||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (April 2009)|
|— Metropolis —|
|The Holy City of Ujjain|
|Nickname(s): The City of Temples|
|• Body||Ujjain Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Rameshwar Akhand (BJP)|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Sonu Gehlot|
|• Total||152 km2 (59 sq mi)|
|• Density||3,400/km2 ( 8,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Precipitation||900 millimetres (35 in)|
|Avg. annual temperature||24.0 °C (75.2 °F)|
|Avg. summer temperature||31 °C (88 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||17 °C (63 °F)|
Ujjain // listen (help·info) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantika, Avantikapuri), is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River (Hindi: क्षिप्रा), today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative centre of Ujjain District and Ujjain Division.
In ancient times the city was called Ujjayini. As mentioned in the Mahabharata epic, Ujjayini was the capital of the Avanti Kingdom, and has been the Prime Meridian for Hindu geographers since the 4th century BCE. Ujjain is regarded as one of the seven sacred cities (Sapta Puri) of the Hindus. It is one of the four sites that host the Kumbh Mela (also called the Simhastha Mela), a mass pilgrimage that attracts millions of Hindu pilgrims from around the country. It is also home to the Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga, one of the twelve Jyotirlinga shrines to the god Shiva. An ancient seat of learning, Ujjain is the place where Lord Krishna, along with Balarama and Sudama, received his education from Maharshi Sandipani.
Its origin is ascribed to the myth of Sagar Manthan (churning of the primordial ocean to discover the pot of nectar). The story goes that after the nectar was discovered, there was competition between the gods and the demons to have the nectar first so as to attain immortality. During this chase a drop of nectar spilled and fell on Ujjain, thus making the city sacred. According to legend, the river Kshipra that flows across Ujjain is regarded to have originated due to the churning of the gods and goddesses.
Apart from the myths, the city has a long and distinguished history: it has witnessed legendary rulers including the renowned king Chandragupta II, great scholars such as Brahmagupta and Bhaskaracharya, and literary gems like Kalidasa. Also known as Arin, Aryn or Ozein, it was used as the prime meridian by Hindu astrologers, and was placed as the center of the world in numerous ancient world maps.
History of Ujjain 
The early history of Ujjain is lost in the midst of hoary antiquity. By the 6th century B.C. Avanti with its capital at Ujjaini, is mentioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha. Ujjain lay on the main trade route between North India and Deccan going from Mathura via Ujjain to Mahismati (Maheshwar) on the Narmada, and on to Paithan on the Godavari, western Asia and the West. The Northern black polished ware—the NBP as it is often called which is technically the finest pottery of the time, with a brilliantly burnished dressing almost of the quality of a glaze in colour from jet black to a deep grey or metallic blue and iron—found their way to the northern Deccan from the Gangetic plains through Ujjain. The articles of export to western Asia such as precious stones and pearls, scents and spices, perfumes, silks and muslin, reached the port of Brighukachcha from the remote north through Ujjain.
The earliest references to the city, as Avantika, are from the time of Gautama Buddha, when it was the capital of the Avanti Kingdom. Since the 4th century B.C. the city has marked the first meridian of longitude in Hindu geography. It is also reputed to have been the residence of Ashoka (who subsequently became the emperor), when he was the viceroy of the western provinces of the Mauryan empire.
In the Post-Mauryan period, the city was ruled by the Sungas and the Satavahanas consecutively. It was contested for a period between the Satavahanas and the Ror Sakas (devotees of Shakumbari), known as Western Satraps; however, following the end of the Satavahana dynasty, the city was retained by the Rors from the 2nd to the 4th century CE. Ujjain is mentioned as the city of Ozene in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, an antique Greek description of sea ports and trade centers in the western Indian Ocean. Following the enthroning of the Gupta dynasty, the city soon became an important seat in the annals of that empire. Ujjain is considered to be the traditional capital of King Chandragupta II, also known as Vikramaditya, at whose court the nine poets known as the navaratna (nine jewels) of Sanskrit literature are said to have flourished.
In the 10th and 11th centuries, Ujjain was a major centre of mathematical and astronomical research. The famous mathematicians who worked there included: Brahmagupta, whose book Brahmasphutasiddhanta was responsible for spreading the use of zero, negative numbers and the positional number system to Arabia and Cambodia; Varahamihira, who was the first to discover many trigonometric identities; and Bhaskaracharya, or Bhaskara II, whose book Lilavati broke new ground in many areas of mathematics.
