67th Cyberspace Wing
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (January 2013)|
|67th Cyberspace Wing|
67th Network Warfare Wing Insignia
|Active||1947-1949; 1951-1960; 1966-1993; 1993-present|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Part of||Air Force Space Command|
|Garrison/HQ||Lackland Air Force Base|
|Motto||Lux ex Tenebris Latin Light from Darkness|
|Decorations||Distinguished Unit Citation
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with V Device
Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation
The 67th Cyberspace Wing (67 CW), Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, was reactivated 1 October 1993 as the 67th Intelligence Wing. The wing was re-designated the 67th Information Operations Wing on 1 February 2001. On 5 July 2006, the wing was again re-designated as the only Network Warfare Wing.
The wing is charged with executing Air Force Space Command's global mission of cyberspace operations.
The wing is commanded by Colonel David W. Snoddy.
The 67th Cyberspace Wing organizes, trains, and equips cyberspace forces to conduct network defense, attack, and exploitation. It also executes full-spectrum Air Force network operations, training, tactics, and management for AFNetOps/CC and combatant CCs
- 67th Network Warfare Group, (Lackland Air Force Base, Texas): The group tailors multi-source intelligence, electronic warfare and communications security products for national decision makers and Air Force Cyber Command. The group also participates with Air Force Special Operations Command, providing customized intelligence products for their missions.
- 26th Network Operations Group, (Lackland Air Force Base, Texas): The 26th Network Operations Group employs four operational squadrons worldwide, providing Air Force enterprise network operations, management, defense, and information assurance to Air Force Network Operations (AFNETOPS) Commander and Commander, United States Strategic Command. The Group plans, tasks, executes, monitors and sustains AFNETOPS forces for Warfighting Headquarters and Commands. The Group trains and certifies AFNETOPS forces on tactics, techniques, and procedures that the Group develops.
- 690th Cyberspace Operations Group, (Lackland Air Force Base, Texas): The 690 COG mission is Anytime/Anywhere Support To Weapon Systems Used By Network Warfighters To Execute Network Warfare.
- For additional history and lineage, see 67th Network Warfare Group
The Wing was activated as part of a service-wide, wing-base test in 1947 and assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped with RB-26's and RF-80's. Redesignated 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in June 1948. Budget constraints, though, resulted in the wing's inactivation in March 1949.
The need for tactical reconnaissance resources became obvious when North Korea launched a surprise attack against the Republic of Korea in June 1950. In February 1951, Headquarters Far East Air Force activated the 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing at Komaki Air Base, Japan replacing the inactivated 543rd Tactical Support Group. Combat components of the wing were the 12th, 15th and 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadrons. By August, the wing had consolidated its subordinate elements at Kimpo AB (K-14). Gradually overcoming difficulties, it soon was providing adequate aerial intelligence for both air and ground units.
Over the next two and a half years, the 67 TRW served as the primary tactical reconnaissance unit in the Korean War. From February 1951 to July 1953, the wing performed exceptionally well, and outstripped all existing reconnaissance records. Wing crews averaged nearly 1,500 sorties and technicians processed more than 736,000 negatives, monthly. On a recurring basis, the wing provided photographic coverage of all enemy airfields in Korea, as mandated by the FEAF policy of keeping enemy airfields unserviceable. It also flew large-scale front-line block coverage photography for the Eighth Army and provided surveillance for the interdiction of main enemy rail lines, roads and bridges. New technology permitted it to reconnoiter targets between fighter-bomber attacks, interpret wet negatives, and flash the results and flak locations to the Joint Operations Center in time to assist missions later in the day.
Innovations the 67th TRW developed while engaging in combat were creative experimentation with aircraft, cameras, night lighting, and photographic techniques; and the modification of six Sabrejets to RF-86 configuration for reconnaissance work. Flew RF-51D, RF-80A, RF-86 and RB-26 aircraft. For visual reconnaissance, the 67th TRW relied on T-6s and C-47s for a short time. It also performed weather reconnaissance on a regular basis, using the unarmed WB-26s of the attached 6166th Air Weather Reconnaissance Flight.
