Bias

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For other uses, see Bias (disambiguation).

Bias is an inclination of temperament or outlook to present or hold a partial perspective, often accompanied by a refusal to consider the possible merits of alternative points of view. People may be biased toward or against an individual, a race, a religion, a social class, a political party, or a species.[1] Biased means one-sided, lacking a neutral viewpoint, not having an open mind. Bias can come in many forms and is often considered to be synonymous with prejudice or bigotry.[2]

Types of bias[edit]

Cognitive biases[edit]

A cognitive bias is a repeating or basic misstep in thinking, assessing, recollecting, or other cognitive processes.[3] That is, a pattern of deviation from standards in judgment, whereby inferences may be created unreasonably.[4] People create their own "subjective social reality" from their own perceptions,[5] their view of the world may dictate their behaviour.[6] Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.[7][8][9] However some cognitive biases are taken to be adaptive, and thus may lead to success in the appropriate situation.[10] Furthermore, cognitive biases may allow speedier choices when speed is more valuable than precision.[11] Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations,[12] coming about because of an absence of appropriate mental mechanisms, or just from human limitations in information processing.[13]

Conflict of interest[edit]

Main article: Conflict of interest

A conflict of interest (COI) is when a person or association has intersecting interests (financial, personal, etcetera) which could potentially corrupt. The potential conflict is autonomous of actual improper actions, it can be found and intentionally defused before corruption, or the appearance of corruption, happens. "A conflict of interest is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest."[14] It exists if the circumstances are sensibly accepted to present a hazard that choices made may be unduly impacted by auxiliary interests.[15]

Cultural bias[edit]

Main article: Cultural bias

Cultural bias is the phenomenon of interpreting and judging phenomena by standards inherent to one's own culture. Numerous such biases exist, concerning cultural norms for color, location of body parts, mate selection, concepts of justice, linguistic and logical validity, acceptability of evidence, and taboos. Ordinary people may tend to imagine other people as basically the same, not significantly more or less valuable, probably attached emotionally to different groups and different land.

Educational bias[edit]

Main article: Bias in education

Bias in education refers to real or perceived bias in the educational system. The content of school textbooks is often the issue of debate, as their target audience is young people, and the term "whitewashing" is used to refer to selective removal of critical or damaging evidence or comment.[16][17][18] Religious bias in textbooks is observed in countries where religion plays a dominant role. There can be many forms of educational bias. Some overlooked aspects, occurring especially with the pedagogical circles of public and private schools—sources that are unrelated to fiduciary or mercantile impoverishment which may be unduly magnified—include teacher bias as well as a general bias against women who are going into STEM research.[19][20]

Experimenter bias[edit]

In science research, experimenter bias occurs when experimenter expectancies regarding study results bias the research outcome.[21] Examples of experimenter bias include conscious or unconscious influences on subject behavior including creation of demand characteristics that influence subjects, and altered or selective recording of experimental results themselves.[22]

Full text on net bias[edit]

Full text on net (or FUTON) bias is a tendency of scholars to cite academic journals with open access—that is, journals that make their full text available on the internet without charge—in their own writing as compared with toll access publications. Scholars can more easily discover and access articles that have their full text on the internet, which increases authors' likelihood of reading, quoting, and citing these articles, this may increase the impact factor of open access journals relative to journals without open access.[23][24][25][26][27][28]

The related bias, no abstract available bias (NAA bias) is scholars' tendency to cite journal articles that have an abstract available online more readily than articles that do not.[23][28]

Inductive bias[edit]

Main article: Inductive bias

The inductive bias of a learning algorithm is the set of assumptions that the learner uses to predict outputs given inputs that it has not encountered. [29]

In machine learning, one aims to construct algorithms that are able to learn to predict a certain target output. To achieve this, the learning algorithm is presented some training examples that demonstrate the intended relation of input and output values. Then the learner is supposed to approximate the correct output, even for examples that have not been shown during training. Without any additional assumptions, this problem cannot be solved exactly since unseen situations might have an arbitrary output value. The kind of necessary assumptions about the nature of the target function are subsumed in the phrase inductive bias.[29][30]

A classical example of an inductive bias is Occam's Razor, assuming that the simplest consistent hypothesis about the target function is actually the best. Here consistent means that the hypothesis of the learner yields correct outputs for all of the examples that have been given to the algorithm.

