Driving while black
"Driving while black" (DWB) is a sardonic description of racial profiling of African American car drivers. It implies that a motorist may be stopped by a police officer largely because of racial bias rather than any visible violation of traffic law.
The phrase "driving while black" has been used in both the public and private discourse relating to the racial profiling of black motorists. The term rose to prominence during the 1990s, when it was brought to public knowledge that American police officers were intentionally targeting racial minorities to curb the trafficking of drugs. For example, New Jersey released state documents in 2000 which showed police training memos instructing officers to make racial judgments in order to identify "Occupant Identifiers for a possible Drug Courier" on the highway.
The phrase was magnified after the ruling of Whren v. United States (1996), when the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that police officers may stop any motor vehicle operator if any traffic violation has been observed.
Subsequent media coverage of the phrase "driving while black" since the 1990s has been expansive and more common. The phrase is often used in anecdotal accounts of racial profiling of motor vehicle operators as well as statistical and legal analyses of racial profiling, a notable example being the case of Tolan v. Cotton.
In 2014 Portland lawyers Melvin Oden-Orr and Marianne Hyland created an app named "Driving While Black" in which users can record police and alert people when they are stopped by police on the road. It also supplies users with information on how to handle a traffic stop, including their legal rights and "best practices" for "how to be safe." The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) released a similar app called "Mobile Justice" in which users can record and upload videos to the ACLU office.
The phrase DWB was amplified through social media by which African Americans can record police encounters and disseminate them to a large audience. The phrase was used in the media after the deaths of African Americans Sandra Bland (2015) and Philando Castile (2016), both of whom were stopped by police while driving.
In 2019, as reported by NBC, the Stanford Open Policing Project found that "police stopped and searched black and Latino drivers on the basis of less evidence than used in stopping white drivers, who are searched less often but are more likely to be found with illegal items." The finding emerged from data-mining nearly 100 million traffic stops dating from 2011 to 2017 and recorded by 21 state patrol agencies, including California, Illinois, New York, and Texas, and 29 municipal police departments, including New Orleans, Philadelphia, San Francisco and St. Paul, Minnesota.
The American Civil Liberties Union reported that in 2014, Florida-resident black drivers received nearly 22 percent of all seat belt citations even though they made up only 13.5 percent of that state's drivers. Seat belt compliance was 91.5 percent for white drivers versus 85.8 percent for black drivers, a difference too small to explain the different rate of ticketing between black and white drivers. The ACLU analysis showed that black drivers would have had over 14,000 fewer seat belt citations if they were ticketed proportionally to total drivers in Florida. The rate that black drivers are ticketed more often than white drivers is four times more in Escambia County, three times more in Palm Beach County and 2.8 times more in Orange County. In Tampa, black drivers received 575 seat belt citations versus 549 for white drivers even though black people make up only 23 percent of Tampa’s population.
On April 18, 2003, the Illinois State Senate passed a bill that mandates Illinois law enforcement to maintain racial statistics regarding traffic stops. The bill originally mandated the statistics-keeping to continue until 2007, but the bill was extended and traffic stop statistics will continue to be maintained until 2019. An ACLU analysis of the 2013 Illinois traffic stop report found that African Americans and Latinos are "twice as likely" to be pulled over by police even though whites were more likely to have been discovered with contraband in their car.
In Robert L. Wilkins, et al. v. Maryland State Police, et al. (1993), the ACLU sued the Maryland State Police for racial profiling of then defense attorney Robert L. Wilkins. Part of the settlement agreement between the parties held that the state of Maryland had to maintain racial statistics regarding its traffic stops, making Maryland the first to do so. The case started a "national conversation on racial profiling" and was seen as a large victory by the ACLU. Dr. Lamberth conducted a study again in the state of Maryland, once again finding evidence of racial discrimination in traffic stops, although the scope of his study was more limited.
In New Jersey v. Soto (1996), a case where Superior Court Justice Robert E. Francis consolidated 17 claims of racial profiling in traffic stops, Dr. John Lamberth of Temple University conducted a study to determine the level to which racial discrimination occurred on the highway in the state of New Jersey. Dr. Lamberth found that cars driven by African Americans accounted for about 42% of the total drivers pulled over out of a total 43,000 cars. However, cars operated for African Americans accounted only for 13.5% of the total cars on the road.
