Nickel tetracarbonyl

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Nickel tetracarbonyl
Nickel carbonyl
Nickel carbonyl Nickel carbonyl
Identifiers
CAS number 13463-39-3 YesY
PubChem 26039
ChemSpider 21865021 YesY
EC number 236-669-2
UN number 1259
ChEBI CHEBI:30372 YesY
RTECS number QR6300000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula Ni(CO)4
Molar mass 170.73 g/mol
Appearance colorless or very-pale-yellow liquid
diamagnetic
Odor musty, like brick dust
Density 1.319 g/cm3
Melting point −17.2 °C (1.0 °F; 256.0 K)
Boiling point 43 °C (109 °F; 316 K)
Solubility in water .018 g/100 mL (10 °C)
Solubility miscible in most organic solvents
soluble in nitric acid, aqua regia
Viscosity 3.05 x 10−4 Pa s
Structure
Coordination
geometry
Tetrahedral
Molecular shape Tetrahedral
Dipole moment zero
Thermochemistry
Std molar
entropy
So298
320 J K−1 mol−1
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−632 kJ/mol
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
−1180 kJ/mol
Hazards
MSDS ICSC 0064
EU Index 028-001-00-1
EU classification Flammable ('F)
Carc. Cat. 3
Repr. Cat. 2
Very Toxic (T+)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrases R61, R11, R26, R40, R50/53
S-phrases S53, S45, S60, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g., gasoline) Health code 4: Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury. E.g., VX gas Reactivity code 3: Capable of detonation or explosive decomposition but requires a strong initiating source, must be heated under confinement before initiation, reacts explosively with water, or will detonate if severely shocked. E.g., fluorine Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 4 °C (39 °F; 277 K)
Explosive limits 2–34%
Related compounds
Related metal carbonyls Iron pentacarbonyl
Dicobalt octacarbonyl
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Nickel carbonyl (IUPAC name: tetracarbonylnickel) is the organonickel compound with the formula Ni(CO)4. This pale-yellow liquid is the principal carbonyl of nickel. It is an intermediate in the Mond process for the purification of nickel and a reagent in organometallic chemistry. Nickel carbonyl is one of the most toxic substances encountered in industrial processes.[1]

Structure and bonding[edit]

In nickel tetracarbonyl, the oxidation state for nickel is assigned as zero. The formula conforms to 18-electron rule. The molecule is tetrahedral, with four carbonyl (carbon monoxide) ligands attached to nickel. The CO ligands, in which the C and the O are connected by triple bonds, are covalently bonded to the nickel atom via the carbon ends. Electron diffraction studies have been performed on this molecule, and the Ni-C and C-O distances have been calculated to be 1.838(2) and 1.141(2) angstroms respectively.[2]

Preparation[edit]

Ni(CO)4 was first synthesised in 1890 by Ludwig Mond by the direct reaction of nickel metal with CO.[3] This pioneering work foreshadowed the existence of many other metal carbonyl compounds, including those of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co. It was also applied industrially to the purification of nickel by the end of the 19th century.[4]

At 323 K (50 °C (122 °F)), carbon monoxide is passed over impure nickel. The optimal rate occurs at 130 °C.[5]

Ni(CO)4 is not readily available commercially. It is conveniently generated in the laboratory by carbonylation of commercially available bis(cyclooctadiene)nickel(0).[6]

Reactions[edit]

Spheres of nickel, made by the Mond process

Thermal decarbonylation[edit]

On moderate heating, Ni(CO)4 decomposes to carbon monoxide and nickel metal. Combined with the easy formation from CO and even impure nickel, this decomposition is the basis for the Mond process for the purification of nickel. Thermal decomposition commences near 180 °C and increases at higher temperature[5]

Reactions with nucleophiles and reducing agents[edit]

Like other low-valent metal carbonyls, Ni(CO)4 is susceptible to attack by nucleophiles. Attack can occur at nickel center, resulting in displacement of CO ligands, or at CO. Thus, donor ligands such as triphenylphosphine react to give Ni(CO)3(PPh3) and Ni(CO)2(PPh3)2. Bipyridine and related ligands behave similarly.[7] The monosubstitution of nickel tetracarbonyl with other ligands can be used to determine the Tolman electronic parameter, a measure of the electron donating or withdrawing ability of a given ligand.

Preparation of Ni(CO)3L.png

Treatment with hydroxides gives clusters such as [Ni5(CO)12]2− and [Ni6(CO)12]2−. These compounds can also be obtained by reduction of nickel carbonyl.

