Vietnam People's Navy
|Vietnam People's Navy
Hải quân nhân dân Việt Nam
|Size||45,000 officers and sailors
66 surface ships and submarines
|Part of||Vietnam People's Army|
|Headquarters||Hai Phong, Vietnam|
|Motto||Đảo là nhà, Biển cả là quê hương (Island is home, Sea is country)|
|March||Lướt sóng ra khơi (Surfing to the sea)|
|Anniversaries||May 07, 1955|
Johnson South Reef Skirmish
|Battle honours||Gulf of Tonkin incident
Battle of Đồng Hới
|Commander||Admiral Nguyễn Văn Hiến|
|Political Commissar||Vice Admiral Tran Thanh Huyen|
|Chief of Staff||Vice Admiral Pham Ngoc Minh|
|Vice Commander||Vice Admiral Nguyễn Viết Nhiên
Vice Admiral Nguyễn Văn Ninh
Rear Admiral Lê Minh Thành
|Patrol||C-212, DHC-6, EC225|
The Vietnam People's Navy (commonly, Vietnamese Navy – Vietnamese: Hải quân nhân dân Việt Nam) is part of the Vietnam People's Army and is responsible for the protection of national waters, islands, and interests of the maritime economy, as well as for the coordination of maritime police, customs service and the border defense force.
From the beginning of Vietnam in the 1st millennium BC, the Hùng Vuong period spawned many legends of fighting against seaborne invasions of Quynh Chau from the north and Ho Ton from the south. In the Kingdom of Âu Lạc era, when the Cổ Loa Citadel was constructed, King An Dương Vương relied on the Hoang Giang River as a natural fortification to protect the south flank of the cidatel. In the 6th century, Emperor Lý Nam Đế built naval forces to fend off the invasion of Liang Dynasty's forces in the Tô Lịch River, Dien Triet lake; and then, King Triệu Quang Phục executed guerrilla tactics on Chinese military at Da Trach lagoon (Khoái Châu, Hải Dương nowadays).
In the 10th century, the national Vietnamese Navy became a regularized force. Naval forces of Khúc Thừa Dụ in Hong Chau (now is Ninh Giang District, Hải Dương), Dương Đình Nghệ in Ai Chau, Thanh Hóa and King Ngô Quyền were raised by enlisting and training the fishermen along rivers and seasides. Those elements became well-trained and experienced naval forces, ready to protect the country.
In Lý–Trần Dynasty era, the dynasties were occupied with raising naval forces and naval bases. Particularly, the Vân Đồn port has an important role in protecting the northeast territorial waters of Vietnam. In 1075 Lý Thường Kiệt mobilized a fleet to ferry 50,000 marines across the Gulf of Tonkin to invade Qinzhou. The amphibious assault was well planned and executed with incredible speed that Qinzhou's garrison was totally taken by surprise. The fortress town was taken in one night.
To retaliate, Song dynasty mustered a huge invasion force, with a naval arm to provide supports to land operations. They were already fearful of Vietnam's reputation at sea combat, thus a large enough force was organize so as to "not lose even if they can't score a win". Lý Kế Nguyên- a Vietnamese commander stationed in Vân Đồn, Quảng Ninh however had absolute confidence in his fleet that he went on the offensive and took on the Chinese invasion fleet at high sea. Lý defeated the Chinese so badly that their admiral sent messengers to urge Chinese coastal guards to fortify their post in fear of a reverse-invasion.
In 1077, the Imperial Vietnamese Navy fought the Battle of Cầu River against the Chinese Song Dynasty forces. This was the final battle Song Dynasty would fight on Vietnamese land or waters. The battle lasted for several months, and ended with the victory of the Vietnamese Navy and the loss of many Song sailors. This victory demonstrated the successful tactics of war and active defense of the famous Admiral Lý Thường Kiệt who faced a naval force numerically superior to his own. The Song Dynasty lost a total of 8,000 soldiers/sailors and 5,19 million ounces of silver, including all costs of the war.