During the last half of the 18th century Ujjain was the headquarter of the Maratha leader Scindia. Shinde Dynasty (Scindias)were responsible for the development and progress of Malwa and Braj area of Northen India. Nemaji Shinde, Shrimant Ranojirao Shinde, Shambhuraje Shinde (Sabaji), Jayaajirao (I) also known as Jayappa dadasaheb Shinde , Dattajirao Shinde, Jyotiba Shinde, Tukajirao Shinde, Shreenath Madhavji Shinde, Jankojirao (II), Anandrao Shinde, Kedarji Shinde, Manaji Shinde, Daulatrao Shinde, Shrimant Maharani Bayzabai Raje Shinde, Jankoji (III), Maharani Shrimant Tarabai Raje, Shrimant Jayajirao (II) were the rulers who during their regime developed the city.
Shrimant Ranoji Shinde (1731-1745 AD) made many of the temples and ghats which are worshipped today also. That includes
1. Jyotirlingam Shri Mahakaaleshwar Mandir
2. Ram Ghat
3. Mangalnath mandir
4. Harsidhdhi Mandir
5. Sidhha Vat Ghat
The present structure of Jyotirlingam Shree Mahakaaleshwar Mandir was built by the Srimant Raanojirao Shinde Maharaj Scindias in 1734 AD. Further developments and management was done by Shreenath Mahadji Shinde Maharaj (Mahadji The Great) also known as Madhavrao Shinde the First (1730–12 February 1794) and Srimant Maharani Bayzabai Raje Shinde (1827–1863).
Shrimant Bayzabai Shinde reconstructed the Gopal Mandir in the later half of 19th Century, which was originally built by Shreenath Mahadji Shinde in 1768 A.D.
In the regime of Maharaja Shrimant Jayaajirao Saheb Shinde Alijah Bahadur until 1886, major programs of the then Gwalior Riyasat used to be held at this mandir. After Independence the Dev Sthan Trust was replaced by the municipal corporation of Ujjain.The Scindias later established themselves at Gwalior, and Ujjain remained part of Gwalior state until Indian Independence in 1947. Gwalior state became a princely state of the British Raj after the Maratha defeat in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, and Gwalior, Ujjain, and the neighboring princely states were made a part of the Central India Agency. After Indian independence, the Scindia ruler of Gwalior acceded to the Indian Union, and Ujjain became part of the Madhya Bharat state. In 1956 Madhya Bharat was merged into the Madhya Pradesh state.
Mahakaleshwar Temple 
One of the twelve jyotirlingas in India, the lingam at Mahakaleshwar is believed to be swayambhu (born of itself) deriving currents of power (shakti) from within itself as against the other images and lingams which are ritually established and invested with mantra-shakti. The idol of Mahakaleshwar is known to be dakshinamurti, facing the south. This is a unique feature upheld by tantric traditions to be found only in Mahakaleshwar among the twelve Jyotirlingas. The idol of Omkareshwar Shiva is consecrated in the sanctum above the Mahakal shrine. The images of Ganesh, Parvati and Karttikeya are installed in the west, north and east of the sanctum sanctorum. To the south is the image of Nandi. The idol of Nagchandreshwar on the third storey is open for darshan only on the day of Nag Panchami. On the day of Maha Shivaratri, a huge fair is held near the temple and worship goes on through the night.
The meaning of Mahakal is taken as Lord of Time and also Lord of death. It is the third sacred Jyotirlinga of Hindu Dwadash (Twelve) Jyotirlingas.
In ancient time, the astronomical calculations for the entire world were done taking Ujjain as centre of earth. In astronomical calculations, Shankuyantra is an important instrument. It is believed that in Ujjain, at the place of shankuyantra, the Jyotirlinga Mahakal is established.
Kumbh Mela 
Maha Kumbh is the largest religious congregation on earth. History of this festival is given in holy scripture Bhagavata Purana.It is said that when demons become powerful and demigods(in charge of material administration)become too weak than Lord Brahmä and Lord Shiva advice them to pray to the supreme personalty of Godhead Lord Visnu Ujjain is one of the holy city where this event is organised and next kumbh mela will be held in year 2016.
Ancient monuments and places of interest in Ujjain 
- The Mahakal Temple, one of the twelve Jyotirlingas, is a famous and venerated Shiva temple. It derives its name from "kaal" meaning end of life - death; the word Mahakaal means Lord of Death. Lord Mahakaleshwar is the presiding deity of the city. The Shivling in this temple is supposed to be the only Jyotirlinga which faces south and hence it is known as Dakshinmukhi or the south-facing lingam. Every year on the day of Maha Shivratri, huge crowds of devotees throng the temple for "darshan". The temple attracts a large congregation of Shiva devotees on the day of Naagpanchami in the month of Saavan. On every Monday of "Saavan", the Lord Shiva idol is taken out in a grand procession through the city which is attended by large numbers of devotees from around the country.
