United International Pictures
|50 / 50 joint venture|
|Founded||London (1970 as Cinema International Corporation)|
|Headquarters||London, United Kingdom|
United International Pictures (or UIP) is a joint venture of Paramount Pictures (owned by Viacom) and Universal Studios (owned by NBCUniversal/Comcast), to distribute some of the two studios' films theatrically outside the United States (including territories), Canada, and the Anglophone Caribbean.
UIP also had international theatrical distribution rights to features by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios (which included Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and United Artists) when MGM was part of the venture. In 2001, as MGM left UIP, they made a distribution deal with 20th Century Fox's overseas arm, an agreement that continues to this day.
The company formerly distributed DreamWorks releases as well, now these are handled by Touchstone Pictures and Mister Smith Entertainment for live action films, and Fox for animated films from DreamWorks Animation (which was spun off from DreamWorks in 2004, as its own separate company). But in 2016, DreamWorks' parent company Amblin Partners entered a five-year distribution deal with Universal. (With the latter releasing Amblin's films through UIP worldwide, but only in areas that are not covered by the former's distribution partners such as Reliance, Entertainment One and Mister Smith Entertainment.) And in the same year DreamWorks Animation was purchased by Universal for $3.8 billion and the latter will assume distribution rights to DWA's upcoming animated films in 2018.
Cinema International Corporation
Paramount's early history with MCA dates back to the 1950s, when part of its talent pool worked for Paramount Pictures, notably Alfred Hitchcock. In 1957, MCA purchased the pre-1950 Paramount sound feature film library. In 1962, MCA purchased Universal Studios. In 1966, Gulf+Western purchased Paramount.
In a cost-cutting move, in 1970, as a result of American anti-trust laws, and due to declining movie-going audiences, both Paramount and Universal, agreed to merge their international operations into a new company: Cinema International Corporation, registered in England and Wales. It even operated in Canada and the Caribbean until the late 70s, when those territories were considered part of the "domestic" North American market.
In 1973, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer closed down its distribution offices and became a partner in CIC, which took over international distribution for MGM's films; however, United Artists took over the US, Canadian and Caribbean distribution for MGM's films that time. CIC also entered the home video market by forming CIC Video, which distributed Paramount and Universal titles on video worldwide. MGM however, had its own video unit, which later became a joint venture with CBS as MGM/CBS Home Video (later known as MGM/UA Home Video, which was later renamed to MGM Home Entertainment).
United International Pictures
In 1981, MGM merged with United Artists, which had its own international distribution unit. CIC refused to let MGM drop out of the venture at the time, but let the latter merge UA's overseas arm into CIC, which led to the reorganization of the company as United International Pictures. MGM eventually left the venture in 2001, when it moved its international distribution to 20th Century Fox. The last MGM film to be released through UIP was Hannibal.
In 1986, Ted Turner purchased MGM/UA, but later resold the company except for its film library, which included the pre-May 1986 MGM film and television library and the pre-1950 Warner Bros. film library (which the latter was sold to Associated Artists Productions in 1956, and got acquired by United Artists in 1958). After that library was acquired by Turner, UIP (through MGM/UA) signed a deal to continue distributing the pre-May 1986 MGM and pre-1950 Warner Bros. film libraries for theatrical release.
CIC's name lived on in its video division, which became directly managed as a joint venture of Paramount Home Video and MCA Videocassette, Inc. (later MCA Home Video and MCA/Universal Home Video). CIC Video survived until the late 1990s/early 2000s, in 1999 when Universal purchased PolyGram Video and reorganized its video into division (which was a joint venture with what is now Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, and remains so to this day) under the Universal name, while Paramount took over full ownership of CIC Video and merged it under its own video division.
UIP also had a subscription television arm, UIP Pay TV, which distributed Paramount, MGM/UA, and Universal releases to pay TV broadcasters outside the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico and the Anglophone Caribbean. UIP Pay TV was broken up in 1997 after a 4-year investigation by the European Union, as it accused UIP as a cartel-like organisation. The pay TV rights for the films were eventually transferred to Paramount International Television (later renamed CBS Paramount International Television and currently known as CBS Studios International; today, the Paramount films are distributed by Trifecta Entertainment & Media), Universal Worldwide Television (currently known as NBCUniversal International Television Distribution) and MGM Worldwide Television
Starting in 2007, United International Pictures considerably reduced its international operations. At least 15 "key countries" are now directly managed separately by Universal Pictures, taking over operations in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Russia, South Korea, Spain and Switzerland and Paramount Pictures, taking over operations in Australia, Brazil, France, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia and the United Kingdom.
As Universal Pictures takes over South Korean operations, CJ Entertainment has become the new South Korean distributor K1.
Though their Japanese operations were initially planned to be kept intact, United International Pictures withdrew from the Japanese market in late 2007; and as a result, Paramount Pictures started taking their Japanese distribution operations in-house until January 31, 2016 when they formed distribution alliances with TOWA PICTURES Company, Ltd. for Japanese theatrical distribution of their filmsstarting with The Big Short on March 4, 2016, and Universal Pictures Japan also formed distribution alliances with TOHO-TOWA Company, Limited for theatrical distribution and Geneon Entertainment (now NBCUniversal Entertainment Japan) for home entertainment distribution.
In 2002, United International Pictures withdrew from the Finnish market. As a result, their releases in that country later started being handled by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, then in 2006, distribution passed on to national cinema operator Finnkino.
The company is based in London, United Kingdom, though their operations in that country are currently being taken over by Paramount Pictures. However, as of 2010, they continues to directly distribute films in 19 countries: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Denmark, Greece, Hungary, India, Israel, Malaysia, Norway, Panama, Peru, the Philippines (through Sony Pictures International since June 2014), Poland, Singapore, South Africa, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey. In addition, the company has distribution agreements with locally owned distribution companies in a further 43 countries. One such example is Bontonfilm in the Czech Republic, who previously distributed material from CIC & UIP in both the Czech and the Slovak markets.
- "Paramount Pictures and Universal Pictures to begin self-distribution of films in 15 key countries beginning in January 2007". IndependentFilm.com. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Foreign film distributor closing down | The Japan Times Online". Search.japantimes.co.jp. 2007-08-12. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
- Variety Asia Online Archived August 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Show Biz Japan!#7 - JETRO USA - Japan External Trade Organization". Jetro.org. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
- "Geneon to Merge with Universal Pictures Japan - News". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
- UIP website: Who We Are Retrieved 2012-09-10