The largest battles (officially recorded in history) were three naval encounters (all three are called Battle of Bạch Đằng): Ngô Quyền against the Chinese Southern Han forces in 938 (killed over 10,000 and captured hundreds of Chinese sailors, killed Chinese Prince Liu Hongcao); Lê Hoàn against Song Dynasty in 981; and Trần Quốc Tuấn against Yuan Dynasty (Mongol) in 1288 (over 80,000 Yuan Mongol sailors killed or captured, more than 400 Yuan ships destroyed, Mongol Commander Sogetu perished, and Yuan Admiral Omar captured).
The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư records that in 1467 in An Bang province of Đại Việt (now Quảng Ninh Province) a Chinese ship blew off course onto the shore. The Chinese were detained and not allowed to return to China as ordered by Lê Thánh Tông. This incident may be the same one where Wu Rui was captured. One of the renown victories in Vietnamese Naval history was the Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút in Tây Sơn Dynasty, during which Nguyễn Huệ (Emperor Quang Trung) defeated the Siamese (Thai) naval force. The battle occurred in present-day Tiền Giang Province on January 19, 1785. Nguyễn Huệ's forces completely destroyed over 50,000 Siamese sailors and 300 warships.
In the Nguyễn Dynasty period, 19th century Emperor Gia Long used his new base to improve the Vietnamese Navy. Gia Long had first attempted to acquire modern naval vessels in 1781, when on the advice of Pigneau de Behaine, he had chartered Portuguese vessels of European design, complete with crew and artillery. This initial experience proved to be disastrous. For reasons that remain unclear, two of the vessels fled in the midst of battle against the Tây Sơn, while angry Vietnamese soldiers killed the third crew.
In 1789, Pigneau de Behaine returned to Vietnam from Pondicherry with two vessels, which stayed in the Nguyễn Dynasty service long-term. Over time, Vietnamese sailors replaced the original French and Indian crew under the command of French officers. These vessels became the foundation for an expanded military and merchant Nguyễn Dynasty naval force, with Gia Long chartering and purchasing more European vessels to reinforce Vietnamese-built ships. However, traditional Vietnamese-style galleys and small sailing ships remained the majority of the fleet. In 1799, a British trader by the name of Berry reported that the Nguyễn Dynasty's fleet had departed Saigon along the Saigon River with 100 galleys, 40 junks, 200 smaller boats and 800 carriers, accompanied by three European sloops. In 1801, one naval division was reported to have included nine European vessels armed with 60 guns, five vessels with 50 guns, 40 with 16 guns, 100 junks, 119 galleys and 365 smaller boats.
In the middle of the 19th century, the Vietnamese Navy fought against the French in many battles. Due to disadvantages in technology, the Vietnamese Navy could not defeat the French Navy, but there were still several battles during which the Vietnamese Navy caused heavy damages to the French. The Vietnamese were especially successful in the Battle of Nhat Tao canal held by Nguyễn Trung Trực on December 10, 1861. Nguyen Trung Truc's naval forces ambushed the French brig L'Esperance at the Vam Co River, Mekong Delta. Truc's 150 men were grouped into three columns. The first group of 61 sailors under Hoang Khac Nhuong was to attack a nearby pro-French village in order to provoke an incident and lure the French forces into an ambush. Truc commanded the second group of 59 partisans along with Vo Van Quang, and was assigned to burn and sink the vessel. A third force of 30 sailors was commanded by Ho Quang and Nguyen Van Hoc. Due to the surprise attack, the French Navy suffered major damage: the brig L'Esperance was sunk, 17 French sailors and 20 pro-Vietnamese naval auxiliaries were killed, only eight people escaped, including two French sailors and six sailors of Tagal (Filipino) background employed by the French.
Vietnam War period
On July 19, 1946, Acting President of Democratic Republic of Vietnam Huỳnh Thúc Kháng signed into law a decree establishing the modern Vietnamese Navy. Then, on September 10 of that year, General Võ Nguyên Giáp started to build a flotilla as the core of the new navy. On March 8, 1949, Vietnam established the Department of Naval Research under the General Staff. This department has performed both research and training to prepare for combat missions.
Following the Geneva Conference in 1954, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam went about creating its own naval forces. On May 7, 1955 the Vietnam People's Navy was created with the establishment of the General Directorate of Coastal Defence, it formed the basis for the Navy Operational Command (based on the Vietnamese Ministry of Defence decree No. 284/ND signed by General Võ Nguyên Giáp to established Naval Research Board, under the General Staff, on March 8, 1949). The primary mission of the Navy was to patrol the coastal areas and the inland waterways.
