Help:IPA for Italian
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See Italian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Italian.
- If the consonants are doubled between vowels, they are geminated. This can also happen between sonorants (genuinely, all consonants can be geminated except for [z]). In IPA, gemination can be represented either by doubling the consonant: fatto [ˈfatto], mezzo [ˈmɛddzo]; or with the length marker ‹ ː ›. Notice as well, syntactic gemination can occur in Italian (e.g. va via [vavˈvi.a]).
- ⟨z⟩ represents both [ts] and [dz]. In order to determine which, consult a dictionary.
- /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated word-internally.
- The nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/, /nk/ is a velar [ŋ], the realization before /v/ or /f/ is a labiodental [ɱ] (though this is transcribed here as [m]), and only [m] is ever found before /p/ or /b/.
- Most times [r] is pretty short, and is pronounced as a single trill.
- Italian contrasts seven monophthongs in stressed syllables. In unstressed syllables, mid vowels occur in complementary distribution; with open-mid vowels [ɛ ɔ] appearing before sonorants (e.g. copertura [kopɛrˈtuːra]), and close-mid vowels [e o] found elsewhere (e.g. Boccaccio [bokˈkattʃo]). Open and close vowels [a i u] stay unchanged in unstressed syllables, though word-final unstressed [i] may become an approximant [j] before vowels in a process known as synalepha (syllable merging), e.g. pari età [ˌparjeˈta].
- Stressed vowels are long when in a non-final open syllable: fato [ˈfaːto] ~ fatto [ˈfatto].
- (Italian) Dizionario italiano multimediale e multilingue d'ortografia e di pronunzia (not based on IPA)
- (Italian) Dizionario di pronuncia italiana online by Luciano Canepari (based on IPA)