During 1951, the wing routinely flew armed reconnaissance with RF-51s, leading fighter sweeps and directing fighter-bomber strikes. The 67th TRW earned three Distinguished Unit Citations (DUC). The first was for the period of the First UN Counteroffensive, February–April 1951, when the tactical squadrons provided intensive medium- to low-level surveillance of enemy territory as far north as the Yalu River. In conjunction with these missions, the wing conducted 1,886 fighter sweep sorties, attacking railways, pack animals, roads, vehicles, bridges and supply dumps. The second DUC recognized contributions to the UN Summer-Fall Offensive, July–November 1951, with the 12th TRS conducting night operations in RB-26s and the 15th TRS in RF-80s sharing daytime coverage with the 45th TRS. The aircrews flew around-the-clock photo surveillance of enemy activities and provided artillery and naval gun fire direction. The group earned its third DUC during the war's final campaign. Flying continuous close surveillance of enemy activities, the group provided photographic intelligence, visual reconnaissance, and direction of fighter-bomber sweeps, to prevent the enemy an opportunity for a last-minute offensive before implementation of the armistice.
Far East/Pacific Air Forces
On 6 December 1954 the wing was withdrawn from South Korea and moved to Itami Air Base, near Osaka, Japan. It was reorganized in Japan with the Group's operational squadrons being located at different bases:
- 11th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, Electronics and Weather (RB/WB-26 Invader)
- 12th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, Night Photographic (RB-26 Invader)
- 15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, Photographic-Jet (RF-80 Shooting Star) (Komaki AB, Japan)
- 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, Photographic-Jet (RF-80 Shooting Star) (Misawa AB, Japan)
- 67th Reconnaissance Technical Squadron: A non-flying unit with a mission to process aerial photography taken by the squadrons of the group.
Two of the 67th TRG's squadrons, the 11th and 12th were moved to Itami with RB-26s; the 15th was moved to Komaki AB at Nagoya and the 45th TRS was left at Kimpo AB (K-14), South Korea. The 45th TRS moved from Kimpo to Misawa AB, in northern Japan in March 1955, making it the last of the wing's units to leave South Korea.
With the fighting over in Korea, the mission of the 67th was the need to remain alert and be ready in case of a resumption of combat on the peninsula. At Itami, the 67th's mission shifted from active, combat support of United Nations forces to a status of training and preparedness. It still operated aircraft along the Korean DMZ monitoring the border for Communist aggression and provided photographic and electronic intelligence for areas and of targets of particular interest to Fifth Air Force (Project "Hawkeye"). It provided and maintained visual surveillance of Communist and United Nations forces activities; occasionally directed adjustment of long range artillery and naval gunfire during cease-fire violations. In August 1955 the 15th TRS was moved to Yokota AB with the return of Komaki to Japanese control.
The task of monitoring the Korean DMZ fell to the 67th TRW who had in fact taken up the mission with its 11th and 12th TRS RB-26 aircraft immediately after the signing of the armistice. While the grop was resident at K-14 (Kimpo AB) the regular flights alone the DMZ, although fraught with danger and difficulties, were relatively easy to maintain in logistical terms. The aircraft were based within easy reach of their target. The squadron aircraft could also maintain its other photo recce commitments in Korea with relative ease. However, when the wing moved to Japan, regular DMZ monitoring missions were flown from Itami where the unit was based. This proved impractical to maintain and in early 1955 the wing set up a detachment at Kimpo. Two RB-26s from the 11th TRS were deployed there with support facilities and Project Hawkeye was born.
Initially Detachment #1 of the 67th TRW also included three RF-80s of the 15th TRS. The mission of the RB-26s was to provide day photographic reconnaissance of the DMZ upon request of the Korean Joint Operations Center (KJOC) and to maintain a Photo Processing Center (PPC) capability in Korea. In early 1957 FEAF recognized the need to replace the RB-26 in Hawkeye and, furthermore, give the operation a more permanent establishment at K-14. In addition, the Air Force was faced with the cost of having to re-equip the 67th in the face of a new round of budget reductions. Its photo equipment was worn out from the use during the Korean War, and was deteriorated due to the poor conditions in the combat areas. Also the aircraft were constantly flown during the war, with rapid repair of battle damage being the norm.