New Jersey later received public attention for its racial profiling on the highway in 1998 when police wounded three men during a traffic stop, all of whom were either black or Hispanic, prompting then New Jersey Governor Christine Whitman to let a federal judge monitor the NJ police. As a result, thousands of documents were released to the public, displaying ample evidence that police were instructed to use race-based tactics to identify and stop possible drug couriers on the highway.
A number of well-known African Americans have described experiences they characterize as of being racially profiled in their cars and some have related it to the phenomenon of DWB.
In his memoir, The Sky Is Not the Limit: Adventures of an Urban Astrophysicist, prominent astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson recounts his many encounters with police on the road and their ambiguous reasons for pulling him over. After learning about other African American physicists who have had similar encounters, he writes, "we were guilty not of DWI (driving while intoxicated), but of other violations none of us knew were on the books: DWB (driving while black), WWB (walking while black), and of course, JBB (just being black)."
Senator Tim Scott of South Carolina, the only African American Republican in the Senate, spoke on the Senate floor in 2016 about how he experienced racial profiling while driving in his car, adding "I do not know many African-American men who do not have a very similar story to tell -- no matter their profession, no matter their income, no matter their disposition in life."
In 2015 comedian Chris Rock posted a series of different pictures on Twitter of himself in the driver's seat of his car while being pulled over by police, captioning one of his posts, "Stopped by the cops again wish me luck." The posts came just a year after racial profiling in the U.S. had become a salient topic in the public following the deaths of Eric Garner and Michael Brown. CNN's Don Lemon stipulated that "Chris Rock may be in the middle of a case of Driving While Black."
In 2016 tennis player Serena Williams made a public Facebook post in which she spoke about the fears she had for her nephew after he had driven her to her matches. Likely referring to the death of Sandra Bland, she spoke about her worries that her nephew might be harmed by a police officer after being pulled over. The NYTimes documented her post in an article titled "‘I Won’t Be Silent’: Serena Williams on the Fear of Driving While Black."
Other prominent African Americans who have recounted their personal experiences of racial profiling include but are not limited to Barack Obama, Johnnie Cochran, Will Smith, Gary Sheffield, and Eric Holder.
There have also been accusations of excessive force by police officers against black drivers. In this example, a police officer tries to explain a fear of blacks: Breaion King, an African-American elementary school teacher, was stopped for speeding in June 2015 in Austin, Texas. Officer Bryan Richter ordered King out of her car, and then threw her violently to the ground while arresting her in a parking lot. King felt the officer's reaction was because she was responding too slowly to the officer's orders. She was charged with resisting arrest as well as speeding. When another officer, Patrick Spradlin, was driving King to jail, he answered the question of "why are so many people afraid of black people". Spradlin's answer was because of "violent tendencies" adding "I don’t blame" white people for being afraid of blacks "because of their appearance and whatnot, some of them are very intimidating". Austin Police Chief Art Acevedo found the incident disturbing and put both officers involved under investigation. Prosecutors dropped the charge of resisting arrest, but King still had to pay a $165 fine for speeding.
Biking while black
The phrase cycling while black or biking while black refers to reportedly discriminatory treatment experienced by black cyclists at the hands of police officers. Such apparent discrimination has been the subject of media investigations in cities of the US such as Tampa and Chicago, and the subject of lawsuits elsewhere.
Criticism of the concept
The neutrality of this section is disputed. (May 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
On October 31, 2007, African-American economist Thomas Sowell devoted an editorial column to arguing against the common claim that police officers stop black drivers because of their race. He cites data from the book Are Cops Racist? by Heather MacDonald which proposes that a close analysis of data reveals that driving while black incidents are not a widespread problem.
A 2012 study found that black drivers speed more often and more severely than white drivers, and concluded that "citizen risk for specific police behavior is partially attributable to differential behavior prior to the encounter."
In a 2016 report, Vice News and a group from the Seton Hall Law School found that 70 percent of all police traffic stops in Bloomfield New Jersey were against black and Latino drivers even though 60 percent of the residents were white. According to Bloomfield's police director, Samuel A DeMaio, violations were 576 against Hispanics, 574 against blacks and 573 against whites from a recent period. In explaining why blacks and Hispanics had disproportionately more violations than whites, DeMaio said it was not racial profiling nor was it a case of blacks and Latinos being worse drivers. Rather it was because police were concentrated much more in "high-crime" areas, inhabited disproportionally by black and Latino residents, rather than in low-crime areas where whites largely reside. Vice News noticed a heavy police presence in the "high-crime" area where police vigorously pursue misdemeanor violations using tactics such as tailing drivers until they make a mistake, or searching a stopped vehicle for violations that may be unrelated to the reason for the police stop. The Seton Hall group concluded the police were effectively raising revenue for the municipality from people living in or driving through the "high-crime" area.
