political importance was compounded by the economic factor of Ujjain being situated on the main artery of trade between the North, the South and the West. This in turn contributed to Ujjain acquiring a cultural splendour of its own which is equaled by very few other cities in India.
The names of Kalidasa and Ujjayini are inextricably linked together in the Indian traditions. It is in Meghdoot, a poem of a little over hundred verses, describing the anguish of a yaksha, separated from his beloved by a curse, sending a message to her in the city of Alaka through a rain cloud from his exile in Ramagiri (now identified as Ramtek near Nagpur) that Kalidasa's love of Ujjayini finds full expression.
The poet describes the imaginary passage of the cloud over Ujjayini, and it is almost as if he is loath to move on, for in 12 verses (27-38), there is a lyrical description of the city and the people which conjures up a vivid picture of a civilized attractive society, a leisured class, intensely practical and yet imbued with deeply religious and philosophical preoccupations. See a visualisation based on one of these verses by artist Nana Joshi here.
Aurangzeb gave numerous grants to temples belying tales of intense religious bigotry, which are preserved to this day by the families of the priests.He is said to have issued a firman giving blanket protection to Dara Shikoh's guru, Kavindracharya Saraswati, after he killed his brother. Several manuscripts signed by Kavindracharya Saraswati are preserved in the Scindia Oriental Institute to this day.
It is believed that there was once a majestic Sun temple at this site. The Avanti-Mahatmya of the Skanda Purana has recorded a description of the Sun Temple and two tanks, the Surya Kunda and the Brahma Kunda. People from nearby villages have a ritual dip in the Surya Kunda even today. Remains of the old temple are found scattered all over this area.
A fragmented inscription of this place records the building of the palace in 1458, in the time of Mahmud Khilji. The story goes that the tanks were constructed all around to keep the temperature very low by Sultan Nasiruddin Khilji, the Sultan of Malwa in the 16th century, because he was in the habit of taking mercury which is hot.
Saivism, Vaishnavism and their various cults and sects, Jainism and Buddhism, have found a niche in this ancient city. The Avanti Khanda of the Skanda Purana mentions innumerable temples consecrated to Shakti and her various forms. The Siddha and the Natha cults which were offshoots of Tantricism, also flourished in Ujjain.
One of the 12 Jyotirlingas in India, the lingam at the Mahakal see www.mahakaleshwar.nic.in is believed to be swayambhu (born of itself) deriving currents of power (shakti) from within itself as against the other images and lingams which are ritually established and invested with mantra-shakti.
The idol of Mahakaleshwar is known to be Dakshinamurti, facing the south. This is a unique feature upheld by tantric traditions to be found only in Mahakaleshwar among the 12 Jyotirlingas. The idol of Omkareshwar Shiva is consecrated in the sanctum above the Mahakal shrine. The images of Ganesh, Parvati and Karttikeya are installed in the west, north and east of the sanctum sanctorum. To the south is the image of Nandi. The idol of Nagchandreshwar on the third storey is open for darshan only on the day of Nag Panchami. On the day of Mahashivaratri, a huge fair is held near the temple and worship goes on through the night.
Ujjain Airstrip is an air-strip located in village Datana, 15 km from the city on Dewas Road. There had been a proposal for mini-flights between Bhopal and Ujjian which failed due to lack of passenger attraction. It was the joint venture of MP Tourism and private flying company Ventura Airconnect.
Indore's Devi Ahilyabai Holkar International Airport nearest airport which is located 56 km from Ujjain which is connected to Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Chandigarh, Delhi, Hyderabad, Jabalpur, Vadodara, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Nagpur, Patna, Pune, Raipur, Srinagar and Visakhapatnam.
Ujjain Junction is the main railway station of Ujjain City. The station is 12 km to the east of Ujjain. The former name of this station was Avantikapuri. The main station of Ujjain lies on the Ratlam - Bhopal, Indore - Nagda and Guna - Khandwa route. To the west it is connected to Ratlam Junction, to the north it is connected with Nagda Junction, to the east it is connected with Maksi Junction, Bhopal Junction, and to the south it is connected to Indore Junction BG, Dewas Junction. Almost all the trains departing from Indore passes through Ujjain. Apart from that all the trains between Vadodara-Bhopal,Kota-Bhopal also passes from Ujjain.