Throughout the Vietnam War the role played by the Vietnam People's Navy (or North Vietnamese Navy) was largely unknown to the public. However on August 2, 1964, three North Vietnamese Swatow-class patrol boats attacked the USS Maddox in what became known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. The second attack, which the United States claimed to have occurred on August 4, was dismissed by the North Vietnamese as a fabrication.
The North Vietnamese, however, had maintained their own version of the events which took place. According to official VPN accounts the Maddox penetrated North Vietnamese waters on July 31, 1964, and provoked a battle with the North Vietnamese. In response to American provocation, three 123K class torpedo boats from the 135th Torpedo Boat Battalion were dispatched to intercept the American destroyer. The resulting clash became known as the 'Battle of Thanh Hóa' in which North Vietnamese "torpedo boats succeeded in driving the Maddox out of Vietnam's territorial waters, shooting down a U.S. aircraft and damaging another".
Apart from patrolling territorial waters, the Navy also had the mission of transporting military supplies to support the Vietnam People's Army and their NLF ally during the Vietnam War. On October 31, 1961, a sea route version of the Ho Chi Minh trail was established by the North Vietnam Navy, with the 759th Transport Unit responsible for carrying military supplies and other goods for the Communist ground forces in South Vietnam. In order to avoid detection by the South Vietnamese and U.S navies, North Vietnamese transport ships were often disguised as fishing trawlers. On February 16, 1965, a 100-ton North Vietnamese trawler from the Transportation Group 125 was discovered at Vung Ro Bay. This led to the creation of Operation Market Time by the US Navy to intercept disguised enemy ships.
On April 19, 1972, the North Vietnamese Navy and Air Force participated in the Battle of Đồng Hới off the coast of North Vietnam. During this battle it was believed that the U.S Navy destroyed a Soviet-made cruise missile for the first time. The USS Higbee was damaged after an VPAF MiG-17 dropped a 250 lb (110 kg) bomb, destroying a 5" aft gun mount.
In the years following the complete withdrawal of U.S and other allied forces, the North Vietnamese went back on the offensive. As part of the Ho Chi Minh Campaign, the North Vietnamese Navy increased the transportation of military supplies, food and uniform to the Communist forces in the South. When the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) occupied the northern provinces of South Vietnam in 1975, captured South Vietnamese vessels were pressed into service with the Vietnam People's Navy. On April 1975, ex-South Vietnamese Navy vessels carried North Vietnamese troops to capture the Spratly Islands. Opening battle in the island Southwest Cay (vietnamese: Song Tử tây) in April 4, 1975, amphibious raid by sea of the Naval Marine corp number 1 (precursor of the 126th Brigade Naval Marine corps) and three vessels of the 125 corps coordinated with the commandos of the 5th Military Region, after 30 minutes, Vietnamese Navy controlled the main battle area, facilitating the solution development process release of the other islands. Then, Vietnamese Navy continue control Sand Cay island (April 26), Namyit Island (April 27), Sin Cowe Island (April 28) and Spratly Island (April 29). At around the same time the Chinese Navy took over control of the Paracel Islands from the South Vietnamese Navy. These islands are also claimed by Vietnam, however they have no current presence there.
Prior to 1975, the North Vietnamese Navy operated fewer than forty patrol boats along with the coastal junk force. With the collapse of the Republic of Vietnam on April 30, 1975, the Vietnam People's Navy was expanded with ships from the defunct South Vietnamese Navy. Captured vessels included two patrol frigates, over one hundred patrol craft, and about fifty amphibious warfare ships. In the late 1970s the naval infantry (or marines) was formed to be stationed on the areas claimed by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the Spratly Islands. The naval infantry is equipped with PT-76 light tanks, BTR-60 personnel carriers and naval infantrymen are armed with AK-74 rifle, AKM-47 assault rifles, Makarov PM pistol (Officers), and PKM machinegun infantry weapons, and more.