Police-Public Contact Surveys by the US Bureau of Justice Statistics found that white, black, and Hispanic drivers were stopped by police at similar rates in 2002, 2005, and 2008.
In a pretextual stop (also called an investigatory stop), officers pull over people citing a minor issue, then start asking unrelated questions. University of Kansas professor Charles Epp in a study found that black drivers were three times more likely than whites to be subjected to "pretextual" stops, and five times more likely to be searched during them. However, Epp found no difference in the frequency and treatment with which black and white drivers were stopped for serious violations like speeding. The bias, however, was significant for stops over minor issues such as a broken tail light, a missing front plate or a failure to signal a lane change.
For example, Philando Castile had 52 police stops in 14 years prior to the last fatal stop. Half his charges were dismissed, and none of his convictions were for dangerous offences. The pretext for the fatal stop was a broken tail light, but the real reason was that the police officer thought Castile resembled a robbery suspect.
The Supreme Court ruled in Whren v. United States (1996) that any minor traffic violation is a legitimate justification for a stop, even if the real reason is some other crime-fighting objective. Police chiefs consider pretextual stops as an essential tactic and train their officers to conduct them; thus, the pretextual stop is not entirely a product of racism.
According to an October 2015 article in the New York Times, many police departments use traffic stops as a tool to make contact with the community often in higher crime areas where more African-Americans live. Police hope that by being proactive, criminals will avoid the area. However, criminologists argue that such police stops alienate law-abiding residents and undermine their trust in the police. Traffic stops often lead to searches, arrests and convictions often for minor offences, with a police record that can lead to lifelong difficulties. This makes it difficult for police to obtain community cooperation in preventing and solving crimes. Criminologists doubt that performing more traffic stops leads to reduced crime. Ronald L. Davis, of the Justice Department’s Office of Community Oriented Policing Services said: "There is no evidence that just increasing stops reduces crime."
Variations on the phrase
Variations on the phrase ("snowclones") include "walking while black" for pedestrian offenses, "learning while black" for students in schools, "shopping while black" for browsing in stores, and "eating while black" for restaurants. Actor Danny Glover held a press conference in 1999 because cabdrivers in New York City weren't stopping for him; this was called "hailing while black". The phenomenon was investigated further on Michael Moore's television series TV Nation.
In 2001, the American Civil Liberties Union convinced the United States Drug Enforcement Administration to repay $7,000 that it had seized from a black businessman in the Omaha, Nebraska airport on the false theory that it was drug money; the ACLU called it "flying while black".
A pain specialist who treats sickle-cell disease patients at Manhattan's Beth Israel Medical Center reported that for many years doctors forced African American sickle-cell sufferers to endure pain because they assumed that blacks would become addicted to medication; Time magazine labeled this "ailing while black."
In late 2013 the phrase "seeking help while black" or "asking for help while black" was coined in response to the deaths of Jonathan Farrell and Renisha McBride. In separate incidents, Farrell and McBride, both African-American, were shot and killed after they experienced a motor vehicle accident and went to the nearby home of a white stranger to ask for help.
The phrase is also used with other racial, ethnic and cultural (minority) groups. An example is "flying while Muslim", referring to the scrutiny that Arabs and Muslims face as airline passengers. Variants on "$VERBing while female" are also encountered, as are phrases like "walking/traveling/$VERBing while trans".
Following the Boston Marathon bombing, the phrase Running while Arab has come up on social media (although the bombers in question were not Arab, but Chechen) in response to the interrogation of a Saudi student who, allegedly, acted suspiciously in the vicinity of the attacks. Said suspicious behavior consisted of running away from the area of the blast, something many other people did at the time. His house was searched, but he would later be cleared by law enforcement officials.
In May 2018, after a black Yale student, napping in her common room, was reported to police without justification by a white Yale student, a Washington Post reporter compiled a list of recent, separate incidents in which black people in North America appear to have been racially profiled while performing innocent activities, and proposed coining corresponding terms such as "napping while black", "couponing while black", "waiting for a school bus while black", and "waiting at Starbucks while black".