The city of Ujjain has 5 other railway stations which are:
|Station Name||Station Code||Railway Zone||Total Platforms|
|Ujjain juncton||UJN||Western Railway||8|
|Chintaman Ganesh||CNN||Western Railway||2|
|Chintaman Ganesh (Meter Gauge)||CNN||Western Railway||2|
Though there is no national highway passing through the city,Ujjain is well connected to nearby cities by state highways. Various regional highways passing through the city are:
- State Highway No. 27 (Jhalawar - Ujjain -Indore- Burhanpur)
- State Highway No. 18 (Bhopal-Dewas-Ujjain-Ahemdabad)
- State Highway No. 17 (Jaora-Ujjain)
Various national highways passing through areas near the city are:
- National Highway No. 3 (Agra-Mumbai)-at Dewas(40 km), Indore(55 km), Maksi(50 km).
- National Highway No. 59 (Ahemdabad-Gopalpur in Odisha)-at Indore(55 km).
- National Highway No. 86 (Dewas-Kanpur)-at Dewas(40 km).
- National Highway No. 79 (Ajmer-Indore)-at Indore(55 km).
The university, which is named after the ruler Vikramaditya was established in 1957. Among the fourteen ancient universities of India, this 3000 year old university was the most widely recognized seat of all art forms, sports, science, literature, and more. 
Knowledge City Ujjain
Ujjain was one of the prominent cities of ancient India which saw the rise and fall of empires like the Mauryas and the Guptas. It was one of the four global seats of learning existed in ancient India along with Takshshila, Nalanda and Kashi. With this rich heritage of ancient learning and the development of the Knowledge City, Ujjain once again is being seen as a centre of modern day learning and education. The Government of Madhya Pradesh envisages the development of Knowledge City in Ujjain on 448 hectares of land. Knowledge City comprises specialized clusters or faculties along with support infrastructure for the city as a whole.
The specialized faculty led clusters are for:
- Business and Management Studies
- Medical Studies
- Bio-Sciences and Agriculture Studies
- Environmental and Design Faculty
- Vocational and Skill Development Studies
- Other upcoming education streams
The common commercial and social infrastructure is for Estate Management and Administration, Residential, City Center for commercial and entertainment facilities, schools, hospitals, green areas, and other social infrastructure.
The project is well connected by Indore-Ujjain Road. The nearest airport is located at Indore at a distance of 55 km. Another near airport is the Bhopal airport. The railway stations are : Ujjain Junction (UJN), Vikram Nagar (VRG), Berawanya (BRNA).
Ensured water supply for the next 30 years through already identified sources.
100 MVA 220/33 KV sub-station is proposed to be constructed at Knowledge City site as a main distribution hub for the entire project. Currently the Madhya Pradesh State Electricity Board looks after the supply and revenue collection for electricity in the region.
Center of Excellence
- To be developed as a National Centre of Excellence.
- To meet the demand of trained and skilled workforce requirements of the DMIC region and other industrial areas.
- An integrated education based township, housing a conglomeration of academic institutions imparting education in a variety of technical and vocational trades.
- Providing infrastructure for academic institutions, students and faculty housing, support, social and physical infrastructure.
- Sustainable economic base around educational and institutional activities for technical and vocational skill development.
The vision of Knowledge City is to bring excellence in the field of education by imparting knowledge and skills responding to the needs of industry and society, contributing to the knowledge economy of the nation."
The proposed Knowledge City situated along Ujjain - Dewas Road in a lush green surrounding in Ujjain at Narwar village is well connected by air, rail and road. It is located at distance of 55 km from Indore & 190 km from Bhopal.
The Knowledge City is planned on a site area of 448 hectares of land as eco-friendly and energy efficient city as per LEED standards. Planning horizon of 30 years envisaged to be developed in a phased manner
- Total capacity of 50,000 students, 3823 faculty, and 3546 staff by year 2041
- The approximate total built up area is 1.76 million sq.m. giving utmost importance to environment protection and natural conservation
Knowledge City would be developed on public and private sector participation model (PPP model) to bring in the technical and managerial expertise of the private sector. The state government will act as a regulatory authority.
It finds mention in the Hindu mythological tale of churning of the cosmic ocean by the gods and the demons, with Vasuki, the serpent as the rope. It is believed that the ocean bed first yielded fourteen gems, then Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth, and finally the coveted vessel of Nectar.
