Battle of Zenta
|Battle of Zenta|
|Part of the Great Turkish War and the Ottoman–Habsburg wars|
Battle of Zenta, 11th September 1697
by Franz Eisenhut
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
|30,000 killed, wounded or drowned[c]|
The Battle of Zenta, also known as the Battle of Senta, was fought on 11 September 1697, near Zenta, Ottoman Empire (modern-day Senta, Serbia), between Ottoman and Holy League armies during the Great Turkish War. The battle was the most decisive engagement of the war, and it saw the Ottomans suffer an overwhelming defeat by an Imperial force half as large sent by Emperor Leopold I.
In 1697 a last major Turkish attempt to conquer Hungary was made, Sultan Mustafa II personally led the invasion force. In a surprise attack, Habsburg Imperial forces commanded by Prince Eugene of Savoy engaged the Turkish army while it was halfway through crossing the Tisza river at Zenta, 80 miles northwest of Belgrade. The Habsburg forces inflicted thousands of casualties, including the Grand Vizier, dispersed the remainder, captured the Ottoman treasury, and came away with such emblems of high Ottoman authority as the Seal of the Empire which had never been captured before. The European coalition's losses, on the other hand, were exceptionally light.
As an immediate consequence, the Ottoman Empire lost control over the Banat. Eugene followed up this great victory by raiding deep into Ottoman Bosnia. The scale of the defeat forced the Ottoman Empire into the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) ceding Croatia, Hungary, Transylvania and Slavonia to Austria. Zenta was one of the Ottoman Empire's greatest defeats and ultimately signalled the end of Ottoman dominance in Europe.
After the Battle of Vienna of 1683, a turning point seemed to have been reached in the Ottoman–Habsburg wars, with Austria and its allies capturing more Ottoman lands. By 1688 Belgrade and most of the Pannonian Plain was occupied by the Habsburgs. But as the war with the French demanded more troops, and the new grand vizier reorganised and reinvigorated the Ottoman Army, the success ended. Belgrade was recaptured by the Ottomans in 1690 and the following year's campaign was relatively indecisive after the Habsburg army failed in the second siege of Belgrade (1694). Subsequently, the Ottoman army commanded by Sultan Mustafa II won three consecutive victories at the Battle of Lugos (1695), Battle of Ulaş (1696), and Battle of Cenei (1696) while the Venetians lost Chios (1695).
On 18 April 1697, Mustafa went on his third expedition, planning a massive invasion of Hungary. He left Edirne with a force of 100,000 men. The Sultan took personal command, reaching Belgrade late in the Summer, on 11 August. Mustafa gathered a war council the next day. On 18 August the Ottomans left Belgrade heading north towards Szeged.
On 5 July, in the newly conquered Pannonian Plain of Hungary, Prince Eugene of Savoy, a young French prince who had distinguished himself greatly in battle, was appointed Commander-in-Chief by Emperor Leopold. His army consisted of 70,000 men with roughly 35,000 ready for battle. As the war chest was empty, Eugene borrowed money in order to pay wages and to create a working medical service. He requested that rations, ammunition and equipment be brought up to the level of an army of 50,000. When news arrived that the Sultan and his army had left Belgrade, Eugene decided to gather all his available troops from Upper Hungary and Transylvania and force march them towards Petrovaradin, on the Danube, upriver from Belgrade. Prince Eugene sent some troops north to Hegyalja to deal with Hungarian rebels while he concentrated on rebuilding the remainder of the army to face the Turks. After the concentration was completed, Eugene's forces numbered about fifty thousand to face the Ottomans.
The Habsburg Army consisted of German, Austrian, Hungarian and Serbian infantry and cavalry forces. Palatine Paul Eszterházy of the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary contributed 12,000 soldiers; the Serbian Militia, 10,000 men a majority of which cavalry under the command of Jovan Popovic Tekelija, also joined Eugene's forces. Serbs conscripts were part of the coalition, notably Vice-Voivode Jovan Monasterlija with his 1,000 infantry and 700 cavalry soldiers.
Despite the advice of the warden of Belgrade, Amcazade Hüseyin Pasha, who proposed to attack Habsburg-held Petrovaradin northwest of Belgrade on the Danube River, Mustafa moved towards Transylvania. The Ottoman army counted on Hungarian Kuruc cavalry under the leadership of Imre Thököly, however many former Kuruc rebels had also joined the Holy League and the call for Crusade.
The Sultan and his army crossed the Danube, then made a detour west to capture Titel Castle at the confluence of the Tisza and the Danube. Without troops to garrison it, the Ottomans demolished it. In September, they headed north, along the right bank of the Tisza reaching the vicinity of the village of Zenta on the morning of 11 September. The river Tisza was the last main river barrier before Transylvania. Prince Eugene followed, marching the Imperial army south from Petrovaradin, crossed the Tisza river and headed upriver along the east bank. The Ottomans had no idea where the enemy was.