In August 2018, 61-year-old Marine veteran Karle Robinson was detained at gunpoint by Kansas police for carrying his television into the house he had bought and was moving into. The ACLU described the incident as "moving while black".
In September 2018, an incident in which a black actuary was shot and killed at his home in Dallas, Texas, by an off-duty police officer who later claimed she mistook his home for her own, was described as a case of "being at home while black."
In November 2018, security guard Jemel Roberson was killed by police in Illinois while Roberson was restraining a suspected active shooter. An ACLU spokesperson condemned the incident, saying "Working as a security guard while black should not be a death sentence. In this case, police were more dangerous to him than an active shooter who he apparently subdued."
Also in November 2018, good samaritan Emantic Bradford Jr was killed by Alabama police while he was attempting to stop a different active shooter. The tragedy was later described as "helping while black".
In December 2018, a bank teller in Ohio denied service to a black customer, and instead called the police, having wrongly concluded that the customer was attempting to cash a fraudulent check. The incident was later described as "banking while black".
Driving while black in Canada
In July 2009, a black Canadian named Joel Debellefeuille was pulled over (for the fourth time in several days) by Longueuil police because, according to documents, "his Quebecois name did not match his skin tone." He refused to provide identification or car insurance documents when requested by the officer, and was accordingly fined by a municipal court. Debellefeuille filed complaints with the Human Rights Commission and the police, seeking $30,000 in damages. Crown prosecutor Valérie Cohen defending the police claimed that officers were in their rights to check the ownership of the car on a reasonable suspicion: "the officers' actions were comparable to stopping a man for driving a car registered to a woman called 'Claudine'." In December 2012, his tickets were dismissed and the officers were suspended without pay. The judge wrote that the mentioned rationale for pulling over demonstrated flagrant ignorance of Quebec society. Debellefeuille's provincial human rights complaint could not be pursued because it had been filed too long a time after receiving the initial ticket.
Akwasi Owusu-Bempah, an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Toronto, and Anthony Morgan, a civil rights lawyer, said that in the 1980s and 1990s the RCMP introduced Operation Pipeline, a drug interdiction strategy developed by the Los Angeles Police Department. However, the strategy came under criticism because it directed police officers to allow racial profiling to motivate police stops.
A 2002 analysis by the Toronto Star found that police were more likely to stop black drivers than white drivers in Toronto without evidence of an offence. The Star looked at "out-of-sight" offences such as failing to update a driver’s licence or driving without insurance when no other offence was found. "Out-of-sight" offences could only be discovered if police had some other reason to stop the driver, thus suggesting racial profiling.
- Civil liberties
- Consent search
- Contempt of cop#Racial aspects
- Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution
- Incarceration in the United States
- Police misconduct
- Race and crime in the United States
- Stop-and-frisk in New York City
- Stop and identify statutes
- Tenaha, Texas, Asset forfeiture controversy
- Terry stop
- Terry v. Ohio
- The Negro Motorist Green Book
- War on drugs
- Whren v. United States
- Harris, D. (1999). "The stories, the statistics, and the law: Why 'Driving While Black' matters". 84 Minnesota Law Review. pp. 265–326. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
- Gates, Henry L. "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Black Man". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
- Harris, David (1999). "The Stories, the Statistics, and the Law: Why "Driving While Black" Matters". Minnesota Law Review. 84.2: 265–326 – via Hein Online.
- Kocieniewski, David; Hanley, Robert (2000-12-03). "An Inside Story Of Racial Bias And Denial; New Jersey Files Reveal Drama Behind Profiling". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
- Heumann, Milton (2007). Good Cop, Bad Cop: Racial Profiling and Competing Views of Justice. New York: Peter Lang, Inc. pp. 187–188. ISBN 0820458295.
- "Whren v. United States 517 U.S. 806 (1996)". Justia Law. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
- Maclin, Tracey (1998). "Race and the Fourth Amendment". Vanderbilt Law Review. 51.2: 333–393 – via ProQuest.
- Harris, David A. (June 1999). "DRIVING WHILE BLACK: RACIAL PROFILING ON OUR NATION'S HIGHWAYS". ALCU. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- "Lawyer creates 'Driving While Black' app". ABC7 San Francisco. 2014-12-09. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "Driving While Black? App Developers Offer Advice". BET.com. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "Driving While Black The App". dwbtheapp.com. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "ACLU 'mobile justice' app records, automatically sends video". Fox17. 2016-07-11. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Bonilla, Yarimar (2015). "#Ferguson: Digital protest, hashtag ethnography, and the racial politics of social media in the United States". American Ethnologist. 42: 4–17. doi:10.1111/amet.12112.
