Tiksi

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Tiksi (English)
Тикси (Russian)
-  Urban-type settlement  -
Settlement[citation needed]
Tiksi.jpg
Map of Russia - Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (2008-03).svg
Location of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic in Russia
Tiksi is located in Sakha Republic
Tiksi
Tiksi
Location of Tiksi in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic
Coordinates: 71°38′N 128°52′E / 71.633°N 128.867°E / 71.633; 128.867Coordinates: 71°38′N 128°52′E / 71.633°N 128.867°E / 71.633; 128.867
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakha Republic
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 5,063 inhabitants[1]
Founded 1933[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[2] 678400, 678403
Dialing code(s) +7 41167[citation needed]
Tiksi on WikiCommons

Tiksi (Russian: Тикси) is an urban locality (a settlement) and the administrative center of Bulunsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the Arctic Ocean coast. Population: 5,063 (2010 Census);[1] 5,873 (2002 Census);[3] 11,649 (1989 Census).[4]. Despite its rapid population decline, it remains the most northerly settlement with a population of over 5,000.

Etymology[edit]

The name Tiksi means "a moorage place" in the Sakha language.

Geography[edit]

Tiksi is located on the shore of the Buor-Khaya Gulf of the Laptev Sea, south of the river delta of the Lena River, and serves as one of the principal ports for accessing the Laptev Sea.

History[edit]

View of Tiksi

In August 1901, Russian Arctic ship Zarya headed across the Laptev Sea, searching for the legendary Sannikov Land (Zemlya Sannikova) but was soon blocked by floating pack ice in the New Siberian Islands. During 1902, the attempts to reach Sannikov Land continued while Zarya was trapped in fast ice. Leaving the ship, Russian Arctic explorer Baron Eduard Toll and three companions vanished forever in November 1902 while travelling away from Bennett Island towards the south on loose ice floes. Zarya was finally moored close to Brusneva Island in the Bay of Tiksi (Bukhta Tiksi), never to leave the place again. The remaining members of the expedition returned to Saint Petersburg, while Captain Matisen went to Yakutsk.

During the Cold War, Tiksi saw military construction projects at Tiksi North and Tiksi West airfields. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Tiksi's population has declined markedly, and there are a large number of abandoned apartment blocks in the town.

Climate[edit]

Tiksi has a polar climate (Köppen ET). Winters are brutally cold, though no colder than the inland subarctic regions, and have frequent and occasionally heavy snowfalls. The very short summers are generally mild (although in 1991 a temperature as high as +34 °C (93 °F) was reported) and quite damp with rainfall on most days.

Climate data for Tiksi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −8.9
(16)
−9.5
(14.9)
1.0
(33.8)
9.6
(49.3)
16.1
(61)
30.9
(87.6)
34.3
(93.7)
29.9
(85.8)
23.0
(73.4)
5.0
(41)
0.0
(32)
−4.9
(23.2)
34.3
(93.7)
Average high °C (°F) −27
(−17)
−26.4
(−15.5)
−22.2
(−8)
−13.5
(7.7)
−2.6
(27.3)
7.1
(44.8)
11.8
(53.2)
11.0
(51.8)
4.1
(39.4)
−7.9
(17.8)
−20.2
(−4.4)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−9.3
(15.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −30.2
(−22.4)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−26.2
(−15.2)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−6
(21)
3.3
(37.9)
7.6
(45.7)
7.8
(46)
1.6
(34.9)
−10.6
(12.9)
−23.3
(−9.9)
−28.4
(−19.1)
−12.7
(9.1)
Average low °C (°F) −33.4
(−28.1)
−32.9
(−27.2)
−30.6
(−23.1)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−9.5
(14.9)
0.2
(32.4)
4.1
(39.4)
4.6
(40.3)
−1
(30)
−13.8
(7.2)
−26.5
(−15.7)
−31.6
(−24.9)
−16.2
(2.8)
Record low °C (°F) −47.8
(−54)
−50
(−58)
−46.1
(−51)
−47.8
(−54)
−32.2
(−26)
−15.8
(3.6)
−4
(25)
−3.2
(26.2)
−17.4
(0.7)
−35
(−31)
−42.8
(−45)
−48.7
(−55.7)
−50
(−58)
Precipitation mm (inches) 32
(1.26)
22
(0.87)
16
(0.63)
10
(0.39)
13
(0.51)
27
(1.06)
46
(1.81)
49
(1.93)
27
(1.06)
17
(0.67)
21
(0.83)
42
(1.65)
322
(12.68)
Avg. rainy days 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 3 14 21 19 13 0.4 0.0 0.0 70.5
Avg. snowy days 23 22 20 18 21 8 1 1 14 25 23 23 199
Mean monthly sunshine hours 0.0 40.0 176.9 276.5 199.0 238.2 246.4 132.6 86.8 52.9 4.0 0.0 1,453.3
Source #1: погода и климат[5]
Source #2: (sunshine only)[6]

Economy[edit]

Transportation[edit]

The settlement is served by the Tiksi Airport, which was shut down by the Defense Ministry on October 1, 2012 except for helicopters.[7] The city was connected only by helicopter flights and winter roads. The closure was harshly criticized by Russian Prime Minister Dmitri Medvedev. Following an agreement between the Defense Ministry and Yakutia government in April 2013, the airfield re-opened to passenger traffic in June 2013. In December 2013, President Vladimir Putin announced that the Tiksi airport would be 'rehabilitated' along with others beyond the Arctic circle.[8]

The Lena River is navigable in the summer months. There is infrequent passenger navigation from Yakutsk.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  2. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  3. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  4. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  5. ^ ПОГОДА в Тикси
  6. ^ Weatherbase
  7. ^ "Якутский аэропорт Тикси закрыт для приема и отправки рейсов до декабря, причины не названы". Газета.ru (in Russian) (Moscow). October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2012. 
  8. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-25331156
  • William Barr, Baron Eduard von Toll's Last Expedition: The Russian Polar Expedition, 1900–1903