In 1988, Vietnam People's Navy fought against the Chinese Navy at Johnson Reef of sovereignty of the Spratly Islands, causing the losses to the Vietnamese of several transport ships and up to 64 deaths. The battle was won by the Chinese Navy who outgunned and outnumbered them, using a fleet of frigates against Vietnamese lightly armed transport ships. This prompted the Vietnamese Navy to modernize its naval weapons and its overall naval capabilities.
Naval Regions are inter-military campaign of naval tactics, territorial division, comprising the regions, fleets, naval air forces, marines, defense island soldiers, coastal artillery and combat units to ensure (radar, information technology, logistics ...).
October 26, 1975, Ministry of Defence (Vietnam) issued Decision No.141/QD-QP established five Coastal Areas of Naval Command and jurisdiction provisions of the five regions. In 1978, renamed become Naval Regions.
- 1st Regional Command (A Regional Command): Gulf of Tonkin, manage north coast from Quảng Ninh to Hà Tĩnh and the islands in Gulf of Tonkin. Command Headquarters: Hai Phong.
- Comamder : Real Amiral Phạm Văn Điển
- Political Commissar : Real Amiral Phạm Văn Vững
- 3rd Regional Command (C Regional Command): manage north central coast, from Quảng Bình to Bình Định, including the islands of Cồn Cỏ, Lý Sơn,...and Paracel Islands. Command Headquarters: Da Nang.
- Comamder : Real Amiral Ngô Sĩ Quyết
- Political Commissar : Real Amiral Nguyễn Tiến Dũng
- 4th Regional Command (D Regional Command): manage South China Sea and south central coast including Spratly Islands, Phú Quý island and the south central coast, from Phú Yên to Bình Thuận. Headquarters Command: Cam Ranh Bay military port, Khánh Hòa Province.
- Comamder : Real Amiral Phạm Hoài Nam
- Political Commissar : Real Amiral Phạm Thanh Hóa
- 2nd Regional Command (B Regional Command): manage South China Sea and south coast from Bình Thuận to Bạc Liêu, southern continental shelf, including the key areas are economic science service areas (called are DK1, DK2). Command Headquarters: Nhơn Trạch, Đồng Nai.
- Comamder : Real Amiral Phạm Xuân Điệp
- Political Commissar : Real Amiral Mai Tiến Tuyên
- 5th Regional Command (E Regional Command): manage South China Sea and coast in Gulf of Thailand from Cà Mau to Kiên Giang. Command Headquarters: Phú Quốc, Kiên Giang.
- Comamder : Real Amiral Doãn Văn Sở
- Political Commissar : Real Amiral Ngô Văn Phát
|Surface Ships||Naval Commando||Marine Corps||Naval Air Forces||Coastal Defense Missiles||Submarines|
In the Vietnam People's Navy system has no ranks of Fleet Admiral. Vietnam People's Navy ranks are divided into four basic steps: Commissioned Officer, Non-commissioned Officer, and Soldiers/Seamen. Officer ranks use the executive curl on the sleeves of their service and full dress blue uniforms, similar to those used in various navies worldwide.
|Flag Officers||Đô đốc||Admiral|
|Phó Đô đốc||Vice Admiral|
|Chuẩn Đô đốc||Rear Admiral|
|Senior Officers||Đại tá||Commodore|
|Thiếu tá||Lieutenant Commander|
|Junior Officers||Đại úy||Captain Lieutenant|
|Petty Officers||Thượng sĩ||Master Chief Petty Officer||None||None|
|Trung sĩ||Chief Petty Officer||None||None|
|Hạ sĩ||Petty Officer||None||None|
|Binh nhì||Seaman Recruit||None||None|
|Naval Cadets (Midshipmen)||Học viên Sĩ quân Hải quân||Naval Student Officer||None||None|
Vietnam Naval Academy, with its headquarters in Nha Trang, is a military institute belongs to Vietnam People's Navy for training naval commanding officers in division level and commanding staffs in tactical/campaign level, include undergraduates and postgraduates of military.
The forerunner of Vietnam Naval Academy is Coastal Training School, was established in April 26, 1955 by the General Staff. The school has changed name in several times such as the Naval Training School in 1959, the Naval School of Vietnam in 1961, the Naval Officers School in 1967, School of Commander Naval engineering in 1980. Finally, the school has named Naval Academy in 1993.