- "Sandra Bland and "driving while black": Federal data shows big racial gap in traffic stops". Vox. 2015-07-22. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "This could be the most depressing app if you're black". The Independent. 2014-12-11. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Gold, Ashley (2016-07-12). "The unique fear of driving while black". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "46 Stops: On 'The Driving Life And Death Of Philando Castile'". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "Inside 100 million police traffic stops: New evidence of racial bias". NBC News. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Racial Disparities in Florida Safety Belt Law Enforcement" (PDF). 21 January 2016.
- "Illinois Traffic Stop Study". idot.illinois.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
- "Traffic stop data shows persistent patterns of racial bias, according to new report « American Civil Liberties Union of Illinois". www.aclu-il.org. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
- "ACLU of Maryland (ACLU-MD)". www.aclu-md.org. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
- "ACLU, Civil Rights Groups and Maryland Officials Reach Landmark Racial Profiling Settlement". American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
- "STATE v. SOTO | 734 A.2d 350 (1996) | Leagle.com". Leagle. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
- Lamberth, John (August 16, 1998). "Driving While Black; A Statistician Proves That Prejudice Still Rules the Road". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- Tyson, Neil deGrasse (2004). The Sky Is Not the Limit: Adventures of an Urban Astrophysicist. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. pp. Chapter 4. ISBN 978-1591021889.
- "Senate's lone black GOP member says police stopped him 7 times in a year". Fox News. 2016-07-14. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Michael Pearson. "Comedian Chris Rock posts selfies of police stops". Cnn.com. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "Serena Williams - Today I asked my 18 year old nephew (to... | Facebook". Facebook.com. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Hauser, Christine (2016-09-28). "'I Won't Be Silent': Serena Williams on the Fear of Driving While Black". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Goff, Keli. "Celebs Who've Been Racially Profiled". The Root. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Lewis, Taylor (2015-10-28). "6 Times President Obama Honestly Shared His Own Experiences With Racism". Essence.com. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- CNN, Michael Pearson. "Comedian Chris Rock posts selfies of police stops". CNN. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Reilly, Rick. "Color Scheme". SI.com. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Paul J. Weber, The Associated Press (21 July 2016). "Texas police officer caught on video saying blacks have 'violent tendencies'". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
[see also the video attached to the article.]
- Swenson, Kyle (31 October 2013). "Biking While Black Is a Crime". Miaminewtimes.com. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- "Tampa, Fla., Police Investigated For Crackdown On Black Bicyclists". Npr.org. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- "'Biking while black' story about Tampa bike ticket program to be featured on Today Show". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- Swenson, Kyle (31 October 2013). "Biking While Black Is a Crime". Browardpalmbeach.com. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- "Riding a Bike While Black in Florida? You'll Probably Get a Ticket". Yahoo.com. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- O'Connor, Brendan. "Report: Tampa Cops Targeting Black Cyclists". Gawker.com. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- Wisniewski, Mary. "'Biking while black': Chicago minority areas see the most bike tickets". Chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- "ACLU of Michigan Joins "Bicycling While Black" Lawsuit". Aclu.org. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- "Biking While Black". Motherjones.com. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- Thomas Sowell (October 31, 2007). "'Driving While Black'". Jewish World Review. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- Tillyer, Rob; Engel, Robin S. (July 2012). "Racial differences in speeding patterns: Exploring the differential offending hypothesis". Journal of Criminal Justice. 40 (4): 285–295. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2012.04.001.
- "Driving While Black in New Jersey". Vice News. 11 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-22.
- Denbeaux, Mark; Kearns, Kelley; Ricciardelli, Michael J. (7 April 2016). "Racial Profiling Report: Bloomfield Police and Bloomfield Municipal Court". Social Science Research Network. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2760382. SSRN 2760382. Cite journal requires
- Christine Eith; Matthew R. Durose (October 2011). "Contacts between Police and the Public, 2008" (PDF). US Department of Justice. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
- Daniel Dale (11 July 2016). "For black Americans, police traffic stops far from 'routine'". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
- Sharon LaFraniere; Andrew W. Lehren (25 October 2015). "The Disproportionate Risks of Driving While Black". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
- Mosedale, M. (2007). "Critics say a Minneapolis law criminalizes walking while black: What Lurks Beneath?". City Pages. 28 (1369). Archived from the original on 2009-10-07.