The occupation of Japan had formally ended in 1952, and the United States was assisting Japan in the creation of "Self-Defense Forces". In August 1956, the Group's headquarters was moved to Yokota AB, with the wing following on 1 July 1957 as part of the return to Itami to the Japanese Government. This move also addressed the need to reorganize the reconnaissance forces, as the FEAF provisional 6007th Reconnaissance Wing at Yokota had a mission similar to the peacetime mission of the 67th.
With the move to Yokota, the 67th TRW took over the mission, personnel and facilities of the 6007th RW, which had been operating at Yokota since January 1950. The takeover by the 67th of the 6007th Reconnaissance Group made the 67th grow with four additional squadrons:
- 6021st Reconnaissance Squadron, inactivated in December 1957. It's RF-84F Thunderstreaks were reassigned to the 15th TRS; the RT-33A Shooting Star atmospheric sampling mission was reassigned to the 6091st RS, and its RB-57A Canberras returned to the United States.
- 6091st Reconnaissance Squadron, which was engaged in classified activities for Fifth Air Force, was assigned to the 67th TRW as a new squadron equipped with RB-50 Superfortresses, RB-57 Canberras, C-54 Skymasters and C-119 Flying Boxcars for undisclosed intelligence-gathering operations.
- 548th Reconnaissance Technical Squadron: A non-flying unit with a mission to process aerial photography taken by the 6021st and 6091st, passing it on directly to HQ Far East Air Force.
- 421st Air Refueling Squadron: Equipped with KB-50/KB-50J Superfortress, performed aerial refueling for FEAF aircraft.
The 67th also inherited an air rescue mission at Yokota which was inherited from the 35th Air Base Group. It was assigned to the 67th ABG and then to the 6012th Air Base Wing, which took over the host responsibly in July 1957. It operated a specialized SC-47 which was fitted for air rescue duties.
By 1958, the 67th TRW had over 150 aircraft in seven flying squadrons (11th TRS, 12th TRS, 15th TRS at Kadena, 45th TRS at Misawa, 6021st RS, 6091st RS and 421st ARS). In addition, there were Headquarters, Maintenance, Armament, Electronics and Field Maintenance Squadrons, plus the 548th and 67th Reconnaissance Technical Squadrons. This made the 67th TRW the largest wing in the USAF at the time.
At Yokota, the 67th TRW became the sole source of tactical reconnaissance in Japan for Fifth Air Force. It had the diverse, complex mission to provide visual, photo, weather and electronic reconnaissance. With the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) to monitor, the 67th was forced to concentrate on the more active long-range Cold War reconnaissance and cartographic graphic tasks inherited from the 6007th, using the flying units of the former wing.
In addition the 67th maintained the surveillance mission of the DMZ to give Army ground forces fast response to high and low oblique photo reconnaissance of the DMZ. In early 1957 FEAF recognized the need to replace the RB-26 and, furthermore, give the operation a more permanent establishment at K-14. The difficulty facing the 67th TRW, which was given the responsibility for coming up with an alternative, was what aircraft to use. One of the terms of the armistice was that new aircraft could not be brought into the theatre. The final choice was the C-47, which was modified with the installation of a K-38, 36-inch oblique camera to shoot oblique imagery across the DMZ. In addition, a mobile photo lab and small Photo-Interpretation capability left over in Korea when the 67th was moved to Itami in 1954. The C-47 also collected SIGNIT which was sent directly to the FEAF ELINT Center at Yokota. Two navigators were always carried on the aircraft to ensure, as far as possible, that no violation of the DMZ occurred. The primary collector of regular photo coverage over the Korean DMZ was RB-50s of 6091st RS. Photography from those missions were processed by the 548th RTS.
With the move to Yokota, the group element was inactivated as part of the transition to the tri-deputate organization, and the operational squadrons were assigned directly to the wing. It was later was assigned to the 41st Air Division in 1958. With the reassignment to the Division, RB-66 Destroyers replaced the Korean War vintage RB-26s; with WB-66's being assigned to the 11th TRS in 1958. Supeersonic RF-101C Voodoos replaced the RF-84Fs also in 1958.