After 55 years of construction, combat and growth, Vietnam Naval Academy has trained thousands of officers and technical staffs for major specialized fields such as: control vessel; mines - anti-mine; missile anti-submarine; gunship; information; radar - sonar; coastal radar; ship factory and power; the commander of the Marine Police and Border Defense Force.
Today, the Vietnam People's Navy is responsible for protecting the nation's sovereignty and economic activities at sea, and to repulse unauthorized foreign vessels intruding into Vietnamese waters. In general, Vietnam's policy has considered the modernization of the Navy a priority task in the overall military modernization plan. The Vietnam People's Navy and the Vietnam People's Air Force are the branches with the fatest modernization rates, constantly upgrading weapons, ammunition and combat capacity, the ability to master the equipment. As stated on August 5, 2011 by Minister of Defense Phùng Quang Thanh: "The direction of building up the armed forces is one to follow the revolutionary spirit, regularization and effectiveness and gradual modernization. Within this context, the Navy, the Air Force, the Signal Corps and Electronic Warfare will proceed directly into modernization to protect the country".
- Frigates and Corvettes: Laid down two Gepard-class frigate in 2011 by Zelenodolsk shipyard-Russia, named HQ-011 Dinh Tien Hoang and HQ-012 Lý Thái Tổ; and two more order. Contract with Schelde Naval Shipbuilding-Netherlands to built two Sigma-class corvette. Especially, Vietnam People's Navy has built itself six Tarantul-class corvette (Molniya class) with Russia supervision; besides, Vietnam People's Navy has designed and built the first warship names TT-400TP gunboat.
- Submarines: Vietnam has built the first submarine flotilla name 182 on June 1, 1982. This flotilla was trained in Cam Ranh Bay under guidance of Soviet submarine officers and used North Korea's Yugo-class submarine. In April 2011, Vietnam has ordered six Kilo-class submarine, worth about 1.8 billion dollars, the contract is said to occupy the entire defense budget of Vietnam in 2009. With six submarines, the first to be delivered in 2012 and the last one to be delivered by 2016, Vietnam will own the largest and most modern submarines team in Southeast Asia.
- Naval Air Force: Vietnam People's Navy prepared to build Naval Air Force to increase the capacity of coastal defense. On February 27, 2010, the General Staff (Vietnam People's Army) decides to build and make regular member the 954th Naval Air Force Regiment of Vietnamese Navy. Vietnam has purchased three CASA C-212 Aviocar aircraft Series 400 professional beach patrol and tracking. The aircraft equipped with radar MSS 6000 and Naval Air Force will use for general patrol purposes. Vietnamese Navy received two Eurocopter EC225 Super Puma to offshore patrol and search and rescue missions. Viking Air Company of Canada has contracted to sell to Vietnam six Seaplane DHC-6 Twin Otter Series 400 from 2012 to 2014. And 7 Kamov Ka-27 helicopters will be transferred to naval air force.
- Coastal defense missile force: Vietnam People's Navy is building Coastal defense missile force (the 679th Coastal missile Regiment) become the core force in maritime security strategy by equip Russian and Indian missile systems. Vietnamese Navy has already produced itself P-5 Pyatyorka/Shaddock anti-ships missile, range upgraded to 550 km, in fact, Vietnam was the only customer that USSR export this missile system. Russia has delivered two K-300P Bastion-P coastal defense system to Vietnam. The Bastion system uses the P-800 Oniks/Yakhont supersonic anti-ship missile, primarily used to attack targets on land and sea, attack range is 300 km, can be used to protect a coastline of over 600 km. Joint venture company Russia-India BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited will sold Vietnam 15 BrahMos stealth supersonic cruise missile, and become the first military in the world imports Brahmos defense missile, if compared with other types of missiles being used in the world, BrahMos missile has the advantages of speed faster 3 times, range longer 2.5 times, respond shorter time 3-4 times. The Vietnamese are now starting to locally produce the anti ship missile Kh-35 Uran-E after received 33 missiles in 2010.