In the wild scramble for immortality, with the demons chasing the Gods across the skies, a few drops of the Nectar spilt from the vessel and fell at Haridwar, Nasik, Prayag, and Ujjaini or the present Ujjain. Therefore, the Kumbha Parva is celebrated at the interval of every twelve years at these places.
The specific features of Kumbha alias Simhastha in Ujjain is its association with Leo, thus being famous as the Simhastha Parva. On this occasion the following ten coincidences assemble together
- The month of Baisakha
- The bright fortnight
- The full Moon day (Purnima)
- The Sun in the arise (Mesha Rasi)
- The Brihaspati (Jupiter) in Leo
- The Moon in the Libra (Tula rasi)
- The vyatipata yoga
- The pious Monday
- The holy Ksetra Avantika
On the occasion of this pious Parva lakhs of pilgrims from India and abroad take bath here and exhibit their religious faith. The most peculiar feature is the procession of the seers and sages moving towards the Sipra for the holy dip. These religious leaders stay in Ujjain during the whole Simhastha period and take bath on specific bath-days with freat faith and enthusiasm with their sectorial banners (Nisanas).
During the Simhastha Parva every pilgrim after taking the bath visits the temple and humbly bows down before the Lord. The sight of the temple is very enchanting and rarely seen on that occasion. The law and order situations are well-planned and very alert then. The whole atmosphere echoes with the Jaya Jayakara (Victory to the Lord) Mahakalesvara.
Situated on an island in the river Kshipra, Kaliadeh Palace was built in the year 1458 AD by the Sultans of Mandu. The palace was demolished at the time of the Pindaris and was restored to its former glory by Madhav Rao Scindia in 1920.
The central hall, which is surrounded with galleries, presents a classic example of Persian architecture. Though lost in the loneliness of the torrents of Shipra River, even now, this water palace holds some religious significance. People from the nearby villages took a dip in one of the tanks, which is called as Surya Kund.
Once a hall of fame, this majestic monument holds two Persian inscriptions, which states about the visit of Akbar and Jahangir. The splendid landscape of the curving river on both sides of the Kalideh palace and the man-made tanks and channels, with water murmuring through them, offers a stunning background to the imposing building.
The Kaliadeh Palace is located on the banks of the River Shipra and is the most visited sites of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is like an isle that is separated by a small stretch of water that makes it look more elegant. This island-like site immediately conjures up the natural beauty of ancient Ujjain which poets down the ages have waxed lyrical. The glorious landscape of the flowing river on both sides of the palace and the man-made tanks and channels, with water gurgling through them, provide a spectacular backdrop to the imposing building.
Kaliadeh palace, as it is lost now in the symphonious solitude of the streams of Shipra, flowing through tanks and channels with frolicsome twists and turns in the serene setting of nature, was once a majestic Sun-temple. Avanti-mahatmya of the Skanda Purana has recorded a description of the Sun-temple, the Surya-kunda and Brahma-kunda. People from nearby villages have their religious bath in one of the tanks known as Surya-kund even today.
Remains of the old temple are seen scattered here and there throughout the area. The flow of Shipra is divided into two parts on the southern side. The stream of Shipra has been made to rush through tanks and channels carved on the western side by arresting it on the eastern side with a barrage. Kaliyadeh palace was shaped in the present form in the 16th century by Nasiruddin Khilji, the sultan of Malwa.
The central dome of the palace is a beautiful example of Persian architecture. Visits of Akbar and Jehangir to this palace are recorded in two Persian inscription found in the long corridor adjacent to the tanks. The palace came under the control of the Scindias during the Maratha period. The Sun-temple has now been restored here by Rajmata Scindia.
First Observatory of India and Vedhshala (Jantar mantar)
Vedh Shala, Ujjain is India's first observatory . The city of Ujjain is considered the Greenwich of India due to the fact that the first meridian of longitude passes through it. Going by the Indian astronomers, the Tropic of Cancer passes through Ujjain. This observatory was constructed by Savai Raja Jaysingh between 1725 and 1730. Similar observatories were constructed by Maharaja Jai Singh at four other places- Delhi, Jaipur, Mathura and Varanasi.