The Wing was inactivated in December 1960 due to budget reductions which forced a re-alignment of PACAF assets in Japan. The 3d Bombardment Wing was moved from Johnson AB to Yokota and assumed the mission of the 67th TRW. The 421st Air Refueling Squadron and 6091st Reconnaissance Squadron were attached to the 3d Bombardment Wing, but reassigned to the 41st Air Division (It later was incorporated into the 556th Reconnaissance Squadron on 1 July 1968). The 11th and 12th TRS were inactivated; the 15th and 45th TRS were moved to Kadena AB, Okinawa and Misawa AB Japan respectively and given new assignments. The detachment at Osan was reassigned to the 314th Air Division.
Mountain Home Air Force Base
By 1965, growing United States involvement in the Vietnam War resulted in Tactical Air Command reactivating the 67 TRW on 2 August 1965, and eventually manning it by January 1966 at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho. The wing, while having operational commitments, conducted replacement training for RF-4C Phantom II crew members being deployed to Southeast Asia.
As required, the 67 TRW also supported operations when crew members ferried RF-4Cs to the theater. When U.S. forces began the drawdown from South Vietnam, the 67 TRW designation moved in July 1971 to Bergstrom Air Force Base, Texas as Mountain Home was programmed to receive F-111s returning from Southeast Asia. At Bergstrom, the 67th replaced the 75th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing due to historical precedence.
Bergstrom Air Force Base
At Bergstrom Air Force Base, the wing still maintained its dual mission responsibilities of an operational commitment to the European theater and a training mission for RF-4C crew members. The 67th conducted reconnaissance training of USAF, US Marine Corps, and allied RF-4 reconnaissance aircrews between 1982–1989; acted as adviser to Air National Guard reconnaissance units until 1992; performed reconnaissance missions supporting the US Customs Service, 1983–1992; hosted the TAC-sponsored worldwide tactical reconnaissance competition at Bergstrom in 1986, 1988, and 1990.
After its reactivation at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho, in 1965, the 67 TRW garnered six Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards. The wing also earned the Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamer for its participation in the evacuation of U. S. civilians from Grenada in October–November 1983.
By 1989, the demise of the Warsaw Pact signaled an end to the Cold War. It also meant reduction in forces for the U.S. military and the transfer of the 67 TRW's training mission to George Air Force Base, California. On 30 September 1989 the 45th TRS was inactivated in conjunction with other RF-4C squadrons and transferred some aircraft to the 189th TRS of the Idaho Air National Guard for reconnaissance training. On 31 December, the 62d TRTS was also inactivated with its aircraft going to AMARC.
1991 Gulf War
During the Gulf War, the 67th TRW deployed 6 RF-4Cs from its 12th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron to Sheik Isa Air Base, Bahrain, in support of operations in Southwest Asia in 1991, photographing enemy targets, conducting searches for enemy missile sites, tracking movement of the Iraqi Republican Guard and oil slicks, and conducting overall battle damage assessment.
Not long after the Gulf War, the draw down of U.S. military forces continued and extended to Bergstrom Air Force Base. On 1 October 1991 the wing was re-designated as the 67th Reconnaissance Wing, and on 1 June 1992 assigned to Air Combat Command.
As part of the draw down, Bergstrom was programmed for closure in 1993. The wing's RF-4C aircraft were sent to AMARC for disposal. The 67th Reconnaissance Wing and all subordinate units of the wing were inactivated on 30 September 1993.
In the meantime, restructuring of Air Force intelligence gave the 67 RW new life. On 1 October 1993, personnel of the former Air Force Intelligence Command and 693d Intelligence Wing formed the nucleus of the Headquarters 67th Intelligence Wing. The 67 IW assumed a worldwide mission with responsibility for overseeing the majority of AIA field unit operations. For its accomplishments since 1993 as the largest operational wing in the Air Force, the 67 NWW received its eighth and ninth Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards. In 2011, the 67 NWW received an Air Force Space Command Inspector General compliance inspection that resulted in a NOT IN COMPLIANCE rating. However, the 67 NWW overcame the UCI rating and was awarded the 2011 Omaha Trophy for Global Operations by U.S. Strategic Command. The 67 NWW was one of four outstanding units recognized for demonstrating the highest performance standards in USSTRATCOM's mission areas.