On 11 September, the Ottoman army began to ford the river Tisza near Zenta, unaware that the Imperial Army was nearby. Captain Jovan Popović Tekelija, commander of the Serbian Militia, who was monitoring the advances of the Ottomans, immediately informed Prince Eugene, a captured Ottoman pasha was forced to confirm the information. Tekelija then led the Imperial army over swamps and bog to the rear of the Turks encampment. A courier arrived from Vienna carrying peremptory orders from the emperor to "act with extreme caution" and not risk a general engagement; not wanting to let the Turks slip across the river under the cover of night, Eugene decided to carry on with his plan.
Two hours before sunset, the arrival of the Habsburg army's Imperial army, after a ten-hour forced march, shocked the Ottoman forces as they were still in the process of crossing the river and did not think that the Christian army could get there so quickly. Sultan Mustafa, his baggage, and the artillery were on the Temeşvar bank while most of the infantry was still with the Grand Vizier on the other bank.
As the light was starting to fail the entire Habsburg force, with cavalry on each side and the infantry in the middle, launched an all-out assault from the rear, attacking in a crescent shape movement against the defensive position of the Ottomans. The left flank of the Imperial army commanded by General Guido Starhemberg penetrated between the Ottoman left and the bridge, trapping them against the river. The army's right wing was under the command of General Sigbert Heister. At the same time, Imperial forces led by Charles-Thomas de Vaudémont, attacked from the front and, after engaging in close-quarter fighting, broke through the trenches surrounding the Ottoman camp. The command of the Turkish cavalry was under Hungarian Imre Thököly, who also supported the sultan with some additional Kuruc cavalry.
The Imperial Dragoon of General Starhemberg dismounted and proceeded to the moat encircling and engaging the Ottoman camp and soon broke through the Turkish line of defence. Ottoman troops behind the entrenchments retreated in confusion to the bridge, which was now overcrowded, heavily bombarded, and soon collapsed.
Thrown into disorder, the trapped Ottoman troops fell into chaos with thousands falling into the river, Austrian artillery devastated the surviving Ottomans as they tried to escape. The Sultan watched helplessly from the other side,[d] before he decided, after ordering the remaining troops to secure the bridge, to abandon his army and retreat. Escorted by a cavalry detachment and accompanied by his tutor and mentor Sheikh-ul-Islam Feyzullah Efendi, Mustafa set off for Temeşvar, without stopping along the way, only taking what horses could carry. When the Habsburg army reached the far bank they found that the sultan had left behind him 87 cannons, 9000 baggage carts, 6000 camels and 15,000 oxen. In addition, the Austrians found the Ottoman royal treasure chest, containing three million piastres and the state seal of Grand Sultan Mustafa II of the Ottoman Empire which had never been captured by an enemy before, the seal was inscribed with the words "Mustafa, son of Mehmed Han, always victorious" and the year of his accession to the throne "1106 of the Hejra " (1695 according to the Christian calendar).[e] After the victory, Prince Eugene personally presented the emperor with the pieces that were captured at the Battle of Zenta.
In total 30,000 Turks died including the grand vizier, killed on the battlefield by mutinous Janissaries, and many of the most senior figures in the Ottoman military-administrative establishment, while the Holy League suffered 429 casualties. The great difference in casualties was partly due to the tactical superiority of the imperial army and cannon technology which, unlike the Ottomans, the Austrians had improved to a great extent.
The battle resulted in a spectacular victory for Austria. The main Ottoman army was scattered and the Austrians gained complete freedom of action in Ottoman Bosnia. On 22 October after Eugene mounted a raid with six thousand cavalry including Serbian Militia of the Sava, Sarajevo was captured; however, after the Turks killed the messengers sent to ask them to surrender, the city was plundered and burned to the ground.
After fourteen years of war, the battle at Zenta proved to be the catalyst for peace, in early 1699 mediators of both sides started peace negotiations in Sremski Karlovci under the supervision of English ambassador to Constantinople, William Paget. By the terms of the Treaty of Karlowitz, signed near Belgrade on 26 January 1699, Austria gained control of Hungary (except for the Banat of Temesvár and a small area of Eastern Slavonia), Transylvania, Croatia and Slavonia; The returned territories were partly reintegrated into the Kingdom of Hungary, and partly organised as separate entities within the Habsburg Monarchy such as the Principality of Transylvania, and the Military Frontier. The Turks kept Belgrade and Serbia, the Sava became the northernmost limit of the Ottoman Empire and Bosnia a border province. The victory ultimately formalised the complete withdrawal of the Turks from Hungary and signalled the end of Ottoman dominance in Europe.
