|Country||Present-day Saudi Arabia|
Al-Baqi Cemetery (Arabic: مَـقْـبَـرَة ٱلْبَقِيْع, romanized: Maqbara al-Baqī)[a] is an Islamic cemetery in Medina, Saudi Arabia, located to the southeast of the Prophet's Mosque. It was the first Medinian Islamic cemetery, containing graves of many of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's family and companions.
The grounds hold much significance for Muslims, being the resting place of many of Muhammad's relatives and companions, thus marking it as one of the two holiest cemeteries in Islamic tradition, along with the al-Mualla cemetery in Mecca. Many narrations relate Muhammad issuing a prayer every time he passed it.
When Muhammad arrived at Medina from Mecca in September 622, Al-Baqi was a land covered with Lycium shawii boxthorn trees. According to historical records, after the arrival of Muhammad, the houses of Medina developed near Al-Baqi, which was therefore considered as the public tomb. The bramble-growth was cleared and the place consecrated to be the future cemetery of the Muslims who died at Medina. Also Al-Baqi was introduced as somewhere whose east side is Nakhl and west side contains houses. In fact, before demolition Al-Baqi was located behind the houses in the city.
During the construction of the Prophet's Mosque, on the site he purchased from two orphan children when he arrived after his migration from Mecca to Medina, As'ad ibn Zurarah, one of Muhammad's companions died. Muhammad chose the spot to be a cemetery and As'ad was the first individual to be buried in al-Baqi' among the Ansar. While Muhammad was outside Medina for the Battle of Badr, his daughter Ruqayyah fell sick and died in 624. She was the first person from his household to be buried in this cemetery. Shortly after Muhammad arrived from Badr, Uthman bin Maz'oon died in 5/626-7 and was buried in al-Baqi'. He was considered the first companion of Muhammad from the Muhajirun to be buried in this cemetery. He was also called by Muhammad to be the first 'among us to go to the hereafter', and he also called the place where he is buried Rawhā.
When his youngest son Ibrahim died, he commanded that he be buried there also; he watered the grave and called this place Zawrā. As per his command two of his daughters Zainab and Umm Kulthum also buried near the grave of Uthman bin Maz'oon.
After the third Rashidun caliph Uthman (r. 644–656) was assassinated, his opponents didn't allow the caliph to be buried at al-Baqi. Instead, Uthman's body was buried in the neighboring Jewish graveyard called Kawkab. The first enlargement of al-Baqi was made by the first Umayyad caliph Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680), who merged Kawkab into al-Baqi to include his kinsman Uthman's grave. The Umayyad Caliphate built the first dome in al-Baqi over his grave. During different times of history, many domes and structures were built or rebuilt over many famous graves in al-Baqi.
In 1806, a few of Saudi Wahhabist forces demolished many of Medina's religious buildings including tombs and mosques, whether inside or outside the al-Baqi, in accordance with their doctrines. These were razed to the ground, and plundered for their decorations and goods.
In 1924, as the clan of Saud regained control of the Hejaz. The following year King Ibn Saud granted permission to destroy the site with religious authorization provided by Qadi Abd Allah ibn Bulayhid. In 1925 or 1926, the state-sponsored Wahhabi militia Ikhwan (lit. 'Brothers') began the demolition process.[b] The demolition included destroying "even the simplest of the gravestones". British convert Eldon Rutter compared the demolition to an earthquake: "All over the cemetery nothing was to be seen but little indefinite mounds of earth and stones, pieces of timber, iron bars, blocks of stone, and a broken rubble of cement and bricks, strewn about."
The second demolition was discussed in Majles-e Shora-ye Melli (The National Consultative Assembly of Iran) and a group of representatives was sent to Hijaz to investigate. In recent years[when?], efforts were made by Iranian religious scholars and political figures to restore the cemetery and its shrines. Both Sunni and Shia protested against the destruction, and rallies are held annually. The day is regarded as Yaum-e Gham ("Day of Sorrow"). Prominent Sunni theologians and intellectuals have condemned the "unfit" situation of the Baqi cemetery, but the Saudi authorities have so far ignored all criticism, and rejected any requests for the restoration of the tombs and mausoleums.
