Yelnya, Yelninsky District, Smolensk Oblast

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For other places with the same name, see Yelnya.
Yelnya (English)
Ельня (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Street in Yelnya.jpg
A street in Yelnya
Map of Russia - Smolensk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Smolensk Oblast in Russia
Yelnya is located in Smolensk Oblast
Yelnya
Yelnya
Location of Yelnya in Smolensk Oblast
Coordinates: 54°35′N 33°11′E / 54.583°N 33.183°E / 54.583; 33.183Coordinates: 54°35′N 33°11′E / 54.583°N 33.183°E / 54.583; 33.183
Coat of Arms of Yelnya.png
Flag of Elnya (Smolensk oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of February 2014)
Country Russia
Federal subject Smolensk Oblast[1]
Administrative district Yelninsky District[1]
Urban settlement Yelninskoye[1]
Administrative center of Yelninsky District,[1] Yelninskoye Urban Settlement[1]
Municipal status (as of November 2011)
Municipal district Yelninsky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Yelninskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Yelninsky Municipal District,[2] Yelninskoye Urban Settlement[3]
Statistics
Area (urban settlement) (February 2014) 97.94 km2 (37.81 sq mi)[1]
Population (2010 Census) 10,095 inhabitants[4]
Density 103 /km2 (270 /sq mi)[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
First mentioned 1150[citation needed]
Town status since 1776[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7] 216330
Dialing code(s) +7 48146[citation needed]
Yelnya on WikiCommons

Yelnya (Russian: Е́льня) is a town and the administrative center of Yelninsky District in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Desna River, 82 kilometers (51 mi) from Smolensk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 10,095 (2010 Census);[4] 10,798 (2002 Census);[8] 9,868 (1989 Census).[9]

Etymology[edit]

Yelnya's name is likely related to the Russian word "ель"('yel', lit. fir tree) or "елань" (yelan', lit. land cleared from forest).[citation needed]

History[edit]

It was first mentioned in the historical documents in 1150 when according to the order of knyaz Rostislav of Smolensk it was to pay a tax of four grivnas and a fox skin.[citation needed]

The settlement shared the history of the Smolensk lands—it paid duty to the Golden Horde, then was captured by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was returned to Russia with the rest of the Smolensk Voivodeship at the close of the Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667. In 1776, it was granted town status and became the seat of an uyezd.[citation needed]

1780 coat of arms of Yelnya

In 1812, during the French invasion of Russia, Yelnya became an important center of the partisan movement. During the counter-offensive campaign, Mikhail Kutuzov's headquarters were located here.

During the Great Patriotic War, Yelnya was a place of several important battles. On August 30, 1941, it became the place of the Yelnya Offensive, the first successful offensive operation of Soviet troops in the Great Patriotic War.

In 1942, Yelninsky District became a part of the so-called "Dorogobuzh Partisan Krai". The German garrison in the town was not able to control the rural territories which were effectively under the partisan control. In March 1942, partisans even liberated the town, killing more than a thousand German troops, but in three days on March 18, 1942 they were forced to retreat back to the forests.

In August 1943, Yelnya played the key part in the Battle of Smolensk. On August 30, Germans were forced to abandon Yelnya, sustaining heavy casualties. This started a full-scale German retreat from the area. By September 3, Soviet forces reached the eastern shore of the Dnieper.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Yelnya serves as the administrative center of Yelninsky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with ten rural localities, incorporated within Yelninsky District as Yelninskoye Urban Settlement.[1] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban settlement status and is a part of Yelninsky Municipal District.[2]

Economy[edit]

The town has a cheese factory, large bakery, brick factory, and a few stores.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Resolution #261
  2. ^ a b c d Law #108-z
  3. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Федеральное агентство по технологическому регулированию и метрологии. №ОК 033-2013 1 января 2014 г. «Общероссийский классификатор территорий муниципальных образований. Код 66 619 101». (Federal State Statistics Service. Federal Agency on Technological Regulation and Metrology. #OK 033-2013 January 1, 2014 Russian Classification of Territories of Municipal Formations. Code 66 619 101. ).
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Администрация Смоленской области. Постановление №261 от 30 апреля 2008 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области», в ред. Постановления №50 от 5 февраля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области». Опубликован: База данных "Консультант-плюс". (Administration of Smolensk Oblast. Resolution #261 of April 30, 2008 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #50 of February 5, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast. ).
  • Смоленская областная Дума. Закон №108-з от 20 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении статусом муниципального района муниципального образования "Ельнинский район" Смоленской области, об установлении границ муниципальных образований, территории которых входят в его состав, и наделении их соответствующим статусом», в ред. Закона №108-з от 23 ноября 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "О наделении статусом муниципального района муниципального образования "Ельнинский район" Смоленской области, об установлении границ муниципальных образований, территории которых входят в его состав, и наделении их соответствующим статусом"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Смоленской областной Думы и Администрации Смоленской области", №13, часть II, стр. 144, 22 декабря 2004 г. (Smolensk Oblast Duma. Law #108-z of December 20, 2004 On Granting the Status of the Municipal District to the Municipal Formation of "Yelninsky District" of Smolensk Oblast, on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations the Territories of Which It Comprises, and on Granting Them Appropriate Status, as amended by the Law #108-z of November 23, 2011 On Amending the Oblast Law "On Granting the Status of the Municipal District to the Municipal Formation of "Yelninsky District" of Smolensk Oblast, on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations the Territories of Which It Comprises, and on Granting Them Appropriate Status". Effective as of the official publication date.).

External links[edit]