Орловская область (Russian)
|— Oblast —|
|Established||September 27, 1937|
|Government (as of February 2014)|
|- Governor||Vadim Potomsky (acting)|
|- Legislature||Oblast Council of People's Deputies|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|- Total||24,700 km2 (9,500 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||31.86/km2 (82.5/sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
It is located in the southwestern part of the Central Federal District, in the Central Russian Upland. Kaluga and Tula Oblasts border it to the north; Bryansk Oblast is located to the west; Kursk Oblast—to the south, and Lipetsk Oblast is to the east. From north to south, it extends for more than 150 kilometers (93 mi), and from west to east—for over 200 kilometers (120 mi). In terms of area, at 24,700 square kilometers (9,500 sq mi) it is one of the smallest federal subjects.
The climate is temperate. The average January temperature is −8 °C (18 °F) and the average July temperature is +18 °C (64 °F). Rainfall averages 490 to 590 mm, and snow cover averages 126 days.
In the 12th century, chronicles mention Mtsensk, known as Novosil then. Then modern Orlovschina was part of the Chernigov Principality. After the death of Mikhail of Chernigov Novosil Principality was formed on these territories. By the end of the 15th century it had disintegrated into four separate principalities, along with all the other fragments of the Chernigov principality became a part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the 16th century, the fortress town of Oryol was founded, restored destroyed in the 13th century, Livny. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the territory of modern Oryol was the borderland of the Tsardom of Russia, there are many on the strengthening of large defense line. As the reduction of the threat posed by the Tatars, agricultural activity of the area had intensified. It was created in 1937 out of three other oblasts: Kursk Oblast, Western Oblast, and Voronezh Oblast. It also included present Bryansk Oblast between 1937-1944.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Oryol CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Oryol Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Oryol Oblast Council of People's Deputies is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Head of Administration of the Orel region in 1993-2009 was Yegor Stroyev. Tunings led the region for more than 20 years. In 1985 he became the first secretary of the regional committee of the CPSU, and after three years (in 1989-1991 he worked as secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU), in 1991 he returned to Oryol, worked as the director of the Institute of Horticultural Crops Selection, and later was elected governor. On February 16, 2009 Russian President Dmitry Medvedev accepted the voluntary retirement Orel Governor Stroyev and nominated Alexander Kozlov to the ryl Regional Council of People's Deputies, which approved it.
The main industries in Oryol Oblast are the food and light industries, engineering and metalworking, and ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy. The engineering and metalworking industries manufacture production equipment for various industries, forklift trucks, construction and agricultural equipment, and machinery for municipal services. Numerous companies in the instrument-making and electronics sectors maintain high scientific and technical potential with the latest high-end technologies and experienced specialists. First digital telephone exchange was introduced in the oblast in 1998.
Most of the oblast's agricultural land is used for plant cultivation. Grain growing is very important, with winter wheat and rye being the main crops. Buckwheat, oats, barley, and potatoes are also grown, and sugar beets are in great demand. The area planted in feed grains is increasing due to the expansion of livestock farming, which includes beef and dairy cattle farming, pig farming, sheep farming for meat and wool, poultry farming, and horse breeding.
As of 2010, the population of the area was motorization level of 295 cars per 1000 people, which is the 9th of any region of Russia and above the national average (249). Railway. Main line is double track electrified main line Moscow - Kharkiv - Simferopol (136 km through Mtsensk, Oryol and Zmievka Glazunovka).
Pipelines and power transmission lines Routed through the region's largest oil-trunk pipeline Druzhba (202 km in area). In the southwestern part of the area being a small section of the Urengoy - Pomary - Uzhgorod.
- Births: 8 650 (11.1 per 1000)
- Deaths: 12 639 (16.2 per 1000) 
- Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.45 | 2010 - 1.50 | 2011 - 1.43 | 2012 - 1.54 | 2013 - 1.54(e)
Ethnic composition (2010):
- Russians - 96.1%
- Ukrainians - 1%
- Others - 2.9%
- 17,468 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
According to a 2012 official survey, 40.9% of the population of Oryol Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, 1% to Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism), and 1% to Starovery (Old Believers). In addition, 34% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 8% is atheist, and 9.1% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- NTV.ru. Vladimir Putin Appoints Vadim Potomsky the Governor of Oryol Oblast (Russian)
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- "Orel Region". Retrieved 2006-11-29.
- Oryol Oblast
- «Ростелеком» в Орле переводит абонентов на цифровые АТС
- Oryol Region
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Media related to Oryol Oblast at Wikimedia Commons
- (English) Overview of Oryol Oblast (Kommersant newspaper)
- (English) Central Eurasian Information Resource: Images of Oryol Oblast - University of Washington Digital Collection