Media bias[edit]

Main article: Media bias

Media bias is the bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media, in the selection of which events and stories are reported and how they are covered. The term "media bias" implies a pervasive or widespread bias contravening the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article. The direction and degree of media bias in various countries is widely disputed.

Practical limitations to media neutrality include the inability of journalists to report all available stories and facts, and the requirement that selected facts be linked into a coherent narrative. Since it is impossible to report everything, selectivity is inevitable. Government influence, including overt and covert censorship, biases the media in some countries. Market forces that result in a biased presentation include the ownership of the news source, concentration of media ownership, the selection of staff, the preferences of an intended audience, and pressure from advertisers.

Political bias has been a feature of the mass media since its birth with the invention of the printing press. The expense of early printing equipment restricted media production to a limited number of people. Historians have found that publishers often served the interests of powerful social groups.[31]

Stastical biases[edit]

Main article: Bias (statistics)

A stastical bias is a method of calculating a statistic which produces a consistent error.

Types of prejudice related to bias[edit]

Main articles: Bigotry and Prejudice

Bias and prejudice are usually considered to be closely related.[2] Prejudice is prejudgment, or forming an opinion before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case. The word is often used to refer to preconceived, usually unfavorable, judgments toward people or a person because of gender, political opinion, social class, age, disability, religion, sexuality, race/ethnicity, language, nationality, or other personal characteristics. Prejudice can also refer to unfounded beliefs[32] and may include "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence".[33]

Classism[edit]

Main article: Class discrimination

Classism is discrimination on the basis of social class. It includes attitudes that benefit the upper class at the expense of the lower class, or vice versa. [34]

Racism[edit]

Main article: Racism

Racism consists of ideologies based on a desire to dominate or a belief in the inferiority of another race.[35][36] It may also hold that members of different races should be treated differently.[37][38][39]

Sexism[edit]