Samrat yantra, Nadivalaya yantra, Digamsha yantra and Yamyottara-Bhitti yantra are the main instruments constructed in this observatory. Motions and orbits of the planets are studied through these instruments. On the account of this people call it Yantra Mahal as well.This observatory was renovated by Madhav Rao Scindia, then Maharaja of Gwalior state in 1923. Astronomical studies of planetary motions are still conducted in this observatory under the department of education and an Ephemeris (Panchang) is published every year.
In other words, this is the only observatory among the observatories of Maharaja Jai Singh where these masonic instruments are even today utilised for astronomical studies.
Vedh Shala, Ujjain possesses instruments that are used to determine the locations of heavenly bodies for astrological purposes. The other things available in Vedh Shala in Ujjain in India are a small planetarium and a telescope for the purpose of moon-gazing and observing the planets Mars and Jupiter and their satellites. The Vedh Shala in Ujjain in India is a bit smaller than those in Jaipur and Delhi but is quite interesting and very much in use.
The structure of the monument reflects the hard word and superb skill that has gone into making it. Maharaja Jai Singh set up new instruments in these observatories employing his skills. He made alterations in a number of main Astro-mahematical instruments by observing the activities of planets himself for eight years in Ujjain. Thereafter the observatory remained uncared for two decades. Then as per suggestions of Siddhntavagish (Late) Shri Narayanji Vyas, Ganak Churamani and Shri G.S. Apte, the first Superintendent of observatory, Maharaja Madhav Rao Scindia renovated the observatory and funded it for active use.
A vertical gnomon (Shanku) is fixed at the centre of the circular platform having a horizontal shape. The seven lines drawn according to the shadow of the gnomon indicate the twelve zodiac signs. Among these lines, the 22nd December makes the shortest day, the 21st March and the 23rd September make the days and nights equal, and the 22nd June makes the longest day of the year. With the help of the shadow of the gnomon the angle of elevation and zenith distance of the sun can determined. The Altitude of Ujjain is determined by the mid-day shadow of Shanku Ynatra when the days and nights have equal length
Nadi Valve Yantra
This instrument made in the plane of the celestial equator has two â€“ the north and the south parts. When the Sun is in the northern hemisphere for six months, the northern hemisphere disc is illuminated. But when the sun is in the southern hemisphere for the remaining six months, the southern disc is illuminated. The exact time of Ujjain is known by the shadow of the nails fixed parallel to the Earthâs axis in between these two parts.
This instrument is used to ascertain whether a celestial body is in the northern or the southern half. Observe a desired planet straight from a suitable point on the round edge of the northern part. If it is visible, then deem it to be in the northern hemisphere, otherwise it is in the southern one, likewise, information could be had from the southern part.
The upper planes of the two walls on the sides of the steps in the middle of this instrument are parallel to the axis of the earth. In the direction of the planes the pole star is visible. To the East and the West of the wall the quarter of a circle is formed in the plane of the Celestial equator on which hours, minutes and a third part of a minute are engaged.
When the Sun shines in the sky, the shadow of the edge of the wall falls on some mark indicating local time of Ujjain be calculating the hour and minutes. By adding minutes to this clear time table given on the east and the west side of the instrument, one knows the Indian Standard Time.
This Instrument is mainly used to find out the declination of any celestial body from the celestial equator towards the north or the south. First find out the particular point on the edge of the quadrant from where the centre of the celestial body could be observed to coincide with the edge of the wall. The reading at this point of the wall gives the declination
This instrument is used to fix out the Altitude (distance from the horizon) and the Azimuth (angular distance from the east or the west point measured along the horizon) of any celestial body. For this purpose a sextant type device called Turiya Yantra is fitted on the pole at the centre of the circular platform.
Arrange the position of Turiya Yantra in such a way that the two holes of the Yantra are in line joining the celestial body so that it may be visible through both the holes. The Pointer of the Turiya Yantra moving along the round graduated disc at top of the pole gives Azimuth. The suspending thread of the Yantra gives the Altitude on the graduated seal of the quadrant.
This instrument built in the plane of the meridian circle (i.e. the circle joining the south-north and the zenith point) is used for observing the zenith distance of any celestial body (corresponding to its mid-day).
There are two nails at the top of the instrument fixed with string in the centre of graduated quadrants. When the object is in the south of the prime vertical (the circle joining the east the west and the zenith point) the southern nail is to use. The northern nail is used likewise if the object is found in the north.
