Sha (Cyrillic)

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Cyrillic letter Sha
Cyrillic letter Sha - uppercase and lowercase.svg
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АБВГҐДЂ
ЃЕЀЁЄЖЗ
З́ЅИЍІЇЙ
ЈКЛЉМНЊ
ОПРСС́ТЋ
ЌУЎФХЦЧ
ЏШЩЪЫЬЭ
ЮЯ
Non-Slavic letters
А́А̀ӐА̄А̊А̃Ӓ
Ӓ̄В̌ӘӘ́Ә̃ӚӔ
ҒГ̧Г̑Г̄Г̣Г̌Ҕ
ӺҒ̌ӶԀԂ
Д̆Д̣ԪԬД̆Ӗ
Е̄Е̃Ё̄Є̈ӁҖ
ӜԄҘӞЗ̌З̱З̣
ԐԐ̈ӠԆӢИ̃Ҋ
ӤИ́ҚӃҠҞҜ
ԞК̣ԚӅԮԒԠ
ԈԔӍӉҢԨӇ
ҤԢԊО́О̀О̆О̂
О̃О̄ӦӦ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́
Ө̆ӪҨԤҦР̌Ҏ
ԖҪС̣С̱ԌТ̌Т̣
ҬԎУ̃Ӯ
ӰӰ́ӲҮҮ́ҰХ̣
Х̱Х̮Х̑ҲӼӾҺ
Һ̈ԦҴҶӴ
ӋҸҼҾ
Ы̆Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆Э̄Э̇
ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́Ю̄
Я̆Я̄Я̈ԘԜӀ
Archaic letters
ҀѺ
ѸѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶ

Sha (Ш ш; italics: Ш ш) is a letter of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script. It commonly represents the voiceless postalveolar fricative /ʃ/, like the pronunciation of ⟨sh⟩ in "sheep" or the somewhat similar voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/ in Russian. More precisely, the sound in Russian denoted by ⟨ш⟩ is commonly transcribed as a palatoalveolar fricative but is actually a voiceless retroflex fricative. It is used in every variation of the Cyrillic alphabet for Slavic and non-Slavic languages.[citation needed]

In English, Sha is romanized as ⟨sh⟩ or as ⟨š⟩, the latter being the equivalent letter in the Latin alphabets of Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Serbian, Croatian, Latvian and Lithuanian.

History[edit]

Sha has its earliest origins in Phoenician Shin and is linked closely to Shin's Greek equivalent: Sigma (Σ, σ, ς). (Note the similar form of the modern Hebrew Shin (ש), which is probably the origin of this letter, deriving from the same Proto-Canaanite source). Sha already possessed its current form in Saints Cyril and Methodius's Glagolitic alphabet. Most Cyrillic letter-forms were derived from the Greek, but as there was no Greek sign for the Sha sound (modern Greek uses simply "Σ/σ/ς" to spell the sh-sound in foreign words and names), Glagolitic Sha was adopted unchanged. There is a possibility that Sha was taken from the Coptic alphabet, which is the same as the Greek alphabet but with a few letters added at the end, including one called "shai" which somewhat resembles both sha and shcha (Щ, щ) in appearance.

Use in mathematics[edit]

Ш has the distinction of being the most common[citation needed] Cyrillic letter internationally used in mathematics (л is used much less):

In algebraic geometry, the Tate–Shafarevich group of an Abelian variety A over a field K is denoted Ш(A/K), a notation first suggested by J. W. S. Cassels. (Previously it had been denoted TS.)

In a different mathematical context, some authors allude to the shape of the letter Sha when they use the term Shah function for what is otherwise called a Dirac comb.

The shuffle product is often denoted by ш.

Related letters and other similar characters[edit]

Computing codes[edit]

Character Ш ш
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHA CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1064 U+0428 1096 U+0448
UTF-8 208 168 D0 A8 209 136 D1 88
Numeric character reference Ш Ш ш ш
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 251 FB 219 DB
Code page 855 246 F6 245 F5
Code page 866 152 98 232 E8
Windows-1251 216 D8 248 F8
ISO-8859-5 200 C8 232 E8
Macintosh Cyrillic 152 98 248 F8

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of Ш at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of ш at Wiktionary