- Morse, J. (2002). "Learning while black". Time. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
- Coolican, P. (November 21, 2003). "Chief vows to root out profiling by Patrol". Seattle Times. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
- "ACLU of Nebraska Wins "Flying While Black" Case". ACLU. May 2, 2001. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Cloud, J. (2001). "What's Race Got to do With It?". Time. Retrieved May 17, 2008.
- Washington, J. (2000). "U.S. Customs Applies A Double Standard In Two Directions At Once". JINN. Pacific News Service. Archived from the original on August 16, 2000. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
- Brittney Cooper (November 12, 2013). "Asking for help while black: How it became a capital offense". Salon. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
- Ackerman, S. (April 16, 2013). "When, And Why, to Call a Bombing 'Terrorism'". Wired. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Sison, B. (April 16, 2013). "Sources: Injured Saudi man not a suspect in Boston attacks". CBS News. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Jr, Cleve R. Wootson (11 May 2018). "A black Yale student fell asleep in her dorm's common room. A white student called police". Washingtonpost.com.
- "ACLU: Black man detained while moving into own Kansas home".
- "A Dallas Police Officer Shot Her Neighbor, and a City Is Full of Questions".
- Pierre Meilhan; Darran Simon; Holly Yan. "Chicago-area police chief says he's distraught after his cop killed a 'brave' security guard". Cnn.com. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "Is it safe for a black man to be the 'good guy with a gun'?". Christian Science Monitor. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Black man trying to cash paycheck is handcuffed after bank teller calls 911". NBC News.
- "Police officers suspended without pay for racial profiling". CBC. December 10, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- Wyatt, Nelson (July 28, 2010). "Black man says Quebec police stopped him because of his skin colour". The Globe and Mail. Montreal. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- "New trial ordered in Quebec racial profiling case - Montreal - CBC News". CBC. November 17, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- "Black man with 'Quebecois' name files complaint against Longueuil police". CTV Montreal. July 28, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- "Driver says he was victim of racial profiling by police, court hears". Montreal Gazette. March 7, 2012. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012.
- "Racial profiling victory for South Shore man". Montreal: CTV News. September 27, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
- Akwasi Owusu-Bempah; Anthony Morgan (16 July 2016). "A hard truth: Canada's policing style is very similar to the U.S." The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2016-07-18.
- Jim Rankin; Jennifer Quinn; Michelle Shephard; Scott Simmie; John Duncanson (19 October 2002). "Singled out". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2016-07-18.
- Baumgartner, Frank R.; Epp, Derek A.; Shoub, Kelsey; Love, Bayard (2016). "Targeting Young Men of Color for Search and Arrest during Traffic Stops: Evidence from North Carolina, 2002–2013" (PDF). Politics, Groups, and Identities. 5 (1). Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- Baumgartner, Frank R.; Epp, Derek A.; Shoub, Kelsey (July 10, 2018). Suspect Citizens: What 20 Million Traffic Stops Tell Us About Policing and Race.
- Blanks, Jonathan (2016). "Thin Blue Lies: How Pretextual Stops Undermine Police Legitimacy" (PDF). Case Western Reserve Law Review. 66 (4). Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- Carbado, Devon W. (2017). "From Stopping Black People to Killing Black People: The Fourth Amendment Pathways to Police Violence". California Law Review. 105 (1). Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- Davis, Kelvin R. (2001). Driving While Black: Coverup. Interstate International Pub. ISBN 978-0-931904-03-5.
- Harris, David (1999). Driving While Black: Racial Profiling on our Nation's Highways. ACLU.
- Kowalski, B.R.; Lundman, R.J. (2007). "Vehicle stops by police for driving while Black: Common problems and some tentative solutions". Journal of Criminal Justice. 35 (2): 165–181. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.01.004.
- Meeks, Kenneth (2000). Driving While Black: What To Do If You Are A Victim of Racial Profiling. New York: Broadway. ISBN 978-0-7679-0549-7.
- "The Stanford Open Policing Project". Database of records from millions of traffic stops by law enforcement agencies across the country. Stanford University. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
- on YouTube Speaker: Texas attorney Sadiyah Evangelista
- on YouTube Narrator: Criminal defence lawyer Billy Murphy
- on YouTube Narrator: Coffey Anderson