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Year 1361 (MCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
- March 17 – An-Nasir Hasan, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, is killed by one of his own mamluks, Yalbugha al-Umari, who, with the senior Mamluk emirs, has al-Mansur Muhammad installed as the new sultan.
- April 13 – The University of Pavia is founded, on the Italian Peninsula.
- July 27 – Battle of Visby: King Valdemar IV of Denmark defeats a peasant army.
- October 10 – Edward, the Black Prince, marries Joan, the 'Fair Maid of Kent'.
- In the Marinid Empire in modern-day Morocco, Abu Salim Ibrahim is overthrown by Abu Umar, who is in turn overthrown by Abu Zayyan.
- The Blue Horde descends into anarchy. Between 1361 and 1378, over 20 khans succeed each other in different parts of the Blue Horde's territory.
- Chinese rebels capture the Goryeo capital.
- January 7 – Gerlach I of Nassau-Wiesbaden
- March 17 – An-Nasir Hasan, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt (b. 1334/35)
- March 23 – Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster, English soldier and diplomat
- June 9 – Philippe de Vitry, French composer (b. 1291)
- June 15 – Johannes Tauler, German mystic theologian
- June 17 – Ingeborg of Norway, princess consort and regent of Sweden (b. 1301)
- September 18 – Louis V, Duke of Bavaria (b. 1315)
- October 4 – John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray, English baron (b. 1310)
- October 8 – John Beauchamp, 3rd Baron Beauchamp, Warden of the Cinque Ports
- November 21 – Philip I, Duke of Burgundy (plague) (b. 1346)
- date unknown