Depiction of the Battle of Senta 1697 by Jan van Huchtenburgh c.1725
- as reported by Caroline Finkel, Ottoman historian, Mehmed Ağa distrusted the Grand Vizier and accused him of exaggerating the size of the army in order to mislead the Sultan, Ağa claimed that in the two previous years, the numbers had been closer to 50,000.
- killed included 28 officers and 401 soldiers; wounded 133 officers and 1 435 soldiers
- according to Erhan Afyoncu, rector of the military university in Istanbul, 7,000–8,000 Ottomans died but overwhelming majority of sources give a much higher number.
- as documented by Ottoman historian, Mehmed Ağa who was with the Sultan’s party, at Mustafa’s instruction, and chronicled the events in details.
- The Sultan's seal is visible today in the Museum of Military History in Vienna
- Samardžić & Duškov 1993, p. 50.
- Kann 1974, p. 67.
- Parker 1996, p. 538.
- Chandler 1990, p. 150.
- Faroqhi, p. 97.
- Finkel 2012, p. 906-908.
- Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Kriegsarchiv 1878, p. 156.
- Clodfelter 2008, p. 59.
- Grant 2017, p. 388.
- TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi.
- Robinson 2018, p. 123.
- Sandler 2002, p. 985.
- Nouzille 2020, pp. 627–639.
- Wheatcroft 2009, p. 230-231.
- Popović 1990, p. 170.
- Szántai & Wollaston 2017, p. 26.
- Henderson 1964, p. 40.
- Tucker 2010, p. 676.
- Çiçek et al. 2000, p. 21.
- Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Kriegsarchiv (1878). Feldzüge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen: Nach den Feld-Acten und anderen authentischen Quellen hrsg. von der Abtheilung für Kriegsgeschichte des k. k. Kriegs-Archiv (in German). Verlag des k. k. Generalstabes.
- Chandler, D.G. (1990). The Art of Warfare in the Age of Marlborough. [The Commanders]. Spellmount. ISBN 978-0-946771-42-4.
- Çiçek, K.; Kuran, E.; Göyünç, N.; İnalcık, H.; Ortaylı, İ.; Eren, G. (2000). The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation: Philosophy, science, and institutions. The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. Yeni Türkiye. ISBN 9789756782200.
- Clodfelter, M. (2008). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1494–2007. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-3319-3.
- Faroqhi, S. The Cambridge History of Turkey: The Later Ottoman Empire, 1603–1839. Cambridge history of Turkey. Cambridge University Press.
- Finkel, C. (2012). Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire 1300–1923. John Murray Press. ISBN 978-1-84854-785-8.
- Grant, R.G. (2017). 1001 Battles That Changed the Course of History. Book Sales. ISBN 978-0-7858-3553-0.
- Henderson, N. (1964). Prince Eugen of Savoy, a Biography. Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
- Kann, R.A. (1974). A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1526-1918. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02408-3.
- Parker, R.C.G. (1996). Readers Comp to Military History Pa. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-547-56146-2.
- Popović, D.J. (1990). Serbs in Vojvodina: From the Peace of Karlovac in 1699 to the Council of Timisoara in 1790. Srbi u Vojvodini (in Serbian). Matica srpska. ISBN 9788636301753. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
- Robinson, T. (2018). Battles that Changed History: Epic Conflicts Explored and Explained. Dorling Kindersley Limited. ISBN 978-0-241-37359-0.
- Samardžić, R.; Duškov, M. (1993). The Serbs in European Civilization. Balkanološki Institut Beograd: Posebna izdanja. Nova. ISBN 978-86-7583-015-3.
- Sandler, S. (2002). Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-344-5.
- Szántai, G.; Wollaston, L. (2017). 33 Castles, Battles, Legends: Hungarian-Ottoman War Series 1. Hungarian-Ottoman War Series. Independently Published. ISBN 978-1-9733-7892-1.
- Tucker, S. (2010). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-667-1.
- Wheatcroft, A. (2009). The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans and the Battle for Europe. Random House. ISBN 978-1-4090-8682-6.
- Nouzille, Jean (16 August 2020). "La campagne décisive du prince Eugène en Hongrie (1697)". Dix-septieme Siecle (in French). n° 229 (4): 627–639. ISSN 0012-4273.
- "ZENTA". TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi (in Turkish).
- "The Perils of Insouciance". Osman's Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire.
- Kft., Antikvarium.hu. "Csorba Csaba: Magyarország képes története (Magyar Könyvklub, 2003)". Antikvarium.hu (in Hungarian).
- "Zvonik". zvonik.rs (in Croatian).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battle of Zenta.|