At the time of the transit of the celestial body, the observer has to keep his eye on the string and move it forward or backward to determine the particular position of the string at which the centre of the heavenly body could be seen, through the point of the intersection of the nail and the wall. The reading of the quadrant at this position gives the zenith distance
Vikram kirti Mandir
Vikram Kirti Mandir was established in the year of 1965 which displays various historical evidences like coins, images, manuscripts, ancient clothes that were worn by the people of by gone days, weapons and the utensils. All these items explicitly utters the story of the birth of Ujjain from the days of histories.
The Mandir remains open for all the days so that people will be able to know the root of the city and can experience their origin. There is the Scindia Oriental Research institute that deals with archeological museum and art gallery which shows the entire ancient culture that was prevailing in Ujjain hundreds of years ago.Vikram Kirti Mandir is built in the memory of Vikramaditya, on the occasion of the second millennium of the Vikram era, as a cultural centre.
The Scindia Oriental Research Institute, an archaeological museum, an art gallery and an auditorium are the main attractions of Vikram Kirti Mandir. There is a huge collection of invaluable manuscripts on various subjects and in different languages, and a rich collection of old paintings in the Rajput and Mughal style in Scindia Oriental Research Institute. The museum has a rich array of images, inscriptions, copper plates and fossils discovered in the Narmada valley and a huge skull of a primitive elephant.
Mahakavi Kalidasa is known to be the greatest repository of our national heritage. The serenity of his artistic accomplishment has earned for him a high place in the galaxy of world poets. Kalidasa's imagination holds in perfect fusion the two elements of natural beauty and human feelings. He has continued to display his relevance through the centuries. Surcharges with wider human sympathy and universal appeal his character has remained truly Indian.
Thus, Kalidasa continues to shine throughout the world as one of the greatest exponent of Indian culture. In keeping view of his memory at Ujjain, the department of culture of the government of Madhya Pradesh In the year 1978. The basic idea of establishing Kalidasa Academy in Ujjain is in twofold. One is to keep the memory of the great poet-dramatist Kalidasa constantly refreshed.
The other is to establish a multi-disciplinary institution which would project the totality of classical tradition with Kalidasa as its centre; provide facilities for research and study in Sanskrit classical and traditional performing arts and their adaptation for contemporary stage in different cultural and linguistic millions. The Kalidasa Academy is designed to recapture the contribution of entire Sanskrit classical tradition, theatre and fine arts and to represent its unique aesthetic vision to the international community.
The academy is established to undertake its activities in accordance with the following objectives :
1. Study and exploration of Kalidasa's literature not only purely from the literary and academic point of view but also from the interdisciplinary angles in term of its total impact on the various forms;
2. Translation, preparation, publication and documentation of Kalidasa's and other Sanskrit works in various oriental as well as other world languages with particular accent on preparing stage versions of Sanskrit plays in Hindi and other Indian languages;
3. Establishment of a model Sanskrit theatre (Natyamandap) as per norms of Bharata's Natya Shastra with a view to attempt authentic reconstruction of the ancient style and facilitate regular production of Kalidasa's and other Sanskrit plays by eminent classical theatre personalities from all over the country as well as abroad.
4. Collection and analysis of all available material relating to Sanskrit theatre and those forms which are living remnants of the classical style;
5. Establishment of a museum of Sanskrit theatrical arts and library of traditional music and theatre and dance costumes etc. and their documentation through tapes, films and other media including production of books of Sanskrit plays etc.;
6. Facilities for imparting training in classical theatre and for under taking research in related areas.
The academy is situated in its own campus with a beautiful natural pond. The total area of land is 3374 hectares.It has got its own buildings within the premises in the year 1983. Well known architect Smt. Hema Sankalia has designed it with a rare insight and imagination. In the year 1995, a new building has been constructed and handed over to the academy. The academy building combines the serenity of an Ashram with the functional utility of a modern edifice, a brick and sloping roof affair.
1. Office, Library, Lecture and Seminar Hall, Exhibition Hall; other Administrative building and Hostel.
2. A modest Sanskrit theatre Natya Griha as per norms of Bharata Natya Shastra with a seating capacity of 200 to 300 audiences and related facilities.