Ships of the Vietnamese Navy are typically preceded with HQ (an abbreviation of the Vietnamese words: Hải Quân, meaning Navy).
|Submarines (2 in Service)|
|Improved Kilo class||Russia||Submarine||2||(4) more on order/under construction||HQ-182 Ha Noi
HQ-183 Ho Chi Minh city
HQ-184 Hai Phong
HQ-185 Da Nang
HQ-186 Khánh Hòa
HQ-187 Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu
|Frigates (7 in Service)|
|Gepard 3.9 class||Russia||Frigate||2||(2) more on order/under construction||HQ-011 Dinh Tien Hoang
HQ-012 Ly Thai To
|Sigma class corvette||Netherlands||Frigate||-||(2) on order/under construction. The Contract is confirmed by Damen Schelde company|
|Petya class||USSR||ASW Frigate||5||active duty||HQ-09
|Corvettes (9 in Service)|
|Tarantul-I class|| Russia
Almaz Shipbuilding Company
|Molniya class|| Russia
|Corvette||4 ||(4) more on order/under construction.The first 2 ships are fully build by Russia while the next 6 ships will be build in Vietnam with assistance from Russia.||HQ-375
|ASW Corvette||1||active duty||HQ-381|
|Patrol vessels (23 in Service)|
|Osa class||USSR||Missile boat||8||active duty||HQ-354, HQ-355, HQ-356, HQ-357, HQ-358, HQ-359, HQ-360, HQ-361|
|Svetlyak class||Russia||Patrol||6||active duty||HQ-261
|Turya class||USSR||Patrol||5||active duty||HQ-331
|TT-400TP class||Vietnam||Patrol||4||active duty||HQ-272
|Minesweepers (8 in Service)|
|Sonya class||USSR||minesweeper||4||active duty||HQ-861
|Yurka class||USSR||minesweeper||2||active duty||HQ-851
|Yevgenya class||USSR||minesweeper||2||active duty|
|Transport/Logistics support ship (11 in Service)|
|Giao su Vien si Tran Dai Nghia|| Netherlands
|Ocean surveillance||1||active duty||HQ- 888|
Logistics support ship
|2||active duty||HQ-571 Trường Sa
HQ-561 Khánh Hòa (Hospital ship)
|Trường Sa class||Vietnam||Transport/
Logistics support ship
|7||active duty||Trường Sa 04, Trường Sa 08, Trường Sa 14, Trường Sa 19, Trường Sa 20, Trường Sa 21, Trường Sa 22|
|Amphibious warfare (6 in Service)|
|LST-542 class||United States||Amphibious warfare||1||active duty||HQ-501|
|Polnochny class||USSR/ Poland||Amphibious warfare||3||active duty||HQ-511
|HQ-521 class||Vietnam||Amphibious warfare||2||active duty||HQ-521
|Aircraft (14 in Service)|
|DHC-6 Twin Otter|| Canada
|Patrol||5||scheduled for delivery in 2012–2014.|
|Kamov Ka-27|| USSR
|ASW Helicopter||7||active duty||to serve in frigates and patrol around Spratly Islands|
|Eurocopter EC225 Super Puma|| France
|Magic Eye 01|| Vietnam
|Anti-ship missile/Coastal Defense Missile|
|Russia||Coastal defense||10 launcher/
|2 K-300P Bastion-P systems in active||finished negotiation, technological transferring has already started|
|USSR||Coastal defense||active duty||Vietnam has already self-produced|
|20||active duty/equipped in Tarantul class ships||Replacing by Kh-35|
|Anti-ship missile||103 missiles
300 more on order
|active duty/equipped in Molniya and Gepard class ships||Vietnam has already self-produced|
Novator Design Bureau
|Anti-ship missile||10 missiles (2012)
40 on order
|equipped in Kilo submarines|
|Anti-ship missile||equipped in Sigma class corvette|
- Vietnam 10 (+25) HQ-56 class (Stolkraft; 22.5 meter) PB with 1x20mm
- Vietnam 5 HQ-37 class
- USSR 15 Zhuk class patrol boats (Project 1400M)
- USSR 1 Sorum class logistics tug (Project 745) ATA
- USSR 1 Voda (MTV-6/Project 561) AWT
- USSR 5 Nyrat-2 (Project 376U) diving tenders (YDT)
- Vietnam 5 floating drydocks (YFDL)
- USSR 5 PO-2 (Project 376) YFL
- United States 5 ex-US 55-meter harbor tankers (YO) - likely ex-USN YOG-5 Class Gasoline Oiler/Barge
- United States 5 Chaolocco tugs (YTM)
- United States 10 (estimated) harbor tubs (YTL) - likely ex-USN c. 1944-45 and transferred to Republic of Vietnam Navy 1969-1972
- USSR AK-74 Standard Issue Assault rifle.
