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Billy Elliot

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Billy Elliot
Billy Elliot movie.jpg
US theatrical release poster
Directed byStephen Daldry
Produced by
Written byLee Hall
Starring
Music byStephen Warbeck
CinematographyBrian Tufano
Edited byJohn Wilson
Production
company
Distributed byUnited International Pictures (Universal Pictures)
Release date
  • 29 September 2000 (2000-09-29)
(United Kingdom)
Running time
110 minutes[1]
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
Budget$5 million[2]
Box office$109.3 million[2]

Billy Elliot is a 2000 British dance drama film directed by Stephen Daldry and written by Lee Hall. Set in County Durham, England during the 1984–85 miners' strike, the film is about a working-class boy who discovers his passion for ballet, despite his father's objection and the negative stereotype associated with being a male ballet dancer. The film stars Jamie Bell as 11-year-old Billy, Gary Lewis as his father, Jamie Draven as Billy's older brother, and Julie Walters as his ballet teacher.

Adapted from a play called Dancer by Lee Hall, development on the film began in 1999. Around 2,000 boys were considered for the role of Billy before Bell was eventually chosen for the role. Filming began in the North of England in August 1999. Greg Brenman and Jon Finn served as producers, while Stephen Warbeck composed the film's score. Billy Elliot is a co-production between BBC Films, Tiger Aspect Pictures and Working Title Films.

The film premiered at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival, and then began a wider theatrical release on 29 September 2000 by Universal Pictures. Billy Elliot received positive critical response and commercial success, earning $109.3 million worldwide on a $5 million budget. At the 2001 British Academy Film Awards, the film won three of thirteen award nominations. The film also earned three Academy Award nominations, including for Best Director, Best Original Screenplay and Best Actress in a Supporting Role. In 2001, the film was adapted into a novel by Melvin Burgess. The story was also adapted for the West End stage as Billy Elliot the Musical in 2005; it opened in Australia in 2007 and on Broadway in 2008.

Plot[edit]

In 1984, Billy Elliot, an 11-year-old from the fictional Everington in County Durham, England, loves to dance and has hopes of becoming a professional ballet dancer. Billy lives with his widowed father, Jackie, and older brother, Tony, both coal miners out on strike (the latter being the union delegate), and also his maternal grandmother, who has Alzheimer's disease and once aspired to be a professional dancer.

Billy's father sends him to the gym to learn boxing, but Billy dislikes the sport. He happens to see a ballet class that is using the gym while their usual basement studio is temporarily being used as a soup kitchen for the striking miners. Unknown to Jackie, Billy joins the ballet class. When Jackie discovers this, he forbids Billy to take any more ballet. But, passionate about dancing, Billy secretly continues lessons with the help of his dance teacher, Sandra Wilkinson.

Jamie Bell (pictured in 2015) received acclaim for his performance as Billy.

Mrs. Wilkinson believes that Billy is talented enough to study at the Royal Ballet School in London, but due to Tony's arrest during a clash between police and striking miners, Billy misses the audition. Mrs. Wilkinson tells Jackie about the missed opportunity, but fearing that Billy will be considered to be gay, both Jackie and Tony are outraged at the prospect of him becoming a professional ballet dancer.

Over Christmas, Billy learns his best friend Michael is gay. Billy is supportive of his friend. Later, Jackie catches Billy dancing in the gym and realises his son is truly gifted; he resolves to do whatever it takes to help Billy attain his dream. Mrs. Wilkinson tries to persuade Jackie to let her pay for the audition, but he replies that Billy is his son and he does not need charity. Jackie attempts to cross the picket line to pay for the trip to London, but Tony stops him. Instead, his fellow miners and the neighbourhood raise some money and Jackie pawns Billy's mother's jewellery to cover the cost, and Jackie takes him to London to audition.

Although very nervous, Billy performs well, but he punches another boy in frustration at the audition, fearing that he has ruined his chances of attaining his dream. He is rebuked by the review board, but when asked what it feels like when he is dancing, he struggles for words but describes it as being "like electricity". Seemingly rejected, Billy returns home with his father. Sometime later, the Royal Ballet School sends him a letter of acceptance, coinciding with the end of the miners' strike, and he leaves home for London.