- The Harsidhhi temple is one of the Shaktipeeths, situated at 52 places in India. It is dedicated to the goddess Annapurna and houses the Shri Yantra, a symbol of "shakti" or power.
- Kal Bhairav is a temple on the banks of the Kshipra that is dedicated to the worship of Kal Bhairav, the chief of the eight Bhairavas described in Saivite tradition.
- The Chintaman Ganesh temple is an ancient temple of Lord Ganesha.
- The Mangalnath temple is situated away from the bustle of the city and looks down upon a vast expanse of the Kshipra River. It is regarded as the birthplace of Mars (mangala in Hindi), according to the Matsya Purana.
- The Sandipani Ashram is where Puranic traditions say Shri Krishna received his education, along with Balarama and Sudama, in the ashram of Maharshi Sandipani.
- Gadkalika, situated about two miles from the present town, the deity in this temple is believed to have been worshiped by Kalidasa.
- Siddhavat is an enormous banyan tree on the banks of the Kshipra, considered sacred since the medieval ages.
- The throne of Maharaja Vikramaditya, known as the "seat of judgment (salabanjika throne)" is located in the Rudra Sagar lake.
- The Kaliyadeh Palace, located on the north of the city, is an ancient site that was restored by the erstwhile royal Scindia family of Gwalior. It is believed that there was once a majestic Sun temple at this site.
- The Bharthari caves is an ancient site which has some interesting legends associated with it. It is said that it holds tunnels which lead directly to the four ancient dhams (char dham). These ways were later shut down by Britishers.
- The Observatory (Vedha Shala) built by a Rajput king, Raja Jai Singh II, in the 1720s, is one of the five such observatories in India and features ancient astronomical devices.
- The Siddha Ashram, located between Ramghat and Narshinghat, is known for research in Ayurvedic medicine and Kundalini Shaktipat.
- Sri Sri Radha Madan Mohan Temple, of the ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) or Hare Krishna Movement, also has a guest house and restaurant, and is a major attraction for tourists, though it is very new on the map of Ujjain.
- The Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan museum, located near Chamunda tower, houses many antique objects.
- Canopy (Chhatri or Dewali) of Veer Durgadas Rathore "the Great Warrior and protector of Marwar" at Chakratirth.
- Jain temples: Jai Singh Pura Atishay Kshetra, Tapobhoomi, kala,Avanti Parshwanath, Hanumant Baag, Manibhadradham Bhairavgarh.
- The Kothi Palace presents a sight worth watching in the evening.
- Other important temples are Gopal Mandir, Triveni (Nav Graha Shani Mandir), Maa Waageshwari, Siddhhanath, Prashanti Dham and Shiv Shakti,Gebi Hanuman.
Kal Bhairav Temple Ujjain
Among seven holy cities of India 
|“||Ayodhyā Mathurā Māyā Kāsi Kāñchī Avantikā I
Purī Dvārāvatī chaiva saptaitā moksadāyikāh II — Garuḍa Purāṇa I XVI .14
Various names of Ujjain 
It is said that to the Western astronomers it was known as "Arin".
Ujjain is situated on the Malwa Plateau in Central India. The soil is black and stony. The vegetation is typical of arid regions with thorny trees like babul and acacia dominating the landscape. Soybean, wheat, jowar and bajra are the main crops grown.
Ujjain is located at  It has an average elevation of 491 metres (1610 ft)..
As of 2011[update] India census, Ujjain had a population of 515,215. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Ujjain has an average literacy rate of 72%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 79%, and female literacy is 66%. In Ujjain, 13% of the population is under 7 years. Ujjain city is spread on the area of 93 km2 and is 72nd largest city in India and 5th in M.P.
The predominant language of Ujjain is Hindi.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Ujjain experiences a warm sub-tropical climate, typical of the North Central India. Summer starts in late March with temperatures rising to 45°C at its peak in May. In addition, hot winds (called loo) may blow in the afternoons, adding to the discomfort. The monsoon arrives in the middle of June and continues till early October. About 870 mm (35 inches) of precipitation is received during those months, though some years may see the figure climb up to 40 inches.