3. An open air theatre for large number of audience.
4. Exhibition hall with facilities for both permanent and periodical display of classical exhibits.
5. Guest house for scholars and other visitors with a kitchen and other related facilities.
The physical environment of this building has been planned with a view to recreate a particular kind of atmosphere. The trees such as Ashoka, Amra, Kadamba, Bakula, Panasa and other such varieties which are found in Kalidasa's literature have been planted with a view to keep Ashram tradition. The academy was established in the year 1978 and began in 1979.
Shri Chintaman Ganesh
This Ganesha stone temple is located in the middle of the market, and dates back to 11th and 12th centuries when the Paramaras ruled over Malwa (Madhya Pradesh). The finely-carved stone pillars in the assembly hall and the white shrine define the age-old sanctity of the temple.
The temple is dedicated to Lord Ganesha, who is regarded as the Lord of beginnings as per the Hindu beliefs. In the traditional times, the Lord is known as Chintaharan which literally means remover of all worries and tensions. The temple is thronged by crowds of people that come to do away with all their worries at the shrine of the Lord. The term Chintamani is another name used for Lord Vishnu, who is considered as the preserver of the Universe as per Hindu Mythology.
The Ganesha idol enshrined in this temple is supposed to be swayamabhu (born of itself). Also called Vighneshwara, the moderator of grief, Ganesha is always the first to be worshipped in the Hindu pantheon, lest he decide to sow obstacles in the devotees' path. His consorts, Ridhhi and Siddhi, flank Chintaman, the assuager of all worries. Locally, Ganesha is also referred to as Chintaman.
Also known as the Pancheshani Yatra, it is a grand tour of Ujjain in which thousands of people join in every year. The Chatdwar Yatra, the ceremonial visits to the four gates, is also associated with this Yatra. The legend goes that when Lord Shiva founded Ujjain at Parvati's behest on the banks of the Shipra, four gates were established to guard the city from all four directions.Four guardian deities, Pingaleshwar (East), Kayavarohaneshwar (South) Dardureshwar (North) and Bilveshwar (West) were appointed with Mahakaleshwar at the centre of the town.
- Thawar Chand Gehlot
- Gundecha Brothers
- Asghar Ali Engineer
- Hukam Chand Kachwai
- Paras Chandra Jain
- Satyanarayan Jatiya
- Chintamani Malviya
- Sachida Nagdev
- Naman Ojha
- Pushpa Devi Singh
- Sartaj Singh
- Kaptan Singh Solanki
- Haribhau Upadhyaya
- Vivian Dsena
- Saumya Tandon
- 1996 Ujjain and Haridwar stampedes
- Ancient monuments in Ujjain
- Avanti Kingdom
- Battle of Ujjain
- Chintaman Ganesh
- Kalidasa Akademi
- Kumbh Mela
- Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga
- Siddha Ashram
- Syro-Malabar Catholic Eparchy of Ujjain
- Vedh Shala
- Dongray, Keshav Rao Balwant (1935). Ujjain. Alijar Darbar Press, Gwalior.
- Dipak Kumar Samanta (1996). Sacred Complex of Ujjain. D.K. Printworld. ISBN 978-81-246-0078-8.
- Rahman Ali; Ashok Trivedi; Dhirendra Solanki (2004). Buddhist remains of Ujjain region: excavations at Ṣodañga. Sharada Pub. House. ISBN 978-81-88934-15-7.
- Exceptions include Dr. Pranjal Awasthi, a renowned scientist in the areas of Computer Science and Machine Learning.
- UjjainTourism - Ujjain
- Equatorie of Planetis, Price, p64
- About Ujjain- MP Tourism
- Joshi, Nana. "The Courtesan of Chandishwar Temple". Joshi Artist. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- Ujjain-Bhopal air services fail to get off to a flying start
- Ujjain Junction Station Train Time Table
- "7 Wonders of India:Ujjain".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ujjain.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Ujjain.|
- Official website of Ujjain
- Web Portal of Ujjain
- directory of Ujjain
- Mahakal temple official website
- directory of ujjain
- commissioner of ujjain website
- tourism website of ujjain
- Iskon temple website ujjain
- website of grand fair simhastha
- Eparchy of ujjain
- tourism website
- hotels directory of Ujjain
- Online Ujjain Guide
- Ujjain Kumbh Mela