In 1998, 25-year-old Billy takes the stage to perform the Swan in Matthew Bourne's Swan Lake, as Jackie, Tony, and Michael watch from the audience; Billy's father is visibly moved by his performance.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Terraced homes on Avon Street
Terraced homes on Avon Street were used for filming, where Andrew and Alnwick Streets once stood.

Lee Hall developed Billy Elliot from his play Dancer, which premiered as a rehearsed reading in 1998 at the Live Theatre in Newcastle upon Tyne.[3] He was heavily influenced by photographer Sirkka-Liisa Konttinen's book Step by Step, about a dancing school in nearby North Shields. Writing in 2009, Hall said that "almost every frame of Billy Elliot was influenced by Step by Step [...] as every member of the design team carried around their own copy."[4]

Hall met with director Stephen Daldry, who was working at the Royal Court Theatre at the time. At first, Daldry was not convinced with the script, but said, "I liked the emotional honesty of Billy Elliot. Also Lee writes brilliant kids. And there's a series of themes in it I rather enjoyed: Grief; finding means of self-identification through some sort of creative act, in this case dance; and the miner's strike itself."[5] Working Title Films approached Daldry to become director and he accepted the offer. The BBC financed the project.[6]

Casting[edit]

Thousands of boys were considered for the lead role. The producers were looking for a boy in a specific geographical area with a dance background. Jamie Bell had about seven auditions in total before eventually in mid-1999, it was announced that he would play the lead role in the film.[5] Peter Darling, the film's choreographer, worked with Bell for "eight hours a day for three months, finding out what drove him as a dancer." Julie Walters accepted the role of Sandra Wilkinson. Walters called the script "moving", explaining, "It was a diamond in the sand [...] I loved the character, and the fact that she was disappointed on every level possible. She was so grim and jaded. Her relationship with the boy was so unusual".[7]

In preparation for filming, Gary Lewis met with miners which he said was beneficial.[8] Lewis stated that his own personal experience of the miners' strike made the role enjoyable. "My family and I were very active in supporting the miners: I stood in picket lines, I raised money for the miners and I was involved in the whole campaign to stop ... closing the pits. Basically, it was the state that launched a complete attack on a section of the work force, a section of the working class. Lots of people responded with solidarity and that was a key element in the script: solidarity working at different levels, the collective solidarity, the economic solidarity."[8]

Filming[edit]

Principal photography lasted seven weeks, beginning in August 1999.[5][9] Most of the film, including the interior of the Elliot home at 5 Alnwick Street, was shot on location in the Easington Colliery area, with the producers using over 400 locals as extras.[10] The mining scenes were filmed at the Ellington and Lynemouth Colliery in Northumberland, with some filming in Dawdon, Middlesbrough and Newcastle upon Tyne.[11] Andrew Street and Alnwick Street, where the characters live, were two of several streets demolished in 2003 after becoming derelict.[12] The cemetery scene was filmed at Lynemouth Cemetery.[13] School scenes were filmed in Langley Park Primary School.[14] Other filming locations include the Green Drive Railway Viaduct in Seaham, Tees Transporter Bridge, New Wardour Castle and Theatre Royal in Haymarket.[14][15]

Daldry remarked in an interview, "The shooting schedule was a nightmare; we only had seven weeks. Kids can only work nine to five and you can’t work Saturdays. And the kid had to dance the whole time. So it was tight."[5] Producer Jon Finn, spoke of the difficulties of seeking filming locations; "We didn't realise how hard it would be to find working pits."[9]

Music[edit]

Billy Elliot
Soundtrack album by
Various artists
Released11 March 2002
Recorded2000
GenrePunk rock, Glam rock, Pop, New wave
Length51:34
LabelPolydor Records
ProducerVarious artists
Singles from Billy Elliot: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
  1. "I Believe"
    Released: 14 October 2000

Stephen Warbeck scored the incidental music for the film. Polydor Records released the soundtrack on 11 March 2002, which includes several well-known glam rock and punk songs from T. Rex and The Clash.[16] The soundtrack also contains pieces of dialogue from the film.

Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
No.TitleMusicLength
1."Cosmic Dancer"T. Rex4:28
2."Boys Play Football"Jamie Bell & Gary Lewis4:24
3."Bang a Gong (Get It On)"T. Rex4:24
4."Mother's Letter"Jamie Bell & Julie Walters5:22
5."I Believe"Stephen Gately3:27
6."Town Called Malice"The Jam2:53
7."The Sun Will Come Out"Jamie Bell, Nicole Blackwell & Julie Walters0:50
8."I Love to Boogie"T. Rex2:11
9."Burning Up"Eagle-Eye Cherry4:14
10."Royal Ballet School"Jamie Bell & Julie Walters1:11
11."London Calling"The Clash3:20
12."Children of the Revolution"T. Rex4:44
13."Audition Panel"Jamie Bell & Barbara Leigh Hunt0:33
14."Shout to the Top!"The Style Council4:14
15."Walls Come Tumbling Down!"The Style Council3:21
16."Ride a White Swan"T. Rex2:14
17."Cosmic Dancer (Reprise)"T. Rex4:27
Total length:51:34

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

Advertisement for the Billy Elliot musical on a lorry in London.

Billy Elliot premiered on 19 May at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival under the title Dancer.[17] It was later decided to re-title the film Billy Elliot to avoid confusion with Dancer in the Dark, another film at Cannes that year. Billy Elliot was theatrically released on 29 September 2000 in the United Kingdom by Universal Pictures and Focus Features. In the United States, the film was released on 13 October 2001.[18] Against expectations, the film earned a worldwide total of $109,280,263.[18] Universal Home Entertainment released Billy Elliot on VHS on 20 April 2001 and on Blu-ray on 10 January 2012.[19][20]

Critical response[edit]

On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 85% based on 117 reviews, with an average rating of 7.3/10. The site's critical consensus reads: "Billy Elliot is a charming movie that can evoke both laughter and tears."[21] At Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 74 out of 100, based on 34 critics, indicating "generally favourable reviews".[22] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A–" on an A+ to F scale.[23]

Film critic Roger Ebert gave the film three out of four stars, calling the film "much parable and fantasy as it is realistic". He said Bell's performance was "engaging", Lewis was "convincing" and Walters was "spirited and colourful".[24] Peter Bradshaw of The Guardian praised the film saying, "This is a film with a lot of charm, a lot of humour and a lot of heart. Daldry's direction and the screenplay by Lee Hall distinguish themselves further in the discreet, intelligent way ... Billy Elliot has a freshness that makes it a pleasure to watch; it's a very emphatic success".[25] David Rooney of Variety also praised the cast, writing, "Relationships between all the characters are well observed — the father and his sons, the two brothers, and Billy and his grandmother, his friend Michael and jaded Mrs. Wilkinson — all of them yielding sweet, unforced feel-good moments". Rooney also praised the cinematography, visuals and soundtrack in showing Billy's rebelliousness.[26] O'Sullivan in The Independent wrote the cast are "near perfect", adding the film is a "slice of escapism as you could wish for".[27] William Gallagher from the BBC gave the film five out of five stars, writing, "It's a simple tale but one that is extremely well told and acted. Fittingly for a story about dance, it doesn't put a foot wrong and is engrossing, funny, very sad, very moving and very uplifting."[28]

Some critics gave a mixed response. Time Out believes that "Daldry overuses the dance as a metaphor for escape and frustration, and choreographer Peter Darling's grandstanding ballet numbers sit a little uneasily, given the realist comedy pitch".[29] A. O. Scott of The New York Times notes that there were "patches of thinness and predictability", and that "the first half seems to acknowledge its own triteness". However, he compliments the pacing of the scenes and the actors who "inhabit their roles like second-hand suits".[30] Mark Holcomb, writing for IndieWire, took issue with the "odd, unsuccessful mix of theatrical whimsy and social realism", and a dance scene which he describes as a "cringe-inducing ’80s-style music video routine".[31]

Themes[edit]

Poverty and social class have been seen as major themes of the film. Author Rebecca Mahon observed the film has a realistic setting; the early scenes emphasising the miners' strike, the death of Billy's mother and the family's financial situation.[32] Daldry adds, "It doesn't matter where you are in the world, people understand the idea that you're part of an industrial, working class group that is being discarded. And its question—of what happens to communities devastated by de-industrialisation and privatisation". In addition to social class, Daldry states that the film is about finding a voice—"someone trying to express himself or herself".[33] Koller-Alonso writes that gender differences are expressed by showing girls attending ballet classes, while their male counterparts are having boxing lessons. Homosexuality, a taboo subject in the 1980s, as well as police brutality are depicted and explored in the film.[34]

