Yelnya, Yelninsky District, Smolensk Oblast

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For other places with the same name, see Yelnya.
Yelnya (English)
Ельня (Russian)
-  Town  -
Ilyinskaya church in Yelnya 2.jpg
Ilyinskaya church in Yelnya
Map of Russia - Smolensk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Smolensk Oblast in Russia
Yelnya is located in Smolensk Oblast
Location of Yelnya in Smolensk Oblast
Coordinates: 54°34′N 33°10′E / 54.567°N 33.167°E / 54.567; 33.167Coordinates: 54°34′N 33°10′E / 54.567°N 33.167°E / 54.567; 33.167
Coat of Arms of Yelnya.png
Coat of arms
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Smolensk Oblast
Administrative district Yelninsky District[citation needed]
Administrative center of Yelninsky District{{{adm_ctr_of_ref}}}
Population (2010 Census) 10,095 inhabitants[1]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[2]
Founded 1150[citation needed]
Town status since 1776[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[3] 216330
Dialing code(s) +7 48146[citation needed]
Yelnya on WikiCommons
Old coat of arms of Yelnya

Yelnya (Russian: Е́льня) is a town and the administrative center of Yelninsky District of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Desna River 82 kilometers (51 mi) from Smolensk. Population: 10,095 (2010 Census);[1] 10,798 (2002 Census);[4] 9,868 (1989 Census).[5]


The name of the town probably related to the Russian 'yel' (fir tree) or yelan' (land cleared from forest).

The settlement was first mentioned in the historical documents in 1150 when according to the order of knyaz Rostislav of Smolensk the settlement was to pay tax of four grivnas and a fox skin.

The settlement shared the history of the Smolensk lands—it paid duty to the Golden Horde, then was captured by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The settlement was returned to Russia with the rest of the Smolensk Voivodeship at the close of the Russo-Polish War (1654-1667). In 1776, the settlement officially received town status and became a center of an uyezd.

In 1804, the Russian composer Mikhail Glinka was born in the village of Novospasskoye of Yelninsky Uyezd. In 1982, the house was restored and became a museum of Glinka. The Glinka Festival is held annually in Yelninsky District.

In 1812, during the Napoleon's invasion of Russia, Yelnya became an important center of the partisan movement. Later during the counter-offensive there was the staff of Mikhail Kutuzov.

During the Great Patriotic War, Yelnya became a place of the important battles:

  • On August 30, 1941, Yelnya became the place of the Yelnya Offensive, the first successful offensive operation of Soviet troops in the Great Patriotic War.
  • In 1942, Yelninsky District became a part of the Dorogobuzh Partisan Krai. The German garrison in the town was not able to control the rural territory that were effectively under the partisan control. In March 1942, partisans even liberated the city, killing more than a thousand German troops but in three days on March 18, 1942 they were forced to retreat back to the forests.
  • In August 1943, Yelnya became the key part to the Battle of Smolensk. On August 30, Germans were forced to abandon Yelnya, sustaining heavy casualties. This started a full-scale German retreat from the area. By September 3, Soviet forces reached the eastern shore of the Dnieper.


The town has a cheese factory, large bakery, brick factory, and a few shops.


  1. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  2. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  3. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  4. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  5. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 

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