- USSR AKM-47 Standard Issue Assault Rifle being supplemented by AK-74.
- USSR PKM machinegun
- USSR Makarov PM Standard issue pistol for all Vietnamese Military services.
- Israel IMI Tavor TAR-21 Marines and Special Forces Only.
- Israel Uzi Submachinegun Marines and Special Forces Only.
- Israel IMI Negev Light Machine Gun Marines and Special Forces Only.
The current total manpower of the navy is around 50,000 officers and enlisted personnel including naval infantry [i.e. marines] and other specialised units.
- "Truyền thống quân thủy của cha ông trong lịch sử dân tộc - Quân chủng Hải quân". Qdnd.vn. 2009-10-15. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- Phan Huy Lê, Bùi Đăng Dũng, Phan Đại Doãn, Phạm Thị Tâm, Trần Bá Chí 1998, pp. 69–71
- Phan Huy Lê, Bùi Đăng Dũng, Phan Đại Doãn, Phạm Thị Tâm, Trần Bá Chí 1998, pp. 72–75
- "Battle of Bach Dang River (938) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. 2013-05-17. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. 2013-05-10. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- Cooke (2011), p. 108 The Tongking Gulf Through History, p. 108, at Google Books
- PGS.TSKH Nguyễn Hải Kế (Associate Professor Dr. Nguyen Hai Ke) (THỨ NĂM, 28 THÁNG 3 2013 17:36 (THURSDAY, MARCH 28TH, 2013 17:36)). "CÓ MỘT VÂN ĐỒN Ở GIỮA YÊN BANG, YÊN QUẢNG KHÔNG TĨNH LẶNG". 广州日报大洋网(www.dayoo.com). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- PGS.TSKH Nguyễn Hải Kế (Associate Professor Dr. Nguyen Hai Ke) (2013-04-22). "CÓ MỘT VÂN ĐỒN Ở GIỮA YÊN BANG, YÊN QUẢNG KHÔNG TĨNH LẶNG". 广州日报大洋网(www.dayoo.com). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Lê Văn Hưu, Phan Phu Tiên, Ngô Sĩ Liên... soạn thảo (1272–1697)., ed. (1993). "Phần 26 (Bản kỷ thực lục Q2(a) Nhà Hậu Lê (1460–1472).)". Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư. Viện Khoa Học Xã Hội Việt Nam dịch (1985–1992). Nhà xuất bản Khoa Học Xã Hội (Hà Nội) ấn hành (1993). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Lê Văn Hưu, Phan Phu Tiên, Ngô Sĩ Liên... soạn thảo (1272–1697)., ed. (1993). "DVSK Bản Kỷ Thực Lục 12: Nhà Hậu Lê (1460–1472) ... Phần 1(Đại Việt Sử Ký Bản Kỷ Thực Lục Quyển XII [1a] Kỷ Nhà Lê Thánh Tông Thuần Hoàng Đế)". Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư. Viện Khoa Học Xã Hội Việt Nam dịch (1985–1992). Nhà xuất bản Khoa Học Xã Hội (Hà Nội) ấn hành (1993). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Cooke (2011), p. 109 The Tongking Gulf Through History, p. 109, at Google Books
- "Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. 2013-05-07. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Gia Long - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Bí mật hải quân nhà Nguyễn - Kỳ 1: Từ thủy quân đến hải quân | Thanh Niên Online". Thanhnien.com.vn. 2011-09-19. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Nguyen Trung Truc - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. 2013-04-30. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- [dead link]
- "Kỳ 1 : Thần tốc giải phóng Trường Sa - Tiền Phong Online". Tienphong.vn. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Quân chủng Hải quân Việt Nam – Wikipedia tiếng Việt" (in Vietnamese). Vi.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Hiện đại hóa Hải quân | Thanh Niên Online". Thanhnien.com.vn. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- Eshel, Tamir. "Vietnam Negotiate Buying four Sigma Corvettes from the Netherlands - Defense Update - Military Technology & Defense News". Defense Update. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- Theo Tuổi trẻ. "TT400TP - Tàu chiến "made in Việt Nam" | ANTĐ - Báo điện tử An Ninh Thủ Đô". Anninhthudo.vn. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Vietnam’s Russian Restocking". Defenseindustrydaily.com. 2013-03-31. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- [dead link]
- "BBC Vietnamese - Việt Nam - VN sẽ có không lực thuộc hải quân". Bbc.co.uk. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Vietnam; Navy incepts Yakhont coastal missile". Dmilt.com. 2011-10-24. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- Diposkan oleh NurW (2011-11-10). "DEFENSE STUDIES: Vietnam Requests Brahmos and Corvettes from India". Defense-studies.blogspot.com. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Nga đã đóng xong tàu ngầm đầu tiên trong số sáu chiếc cho Hải quân Việt Nam : Tiếng nói nước Nga". Vietnamese.ruvr.ru. 2012-08-14. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Россия построила первую из шести подлодок для ВМС Вьетнама - источник | РИА Новости". Ria.ru. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Vietnam Navy receives 2 Russia-made project 636 Kilo class diesel electric submarines". April 6, 2014.