Accolades[edit]

Award Category Recipients) Result Ref
Academy Awards Best Original Screenplay Lee Hall Nominated [35]
Best Director Stephen Daldry Nominated [35]
Best Actress in a Supporting Role Julie Walters Nominated [35]
American Cinema Editors Best Edited Dramatic Feature Film Billy Elliot Nominated [36]
Art Directors Guild Feature Film Billy Elliot Nominated [37]
Australian Film Institute Best Foreign Film Billy Elliot Nominated [38]
British Academy of Film and Television Arts BAFTA Award for Best Film Billy Elliot Won [39]
BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role Jamie Bell Won [40]
BAFTA Award for Best Direction Stephen Daldry Nominated [41]
BAFTA Award for Outstanding Debut by a British Writer, Director or Producer Nominated [42]
BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay Lee Hall Nominated [43]
BAFTA Award for Outstanding Debut by a British Writer, Director or Producer Nominated [42]
BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role Gary Lewis Nominated [44]
BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role Julie Walters Won [40]
BAFTA Award for Best Film Music Billy Elliot Nominated [45]
BAFTA Award for Best Cinematography Billy Elliot Nominated [46]
BAFTA Award for Best Editing Billy Elliot Nominated [47]
BAFTA Award for Best Sound Billy Elliot Nominated [48]
British Independent Film Awards Best British Independent Film Billy Elliot Won [49]
Best Newcomer Jamie Bell Won [49]
Best Director Stephen Daldry Won [49]
Best Screenplay Lee Hall Won [49]
Golden Globe Awards Best Motion Picture – Drama Billy Elliot Nominated [50]
Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Julie Walters Nominated [51]
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role Jamie Bell Nominated [52]
Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role Julie Walters Nominated [53]
Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture Billy Elliot Nominated [53]
London Film Critics' Circle British Newcomer of the Year Jamie Bell Won [54]
British Producer of the Year Greg Brenman Won [54]
Jon Finn Won
British Director of the Year Stephen Daldry Won [54]
British Film of the Year Billy Elliot Won [54]
British Actress of the Year Julie Walters Won [54]
Motovun Film Festival Propeller Award Billy Elliot Won [55]

Stage musical[edit]

