Algiers expedition (1541)

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For other uses, see Battle of Algiers.
Siege of Algiers
Part of the Ottoman-Habsburg wars
Siege of Algiers 1541.jpg
Siege of Algiers in 1541. Engraving of 1555.
Date October – November 1541
Location Algiers
Result Ottoman victory
Belligerents

Charles V Arms-personal.svg Empire of Charles V:

Sovereign Military Order of Malta Order of Saint John
 Republic of Genoa
 Papal States

Kingdom of Kuku [1]
Osmanli-devleti-nisani-yeni.png Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Charles V
Navy: Andrea Doria
Army: Duke of Alba[2]
Including:
Spain Hernán Cortés
Republic of Genoa Gianettino Doria
Ferrante Gonzaga
Spain Bernardino de Mendoza
Sovereign Military Order of Malta Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon
Osmanli-devleti-nisani-yeni.png Hasan Ağa
Strength
Total of 80 galleys
Total of 500 ships.[2]
12,000 sailors.[2]
24,000 soldiers.[2]
Including:
Charles V Arms-personal.svg 100 transports.[2]
Spain 50 galleys.[2]
Spain 100 transports.[2]
Republic of Genoa 14 galleys
Papal States 8 galleys
Kingdom of Naples 150 transports.[2]
Sovereign Military Order of Malta 700 knights.
Osmanli-devleti-nisani-yeni.png 800 soldiers
5,000 Moors.[2][3]
Casualties and losses
300 officers.[2]
17,000 men.[2]
17 galleys
130 carracks.[2]
light

The Algiers expedition of 1541 occurred when Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire attempted to lead a fleet against the Ottoman Empire's stronghold of Algiers, in modern Algeria. Largely because of stormy weather, the expedition was a failure.

Background[edit]

Algiers had been under the control of the Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent since its capture in 1529 by Barbarossa. Barbarossa had left Algiers in 1535 to be named High Admiral of the Ottoman Empire in Constantinople, and was replaced as Governor by Hassan Agha, an eunuch and Sardinian renegade.[2] Hassan had in his service the well-known Ottoman naval commanders Dragut, Sālih Reïs and Sinān Pasha.[2]

Charles V made considerable preparations for the expedition, wishing to obtain revenge for the recent siege of Buda,[4] However the Spanish fleet was severely damaged by a storm, forcing him to abandon the venture.[5][6]

Expedition[edit]

Charles V embarked very late in the season, on 28 September 1541, delayed by troubles in Germany and Flanders.[2][7] The fleet was assembled in the Bay of Palma, at Majorca.[2] It had more than 500 sails and 24,000 soldiers.[2]

After enduring difficult weather, the fleet only arrived in front of Algiers on 19 October.[8] The most distinguished Spanish commanders accompanied Charles V on this expedition, including Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of Mexico, though he was never invited to the War Council.[7]

Troops were disembarked on 23 October, and Charles established his headquarters on a land promontory surrounded by German troops.[7] German, Spanish, and Italian troops, accompanied by 150 knights of Malta, began to land while repelling Algerine opposition, soon surrounding the city, except for the northern part.[2]

The fate of the city seemed to be sealed, however the following day the weather became severe with heavy rains. Many galleys lost their anchors and 15 were wrecked onshore. Another 33 carracks sank, while many more were dispersed.[9] As more troops were attempting to land, the Algerines started to make sorties, slaughtering the newly arrived. Charles V was surrounded, and was only saved by the resistance of the Knights of Malta.[10]

Andrea Doria managed to find a safer harbour for the remainder of the fleet at Cape Matifu, 5 miles east of Algiers. He enjoined Charles V to abandon his position and join him in Matifu, which Charles V did with great difficulty.[11] From there, still oppressed by the weather, the remaining troops sailed to Bougie, still a Spanish harbour at that time. Charles could only depart for the open sea on 23 November.[12] He finally reached Cartagena, in southeast Spain, on 3 December.[13]

Losses amongst the invading force were heavy with 17 galleys and 130 carracks lost, plus large numbers of sailors and soldiers.[14] A Turkish chronicler confirming that the Berber tribes were massacring the 12.000 men of invading forces[15]

Aftermath[edit]

The disaster considerably weakened the Spanish, and Hassan Agha took the opportunity to attack Mers-el-Kebir, the harbour of the Spanish base of Oran, in July 1542.[16]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Berber Government: The Kabyle Polity in Pre-colonial Algeria, p191 [1]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r The Story of the Barbary Corsairs by Stanley Lane-Poole p.114ff [2]
  3. ^ Handbook for travellers in Algeria and Tunis, Algiers, Oran, Constantine ... by John Murray (Firm),Sir Robert Lambert Playfair p.38
  4. ^ Garnier, p.201
  5. ^ European warfare, 1494–1660 by Jeremy Black p.177
  6. ^ E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936 by Martijn Theodoor Houtsma p.258 [3]
  7. ^ a b c Garnier, p.202
  8. ^ Garnier, p.203
  9. ^ Garnier, p.204ff
  10. ^ Garnier, p.204
  11. ^ Garnier, p.205
  12. ^ Garnier, p.207
  13. ^ Garnier, p.206
  14. ^ Garnier, p.208
  15. ^ Garcés, María Antonia (2005). Cervantes in Algiers: A Captive's Tale (illustrated, revised ed.). Vanderbilt University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0826514707. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  16. ^ A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period by Jamil M. Abun-Nasr p.155 ff

References[edit]