- ""Hanoi" Submarine Launched at Cam Ranh Bay". January 3, 2014.
- "Vietnam accepted the second project 636 SSK and officially commissioned the first one". January 22, 2014.
- "Vietnam Receives 2nd Russia-Made Submarine". March 20, 2014.
- "3rd Vietnam Kilo submarines Named HQ 184 Ha Phong". May 14, 2013.
- "Russia Launches Fourth Submarine for Vietnam". March 29, 2013.
- "Russia Laid Down the 6th and last Kilo-Class Diesel Electric Submarine for Vietnam". June 3, 2014.
- "Наука и техника: Вьетнам купил вторую партию российских фрегатов "Гепард"". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Zelenodolsk Shipyard will Build Two "Gepard" for Vietnam". March 28, 2013.
- "Second Batch of Gepard Equipped with Sthil-1 Missile". July 11, 2013.
- "Vietnam Navy selects MBDA Exocet and VL Mica missiles for its Sigma 9814 Corvettes". November 4, 2013.
- "The First Image of Vietnam Battleship SIGMA 9814". February 27, 2014.
- "Design of future Damen SIGMA 9814 Corvettes for Vietnamese Navy revealed". March 1, 2014.
- "Vietnamese Petya Class Light Frigates : Still Powerful at Sea". April 15, 2013.
- "The First Molniya Made by Vietnam will be Joined to the Navy". April 1, 2013.
- "Two Molniya Missile Vessels Successfully Launched". June 26, 2014.
- "Vietnamese Navy Officialy Receives 2 Home-Made Missile Ships". July 22, 2014.
- "Vietnam Began Sea Trials of the Fourth Gunship TT-400TR". September 10, 2014.
- "Second Twin Otter Seaplane for Vietnam Navy Take Off in Canada". April 26, 2013.
- "'Goose' of Vietnam Navy Took off on the Water". May 29, 2013.
- "Seaplane DHC-6 Series 400 Ready to Protect Vietnam's Waters". July 12, 2013.
- "Vietnam will Get 2 More DHC-6 Seaplane". July 18, 2014.
- ""Killer" Submarine Hunting Helicopter". June 17, 2013.
- "Handover of Brigade 954 Naval Aviation". July 5, 2013.
- Prime Minister Visits Bastion Coastal Missile Complex in 681 Naval Unit
- Annual report Tactical Missiles Corporation 2010.p. 92
- Cooke, Nola; Li, Tana; Anderson, James, eds. (2011). The Tongking Gulf Through History (illustrated ed.). University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812243366. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Lary, Diana (2007). Diana Lary, ed. The Chinese State at the Borders (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. ISBN 0774813334. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan) (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. ISBN 0791426874. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Wade, Geoff (2005), Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, retrieved 6 November 2012
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vietnam People's Navy.|
- Vietnam Military blog
- Gulf of Tonkin Incident: Reappraisal 40 Years Later
- Task Force 115
- Analysis of the Battle of Dong Hoi
- World Navies Vietnam