The rest of October generally is very warm and with high humidity. Winter starts in the middle of November and is pleasant and cool with daytime temperatures typically 20°C, though temperatures can drop significantly in the night. January takes chilli winds (called Sheet-lehar) with it, and sometimes daytime temperature rise only up to 15-17°C, and minimum temperature fall to 3C, 0°C is the lowest temperature recorded in the city in January 1982 and 1965. The morning dew in the outskirts of the city, and fields and farms turns ice because of some nights of freezing points, which results in damaged crops almost every year.
Ujjain city has two legislative assembly zones, known as Ujjain North and Ujjain South. For Parliamentary purposes it is treated as one seat. There are 54 wards; ward members are elected directly by the people.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2009)|
||This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. (October 2009)|
The economy of Ujjain is mainly dependent on the agricultural activities of the nearby villages. Two main crops are grown each year: wheat as the major Rabi crop, soybean as the major Kharif crop. Ujjain agriculture is sensitive to changes in rainfall and failure of monsoon cycles can lay a devastating toll on agriculture and the local economy.
Ujjain was previously a major industrial area having steel plant,soyabeen oil plant,shree synthetics ltd.and a dalda mill and was a great centre of the textile industry with a number of textile mills in the city. Almost all the mills have since closed. Religious tourism is also a contributor to the economy, especially during the Simhasta Mela.
Ujjain also generates huge revenue from the holy fair of Kumbh Mela locally known as Simhastha.
Ujjain is well-connected by rail and road. It is on the Western Railway and is connected by direct train to most major Indian cities. The road network is developed with other parts of Madhya Pradesh. Ujjain is connected to Indore through SH-27 and SH-18 Dewas-Badnawar passes through it. Unfortunately Ujjain is the largest city that has no National Highway connectivity.
- A private airstrip, situated on Dewas road is being used as a pilot training institute. It has no commercial scheduled air services.
- The nearest airport is the Devi Ahilyabai Holkar Airport at Indore (50 km away)
Railway stations 
There are five railway stations:
- Ujjain Junction main (Back side of this station is known as Madhav Nagar Rly.Stn.)
- Vikram Nagar
- Chintaman (Metre Gauge)
- Matana Buzurg
Bus stations 
- Dewas Gate (Shaheed Raja Bhau Mahakal bus stand)
- Nanakheda (Pt. Deendayal Upadhyay bus stand)
Major roads 
Indore Road, Dewas Road, Kota Road, Badnagar Road, Maksi Road, Nagda Road, Tarana Road Via Undasa Dam, Chintaman Road which is connected to four-lane state highway from Badnagar to Sanwer.
Local transport 
Ujjain City Transport Services Limited (UCTSL) runs the city bus service that operates 40 buses plying on all important routes in the city. Besides the bus service, auto rickshaws, taxis, and other transport vehicles - locally referred to as 'tempo' and 'Tata Magic' - are also easily available for travelling within the city.
Malls and Super Markets 
In 2011 the city's first mall named Treasure Bazaar was opened by Welcome Group. 2 Super Markets i.e Pakiza and V-Mart.
Primary and secondary education in Ujjain is offered by various schools which are affiliated to either Madhya Pradesh Board of Secondary Education or CBSE.
Ujjain is home to Vikram University, which is the second oldest university in Madhya Pradesh, established in 1957. Ujjain Engineering College (UEC) is a government-aided institute that ranks amongst the best engineering colleges in Madhya Pradesh. There are 7 private engineering colleges in the city. The city also has Maharshi Panini Sanskrit aivam Vaidik University. There are two medical colleges in the city: the government-aided Govt. Autonomous Dhanvantri Ayurveda College and R.D. Gardi Medical College, which is a private institute.
Prakash, Narendra and Mohan are the single screen theatres. In 2011 Metro Cineplex was opened by renovating the old single screen Metro. PVR was opened in the Treasure Bazaar Mall in 2012.
- UjjainTourism - Ujjain
- Equatorie of Planetis, Price, p64
- History of Ujjain
- History of Maha Kumbh Mela
- Ancient monuments and tourist sites in Ujjain
- The Hindu temple, Volume 1, by Stella Kramrisch, Raymond Burnier p. 3
- Room A. Placenames of the world: origins and meanings, p. 12.
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Ujjain
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- SAIL Press Release. "Steel Minister lays foundation stone for SAIL's 4th steel processing unit", New Delhi,13 June 2008.
- Transport in Ujjain
- Railway stations Ujjain
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ujjain|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Ujjain.|
- Online Ujjain Guide
- Official website of Ujjain Tourism
- Official website of Ujjain
- Official website of Ujjain Yoga LIfe Society
- Ujjain buzz
- Official website of Ujjain
- Mahakaleshwar Temple, Ujjain On India Tours
- /for detail information of ujjan