Main article: Sexism

Sexism is discrimination based on a person's sex or gender. Sexism can affect any gender, but it is particularly documented as affecting women and girls.[40] It has been linked to stereotypes and gender roles,[41][42] and may include the belief that one sex or gender is intrinsically superior to another.[43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Steinbock, Bonnie (1978). "Speciesism and the Idea of Equality". Philosophy (53): 247–256. doi:10.1017/S0031819100016582. 
  2. ^ a b "bias ...; prejudice", The New Merriam–Webster Dictionary, ISBN 0877799008
  3. ^ Definition of Cognitive Bias, Chegg, retrieved 1 September 2015 
  4. ^ Haselton, M. G., Nettle, D., & Andrews, P. W. (2005). The evolution of cognitive bias. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 724–746. 
  5. ^ Bless, H., Fiedler, K., & Strack, F. (2004). Social cognition: How individuals construct social reality. Hove and New York: Psychology Press. p. 2. 
  6. ^ Bless, H., Fiedler, K., & Strack, F. (2004). Social cognition: How individuals construct social reality. Hove and New York: Psychology Press. 
  7. ^ Kahneman, D.; Tversky, A. (1972). "Subjective probability: A judgment of representativeness". Cognitive Psychology 3 (3): 430–454. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(72)90016-3. 
  8. ^ Baron, J. (2007). Thinking and Deciding (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ Ariely, D. (2008). Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
  10. ^ For instance: Gigerenzer, G. & Goldstein, D. G. (1996). "Reasoning the fast and frugal way: Models of bounded rationality.". Psychological Review 103 (4): 650–669. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.103.4.650. PMID 8888650. 
  11. ^ Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). "Judgement under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases.". Sciences 185 (4157): 1124–1131. doi:10.1126/science.185.4157.1124. PMID 17835457. 
  12. ^ Haselton, M. G., Nettle, D., & Andrews, P. W. (2005). The evolution of cognitive bias. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 724–746. 
  13. ^ Bless, H., Fiedler, K., & Strack, F. (2004). Social cognition: How individuals construct social reality. Hove and New York: Psychology Press. 
  14. ^ Lo, Bernard; Field, Marilyn J. (2009). Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice. Washington DC: National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-13188-9. 
  15. ^ Cain, D.M. and Detsky, A.S. Everyone's a Little Bit Biased (Even Physicians) JAMA 2008;299(24):2893–289.
  16. ^ Sadker, David. "Seven Forms of Bias in Instructional Materials". sadker.org. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  17. ^ Strauss, Valerie (12 September 2014). "Proposed Texas textbooks are inaccurate, biased and politicized, new report finds". washingtonpost.com. Washington Post. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  18. ^ Czitrom, Daniel (22 March 2010). "Texas school board whitewashes history". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  19. ^ http://www.americanmentalhealthfundation.org.
  20. ^ "Crisis Counseling with Children," Van Ornum and Murdock, 1990, NY: Crossroad/Continuum.
  21. ^ Sackett, D. L. (1979). "Bias in analytic research". Journal of Chronic Diseases 32 (1–2): 51–63. doi:10.1016/0021-9681(79)90012-2. PMID 447779. 
  22. ^ Barry H. Kantowitz; Henry L. Roediger, III; David G. Elmes (2009). Experimental Psychology. Cengage Learning. p. 371. ISBN 978-0-495-59533-5. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  23. ^ a b Murali, N. S.; Murali, H. R.; Auethavekiat, P.; Erwin, P. J.; Mandrekar, J. N.; Manek, N. J.; Ghosh, A. K. (2004). "Impact of FUTON and NAA bias on visibility of research" (PDF). Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic 79 (8): 1001–1006. doi:10.4065/79.8.1001. PMID 15301326. 
  24. ^ Ghosh, A. K.; Murali, N. S. (2003). "Online access to nephrology journals: The FUTON bias". Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 18 (9): 1943; author reply 1943. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfg247. PMID 12937253. 
  25. ^ Mueller, P. S.; Murali, N. S.; Cha, S. S.; Erwin, P. J.; Ghosh, A. K. (2006). "The effect of online status on the impact factors of general internal medicine journals". The Netherlands journal of medicine 64 (2): 39–44. PMID 16517987. 
  26. ^ Krieger, M. M.; Richter, R. R.; Austin, T. M. (2008). "An exploratory analysis of PubMed's free full-text limit on citation retrieval for clinical questions". Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA 96 (4): 351–355. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.96.4.010. PMC 2568849. PMID 18974812. 
  27. ^ Gilman, Isaac (2009). "Opening up the Evidence: Evidence-Based Practice and Open Access". Faculty Scholarship (PUL). Pacific University Libraries. 
  28. ^ a b Wentz, R. (2002). "Visibility of research: FUTON bias". The Lancet 360 (9341): 1256–1256. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11264-5. PMID 12401287. 
  29. ^ a b Mitchell, T. M. (1980), [[1] The need for biases in learning generalizations], CBM-TR 5-110, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA: Rutgers University 
