Close-mid front rounded vowel

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Close-mid front rounded vowel
ø
IPA number 310
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ø
Unicode (hex) U+00F8
X-SAMPA 2
Kirshenbaum Y
Braille ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256)
Sound

The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ø, a lowercase letter o with a diagonal stroke through it, derived from the Danish, Norwegian and Faroese alphabets which use the letter to represent this sound. The symbol is commonly referred to as "o, slash" in English.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists,[who?] perhaps a majority,[citation needed] prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Close-mid front compressed vowel[edit]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is close-mid, also known as high-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel (a high vowel) and a mid vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[1] [example needed] Near-front.[1]
Chinese Wu tzeu [tsøː] 'most'
Danish Standard[2][3][4][5][6] købe [ˈkʰø̠ːb̥ə] 'buy' Near-front.[2][3][4][5][6] See Danish phonology
Dutch Northeastern neus About this sound [nøːs]  'nose' Dialects of provinces Groningen, Drenthe, Overijssel and Gelderland.
English Broad South African[7] bird [bø̠ːd] 'bird' Near-front.[7][8] May be lower [ø̞̈ː] in South Africa.[7] In Cultivated South African English, it is realized as [əː].[7] See English phonology
General South African[7]
Tyneside[8]
Faroese øl [øːl] 'beer'
French[9] peu [pø] 'few' See French phonology
Franco-Provençal filye [ˈføʎə] 'daughter'
German Standard[10] schön About this sound [ʃø̠ːn]  'beautiful' Near-front.[10] Realization of /øː/ according to Kohler (1999) and Lodge (2009). Mangold (2005) places it on the same height as /ə/ (i.e. [ø̞̈]) on the vowel chart. See German phonology
Hungarian[11] nő [nø̠ː] 'woman' Near-front.[11] See Hungarian phonology
Lombard Western coeur [køːr] 'heart' Also written ö, particularly in Switzerland and Italy.
Ngwe Mmockngie dialect [nøɣə̀] 'sun'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[12] søt [sø̠ːt̪] 'sweet' Near-front.[12] See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Micaelense[13] boi [ˈbø] 'ox' Allophone of /o/. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[14] dou [ˈd̪øw] 'I give'
Rotuman mösʻạki [møːsʔɔki] 'to put to bed'

Vowel transcribed /øː/ in Belgian Dutch is in fact mid central [ɵ̞ː].[15]

Close-mid front protruded vowel[edit]

Close-mid front protruded vowel
ø̫
øʷ

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization,   ̫, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is øʷ or (a close-mid front vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

Features[edit]

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Swedish Central Standard[16] öl About this sound [ø̫ːl̪]  'beer' May be diphthongized to [øə̯]. See Swedish phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Allan, Robin; Holmes, Philip; Lundskær-Nielsen, Tom (2000), Danish: An Essential Grammar, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-19-824268-9 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2003), Why are the Danes so hard to understand? 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1990), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Johnson, Keith (2010), A Course in Phonetics (6th ed.), Boston, Massachusetts: Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4282-3126-9 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Szende, Tamás (1994), "Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 24 (2): 91–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005090 
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 2: 289–333, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006290 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Watt, Dominic; Allen, William (2003), "Tyneside English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 267–271, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001397