Family of Muhammad
- Sawda bint Zamah (566 or 580–644 or 674) Muhammad's second wife
- Aisha (613 or 614–678), Muhammad's third wife and Abu Bakr's daughter
- Hafsa (605–665), Muhammad's fourth wife and Umar's daughter
- Zaynab bint Khuzayma (596–625), Muhammad's fifth wife
- Umm Salama (580 or 596–680 or 683), Muhammad's sixth wife and Abu Umayya's daughter
- Zaynab bint Jahsh (590–641), Muhammad's seventh wife and first cousin
- Juwayriya bint al-Harith (608–676), Muhammad's eight wife
- Umm Habiba (589 or 594–665), Muhammad's ninth wife and Abu Sufyan's daughter
- Safiyya bint Huyayy (610 or 614–664–672), Muhammad's tenth wife
- Rayhana bint Zayd (died 631), Muhammad's eleventh wife
- Maria bint Shamun (died 637), also known as Maria al-Qibtiyya
- Ruqayya (601–624), second eldest daughter of Muhammad and also wife of caliph Uthman (r. 644–656)
- Umm Kulthum (603–630), second youngest daughter of Muhammad and also a wife of Uthman
- Zaynab (598/599—629), eldest daughter of Muhammad and wife of Abu al-As
- Fatimah (605–632), youngest daughter of Muhammad and wife of caliph Ali (r. 656–661); some Shia dispute her grave.
- Ibrahim (630–632), youngest son of Muhammad
Relatives and other
- Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (565–653), uncle of Muhammad and progenitor of the Abbasid dynasty
- Atika bint Abd al-Muttalib (died after 632), aunt of Muhammad
- Halimah (died 630), the milk-mother and nurse of Muhammad.
- Fatima bint Asad (555–626), aunt of Muhammad and mother of Ali
- Abd Allah ibn Uthman (620–625), son of Ruqayya and Uthman and Muhammad's grandson
Companions of Muhammad
- As'ad ibn Zurara (died 623), early Medinian Muslim and first person to be buried at al-Baqi
- Abd Allah ibn Ja'far (624–699 or 702 or 704), Ali's nephew and son-in-law
- Abd Allah ibn Masud (594–653), scribe of Muhammad
- Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf (581–654), wealthy companion of Muhammad
- Abu Hurayra ibn Sakhr (603–680), scholarly companion of Muhammad
- Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith (died 641), first cousin of Muhammad
- Abu Sufyan ibn Harb (565–653), Muhammad's father-in-law
- Aqil ibn Abi Talib (580–670 or 683), cousin of the elder brother of Ali
- Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas (595–674), Rashidun general and Muhammad's second cousin
- Uthman ibn Affan (576 or 579–656), son-in-law of Muhammad and the third Rashidun caliph
- Uthman ibn Mazun (died 624/625), likely the first Muhajir (lit. 'Emigrant') to be buried at al-Baqi
Ali's family and descendents
- Umm al-Banin (died 683–689), wife of caliph Ali and mother of Abbas
- Hasan ibn Ali (625–670), son of Ali and Fatimah, and a grandson of Muhammad
- Zayn al-Abidin (659–713), son of Husayn ibn Ali and great-grandson of Muhammad
- Muhammad al-Baqir (676–733), son of Zayn al-Abidin
- Umm Farwa bint al-Qasim, great-granddaughter of caliph Abu Bakr (r. 632–634) and wife of Muhammad al-Baqir
- Ja'far al-Sadiq (702–765), son of Muhammad al-Baqir
Early Islamic scholars
- Malik ibn Anas (711–795), founder of the Maliki school of thought
- Nafi al-Madani (689–785), early transmitter of the seven canonical Qiraat
Modern Islamic leaders
- Muhammad Hayyat al-Sindhi (died 1750), Sufi Islamic scholar
- Imam Shamil (1797–1871), Caucasian freedom fighter
- Rafiuddin Deobandi (1836–1890), 2nd Vice-Chancellor of Darul Uloom Deoband.
- Abdulmejid II (1868–1944), last Caliph and last Crown Prince of the Ottoman Empire
- Muhammad Zakariyya al-Kandhlawi (1898 – 24 May 1982), Sunni Hanafi Hadith scholar
- Idris of Libya (1890–1983), King of Libya
- Hasan al-Senussi (1928–1992), Crown Prince of Libya
- Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy (1928–2010), Egyptian Islamic scholar
- Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (1936–2019), 2nd President of Tunisia
Grave of Halimah
The grave of Ibrahim ibn Muhammad
Grave of Uthman, with the Masjid an-Nabawi in the background, view towards the west. The Green Dome is also visible.
- also known as Baqi al-Gharqad (Arabic: بَقِيْع الْغَرْقَد lit. 'Baqiʿ of the Boxthorn'); and Jannat al-Baqīʿ.
- Saudi sources dispute as whether the demolition process began in 1925, or 1926. or 21 April 1926 The demolition included destroying "even the simplest of the gravestones". British convert Eldon Rutter compared the demolition to an earthquake: "All over the cemetery nothing was to be seen but little indefinite mounds of earth and stones, pieces of timber, iron bars, blocks of stone, and a broken rubble of cement and bricks, strewn about."
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