Thus, treatment of Ni(CO)4 with carbon nucleophiles (Nu) results in acyl derivatives such as [Ni(CO)3C(O)Nu)].[8]

Reactions with electrophiles and oxidizing agents[edit]

Nickel carbonyl can be oxidized. Chlorine oxidizes nickel carbonyl into NiCl2, releasing CO gas. Other halogens behave analogously. This reaction provides a convenient method for destroying unwanted portions of the toxic compound.

Reactions of Ni(CO)4 with alkyl and aryl halides often result in carbonylated organic products. Vinylic halides, such as PhCH=CHBr, are converted to the unsaturated esters upon treatment with Ni(CO)4 followed by sodium methoxide. Such reactions also probably proceed via oxidative addition. Allylic halides give the pi-allyl nickel compounds, such as (allyl)2Ni2Cl2:[9]

2 Ni(CO)4 + 2 ClCH2CH=CH2 → Ni2(μ-Cl)23-C3H5)2 + 8 CO

Toxicology and safety considerations[edit]

The hazards of Ni(CO)4 are far greater than that implied by its CO content, reflecting the effects of the nickel if released in the body. Nickel carbonyl may be fatal if absorbed through the skin or more likely, inhaled due to its high volatility. Its LC50 for a 30-minute exposure has been estimated at 3 ppm, and the concentration that is immediately fatal to humans would be 30 ppm. Some subjects exposed to puffs up to 5 ppm described the odour as musty or sooty, but because the compound is so exceedingly toxic, its smell provides no reliable warning against a potentially fatal exposure.[10]

The vapours of Ni(CO)4 can autoignite. The vapor decomposes quickly in air, lasting only about a minute.[11]

Nickel carbonyl poisoning is characterized by a two-stage illness. The first consists of headaches and chest pain lasting a few hours, usually followed by a short remission. The second phase is a chemical pneumonitis which starts after typically 16 hours with symptoms of cough, breathlessness and extreme fatigue. These reach greatest severity after four days, possibly resulting in death from cardiorespiratory or renal failure. Convalescence is often extremely protracted, often complicated by exhaustion, depression and dyspnea on exertion. Permanent respiratory damage is unusual. The carcinogenicity of Ni(CO)4 is a matter of debate.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Merck Index (7th ed.). Merck. 
  2. ^ Hedberg, L.; Iijima, T.; Hedberg, K. (1979). "Nickel tetracarbonyl, Ni(CO)4. I. Molecular Structure by Gaseous Electron Diffraction. II. Refinement of Quadratic Force Field". The Journal of Chemical Physics 70 (7): 3224–3229. doi:10.1063/1.437911. 
  3. ^ Mond, L.; Langer, C.; Quincke, F. (1890). "Action of Carbon Monoxide on Nickel". Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions 57: 749–753. doi:10.1039/CT8905700749. 
  4. ^ "The Extraction of Nickel from its Ores by the Mond Process". Nature 59 (1516): 63–64. 1898. doi:10.1038/059063a0. 
  5. ^ a b Lascelles, K.; Morgan, L. G.; Nicholls, D.; Beyersmann, D. (2005), "Nickel Compounds", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_235.pub2 
  6. ^ P. W. Jolly "Nickel Tetracarbonyl" in Comprehensive Organometallic Chemistry I" Edward W. Abel, F. Gordon A. Stone, Geoffrey Wilkinson, eds., 1982, Pergamon Press, Oxford. ISBN 0.08-025269-9.
  7. ^ Elschenbroich, C.; Salzer, A. (1992). Organometallics: A Concise Introduction (2nd ed.). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-28165-7. 
  8. ^ Pinhas, A. R. (2003). Tetracarbonylnickel. "Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rt025m. ISBN 0471936235. 
  9. ^ Semmelhack, M. F.; Helquist, P. M. (1972), "Reaction of Aryl Halides with π-Allylnickel Halides: Methallylbenzene", Org. Synth. 52: 115 ; Coll. Vol. 6: 722 
  10. ^ Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (2008). "Nickel Carbonyl: Acute Exposure Guideline Levels". Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals 6. National Academies Press. pp. 213–259. 
  11. ^ Stedman, D. H.; Hikade, D. A.; Pearson, R. Jr.; Yalvac, E. D. (1980). "Nickel Carbonyl: Decomposition in Air and Related Kinetic Studies". Science 208 (4447): 1029–1031. doi:10.1126/science.208.4447.1029. PMID 17779026. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]