  30. ^ DesJardins, M.; Gordon, D. F. (1995), [[2] Evaluation and selection of biases in machine learning], Machine Learning Journal, 5:1--17 
  31. ^ Ann Heinrichs, The Printing Press (Inventions That Shaped the World), p. 53, Franklin Watts, 2005, ISBN 0-531-16722-4, ISBN 978-0-531-16722-9
  32. ^ William James wrote: "A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging their prejudices." Quotable Quotes – Courtesy of The Freeman Institute
  33. ^ Rosnow, Ralph L. (March 1972). "Poultry and Prejudice". Psychologist Today 5 (10): 53–6. 
  34. ^ Kadi, Joanna (1996). Thinking Class. U.S.: South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-548-1. 
  35. ^ "Oxford English Dictionary, Racism". Retrieved 24 Aug 2015. Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior: 
  36. ^ SCHMID, W. THOMAS (April 1996). "The Definition of Racism". Journal of Applied Philosophy 13 (1): 31–40. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5930.1996.tb00147.x. 
  37. ^ Racism Oxford Dictionaries
  38. ^ "Racism" in R. Schefer. 2008 Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Society. SAGE. p. 1113
  39. ^ Newman, D. M. (2012). Sociology : exploring the architecture of everyday life (9th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 405. ISBN 978-1-4129-8729-5. racism: Belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior. 
  40. ^ There is a clear and broad consensus among academic scholars in multiple fields that sexism refers primarily to discrimination against women, and primarily affects women. See, for example:
    • "Sexism". New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.). Oxford University Press. 2010. ISBN 9780199891535.  Defines sexism as "prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex."
    • "Sexism". Encyclopedia Britannica, Online Academic Edition. 2015.  Defines sexism as "prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls." Notes that "sexism in a society is most commonly applied against women and girls. It functions to maintain patriarchy, or male domination, through ideological and material practices of individuals, collectives, and institutions that oppress women and girls on the basis of sex or gender."
    • Cudd, Ann E.; Jones, Leslie E. (2005). "Sexism". A Companion to Applied Ethics. London: Blackwell.  Notes that "'Sexism' refers to a historically and globally pervasive form of oppression against women."
    • Masequesmay, Gina (2008). "Sexism". In O'Brien, Jodi. Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. SAGE.  Notes that "sexism usually refers to prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls." Also states that "sexism is an ideology or practices that maintain patriarchy or male domination."
    • Hornsby, Jennifer (2005). "Sexism". In Honderich, Ted. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.). Oxford.  Defines sexism as "thought or practice which may permeate language and which assume's women's inferiority to men."
    • "Sexism". Collins Dictionary of Sociology. Harper Collins. 2006.  Defines sexism as "any devaluation or denigration of women or men, but particularly women, which is embodied in institutions and social relationships."
    • "Sexism". Palgrave MacMillan Dictionary of Political Thought. Palgrave MacMillan. 2007.  Notes that "either sex may be the object of sexist attitudes... however, it is commonly held that, in developed societies, women have been the usual victims."
    • "Sexism". The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Love, Courtship, and Sexuality through History, Volume 6: The Modern World. Greenwood. 2007.  "Sexism is any act, attitude, or institutional configuration that systematically subordinates or devalues women. Built upon the belief that men and women are constitutionally different, sexism takes these differences as indications that men are inherently superior to women, which then is used to justify the nearly universal dominance of men in social and familial relationships, as well as politics, religion, language, law, and economics."
    • Foster, Carly Hayden (2011). "Sexism". In Kurlan, George Thomas. The Encyclopedia of Political Science. CQ Press. ISBN 9781608712434.  Notes that "both men and women can experience sexism, but sexism against women is more pervasive."
    • Johnson, Allan G. (2000). "Sexism". The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology. Blackwell.  Suggests that "the key test of whether something is sexist... lies in its consequences: if it supports male privilege, then it is by definition sexist. I specify 'male privilege' because in every known society where gender inequality exists, males are privileged over females."
    • Lorber, Judith (2011). Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 5.  Notes that "although we speak of gender inequality, it is usually women who are disadvantaged relative to similarly situated men."
    • Wortman, Camille B.; Loftus, Elizabeth S.; Weaver, Charles A (1999). Psychology. McGraw-Hill.  "As throughout history, today women are the primary victims of sexism, prejudice directed at one sex, even in the United States."
  41. ^ Matsumoto, 2001. P.197.
  42. ^ Nakdimen KA The American Journal of Psychiatry [1984, 141(4):499-503]
  43. ^ Doob, Christopher B. 2013. Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

External links[edit]