After the film's release, English singer-songwriter Elton John collaborated with the film's screenwriter Lee Hall to produce a musical adaptation of the film, which premiered 31 March 2005 at the Victoria Palace Theatre on the West End.[56] Many of the film's crew took part in the stage production, including director Stephen Daldry and choreographer Peter Darling. The musical received positive reviews and ran for over 4,000 performances before closing in April 2016.[57][58]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Billy Elliot (15)". British Board of Film Classification. 21 August 2000. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Billy Elliot – Box Office Mojo". Box Office Mojo. 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  3. ^ The Journal (17 June 2014). "Lee Hall interview: Why Lee will always love Live Theatre". The Journal. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  4. ^ Konttinen, Sirkka-Liisa (2009). Byker Revisited. Northumbria Press. p. vi. ISBN 978-1904794424.
  5. ^ a b c d Indiewire; Indiewire (17 October 2000). "Interview: Stephen Daldry Dances to Success with "Billy Elliot"". IndieWire. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  6. ^ "Interview: Lee Hall, screenwriter of Billy Elliot". pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  7. ^ Mottram, James (14 May 2001). "Julie Walters: An actress in her prime". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  8. ^ a b Battista, Anna (2001). "The Good Times: films, awards and Italy. An interview with actor Gary Lewis". www.erasingclouds.com. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Billy Elliot : Production Notes". cinema.com. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  10. ^ "Village shares its Billy Elliot stories at live screening of West End show". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. 28 September 2014. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Feature: Billy Elliot". BBC Tyne. BBC. 17 October 2006. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  12. ^ "Billy Elliott's house to be bulldozed". BBC. BBC. 1 November 2002. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  13. ^ "Dying for someone to take care of cemetery; Plea for landowners to clean up overgrown graveyard". Evening Chronicle. Trinity Mirror. 22 July 2008. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  14. ^ a b "Filming Locations for Billy Elliot (2000)". The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  15. ^ "Reelstreets | Billy Elliot". www.reelstreets.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  16. ^ "Billy Elliot – Original Soundtrack | Release Info". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  17. ^ "Billy Elliot and the miners' strike". The Times. 13 March 2005. ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
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  19. ^ "Billy Elliot (2000) – Financial Information". The Numbers. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  20. ^ Billy Elliot Blu-ray Release Date January 10, 2012, retrieved 3 April 2020
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  23. ^ "CinemaScore". (Type 'Billy Elliot' in the search box). CinemaScore. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2020.CS1 maint: others (link)
  24. ^ Ebert, Roger (13 October 2000). "Billy Elliot". RogerEbert.com. Ebert Digital LLC. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  25. ^ Staff, Guardian (29 September 2000). "Billy Elliot". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 29 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  26. ^ Rooney, David; Rooney, David (22 May 2000). "Billy Elliot". Variety. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  27. ^ "First Impressions: Billy Elliot (2000)". The Independent. 21 November 2008. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  28. ^ "BBC – Films – Billy Elliot". BBC. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  29. ^ "Billy Elliot". Time Out London. Archived from the original on 7 July 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  30. ^ Scott, A. O. (13 October 2000). "Film Review; Escaping a Miner's Life For a Career in Ballet". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  31. ^ Holcomb, Mark (12 October 2000). "Review: Mixed Steps, Pleasing and Predictable "Billy Elliot"". IndieWire. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  32. ^ Mahon, Rebecca. (2003). Billy Elliot. Daldry, Stephen. Glebe, NSW: Pascal Press. p. 14. ISBN 1-74125-037-4. OCLC 224040491.
  33. ^ Mohdin, Aamna. "Why Billy Elliot's most memorable scene still resonates across the world". Quartz. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  34. ^ Koller-Alonso, Sara. "What Billy Elliot Taught Us About British History". Culture Trip. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  35. ^ a b c "Walters leads UK Oscars charge". 13 February 2001. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
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  37. ^ "ADG Awards Winner & Nominees". adg.org. Archived from the original on 5 August 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  38. ^ "Past Awards". www.aacta.org. Click on 'Additional Awards'. Archived from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.CS1 maint: others (link)
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  40. ^ a b Davies, Hugh (26 February 2001). "Delight at last as Billy Elliot boy conquers Hollywood gladiator". Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  41. ^ "2001 Film David Lean Award for Achievement in Direction | BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  42. ^ a b "Carl Foreman Award for the Most Promising Newcomer in British Film in 2001 | BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  43. ^ "Original Screenplay in 2001 | BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  44. ^ "Actor in a Supporting Role in 2001 | BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  45. ^ "Anthony Asquith Award for Original Film Music in 2001 | BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org. Archived from the original on 11 September 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  46. ^ "Cinematography in 2001 | BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  47. ^ "Editing in 2001 | BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  48. ^ "Sound in 2001 | BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  49. ^ a b c d "'Billy Elliot' wins four major titles at British awards". The Independent. 26 October 2000. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  50. ^ Davis, Simon (22 December 2000). "Billy Elliot is nominated for Golden Globe award". Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  51. ^ Kelso, Paul (22 December 2000). "Billy Elliot listed for Golden Globe award". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  52. ^ "Jamie's dance to fame". 6 February 2001. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  53. ^ a b "The 7th Annual Screen Actors Guild Awards | Screen Actors Guild Awards". www.sagawards.org. Archived from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  54. ^ a b c d e "Awards flow for Billy Elliot". 15 February 2001. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  55. ^ "Motovun Film Festival has a new cinema – Cinema Billy!". Motovun Film Festival. 21 February 2019. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  56. ^ Jones, Chris (4 April 2010). "A blue-collar tale mines rich musical seam". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  57. ^ Brown, Peter (11 May 2005). "Billy Elliot – Victoria Palace Theatre 2005". London Theatre Guide. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  58. ^ "Billy Elliot musical dances out of West End". BBC News. BBC. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2018.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Jacqueline Jones, "Small Towns and Big Dreams: Meditations on Two Mining-Town Movies" Perspectives on History (Feb 2011) 49#2 pp 30–31, compares film with "How Green Was My Valley".

External links[edit]