- Established as the 67th Reconnaissance Wing on 6 November 1947
- Organized on 25 November 1947
- Redesignated 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing on 22 August 1948
- Inactivated on 28 March 1949
- Activated on 25 February 1951
- Discontinued and inactivated on 8 December 1960
- Activated on 2 August 1965 (not organized)
- Organized on 1 January 1966
- Redesignated 67th Reconnaissance Wing on 1 October 1991
- Inactivated on 30 September 1993
- Redesignated '67th Intelligence Wing and activated on 1 October 1993
- Redesignated 67th Information Operations Wing on 1 August 2000
- Redesignated 67th Network Warfare Wing 5 July 2006
- Redesignated 67th Cyberspace Wing c. 15 September 2013
- 67th Reconnaissance (later, 67th Tactical Reconnaissance; 67th Intelligence; 67th Information Operations): 25 November 1947 – 28 March 1949; 25 February 1951 – 1 October 1957 (detached 1 July-1 October 1957); 1 October 1993–present
- 4th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron: 15 July-15 October 1971
- 7th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron: 15 December 1967 – 15 October 1971
- 9th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron: 15 July-31 August 1971
- 10th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron: 1 January 1966 – 30 June 1971
- 11th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron: attached 1 June- 24 November 1954; attached 1 July-30 September 1957, assigned 1 October 1957 – 8 March 1960; assigned 1 April-25 October 1966
- 12th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron: attached 1 June-24 November 1954; attached 1 July-30 September 1957, assigned 1 October 1957 – 8 March 1960; assigned 1 July-2 September 1966; assigned 31 August 1971 – 30 September 1992 (detached 5 May-4 June 1974, 8–29 September 1977, 7 July-7 August 1981, 15 May-11 June 1984, 27 August-24 September 1987)
- 15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron: attached 1 June-24 November 1954; attached 1 July-30 September 1957, assigned 1 October 1957 – 25 April 1960
- 22d Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron: 20 September 1966 – 15 October 1971 (detached 8–26 October 1968 and 15 July-15 October 1971)
- 45th Tactical Reconnaissance (later, 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Training) Squadron: attached 1 June-24 November 1954; attached 1 July-30 September 1957, assigned 1 October 1957 – 25 April 1960; assigned 15 October 1971 – 31 October 1975 (detached 13 June-7 July 1973); assigned 1 April 1982 – 30 September 1989
- 62d Tactical Reconnaissance Training Squadron: 1 July 1982 – 31 December 1989
- 91st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron: 15 July 1971 – 30 August 1991 (detached 26 April-25 May 1972, 25 May-9 June 1977, 1 May-2 June 1980, 2 May-1 June 1983, 24 April- 23 May 1985)
- 417th Tactical Fighter Squadron: 1 July 1968 – 15 November 1970 (detached 12 January-4 April 1969 and 11 September-10 October 1970)
- 421st Air Refueling Squadron: attached 17–30 September 1957, assigned 1 October 1957 – 8 December 1960 (detached 21 November-8 December 1960)
- 548th Reconnaissance Technical Squadron: attached 1 July-8 December 1957, assigned 8 December 1957 – 8 December 1960
- 6021st Reconnaissance Squadron: attached 1 July-8 December 1957
- 6091st Reconnaissance Squadron: attached 1 July-30 September 1957, assigned 1 October 1957 – 8 December 1960 (detached 21 November-8 December 1960).
- Hein, 2 Lt Meredith. "Two wings re-designated as "cyber"". 24th Air Force Public Affairs. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
- Endicott, Judy G. (1998). Active Air Force Wings as of 1 October 1995 and USAF Active Flying, Space, and Missile Squadrons as of 1 October 1995 (PDF). Air Force History and Museums Program. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ASIN B000113MB2. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- Freeman, Roger A. (1996) The Ninth Air Force in Colour: UK and the Continent-World War Two. After the Battle ISBN 1-85409-272-3
- Freeman, Roger A. (1994). UK Airfields of the Ninth: Then and Now. Harlow, England: After the Battle. ISBN 978-0-900913-80-8.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979.
- Mueller, Robert (1989). Air Force Bases, Vol. I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982 (PDF). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-53-6.
- Ravenstein, Charles A. Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977 (PDF). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9.
- Rogers, Brian. (2005). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. Hinkley, UK: Midland Publications. ISBN 1-85780-197-0.
-  ArmyAirForces.com 67th Reconnaissance Group
- AIA Spokesman magazine online
- 67th Network Warfare Wing
- 67th Network Warfare Wing Heritage Site