Bimbisara

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Bimbisara
Founder of Haryanka dynasty
Reignc. 544 – c. 492 BC (52 years) or c. 400 BC
PredecessorBhattiya
SuccessorAjatashatru
Clan and noble familyHaryanka
Born558 BC
Died491 BC
SpouseKosala Devī
Chellanā


Dharini

Kṣemā / Khemā
Nandā[1]
Padmāvatī / Padumavatī
Ambapālī
IssueAjatashatru
DynastyHaryanka
FatherBhattiya
ReligionBuddhism

Bimbisāra (c. 558 – c. 491 BC[2][3] or during the late 5th century BC[4]) also known as Seniya or Shrenika in the Jain histories[5][6] was a King of Magadha (r. 543 – 492 BC[7] or c. 400 BC[8]) and belonged to the Haryanka dynasty.[9] He was the son of Bhattiya.[10] His expansion of the kingdom, especially his annexation of the kingdom of Anga to the east, is considered to have laid the foundations for the later expansion of the Magadha Empire.[11]

He is also known for his cultural achievements and was a great friend and protector of the Buddha. Bimbisara—according to Hiuen Tsang—built the city of Rajgir (Rajagriha), famous in Buddhist writings (others attribute the city's foundation to his successor).[7] He was succeeded on the throne by his son Ajatashatru.[11]

Life[edit]

King Bimbisara visits the Bamboo Garden (Venuvana) in Rajagriha; artwork from Sanchi

Bimbisara was the son of Bhattiya, a chieftain. He ascended to throne at the age of 15 in 543 BC.[12] He established the Haryanka dynasty laid the foundations of Magadha by fortification of a village, which later became the city of Pataliputra.[13] Bimbisara's first capital was at Girivraja (identified with Rajagriha). He led a military campaign against Anga, perhaps to avenge his father's earlier defeat at the hands of its king, Brahmadatta. The campaign was successful, Anga was annexed, and prince Kunika (Ajatashatru) was appointed governor at Champa.[14] His conquest of Anga gave Magadha control over the routes to the Ganges Delta, which had important ports that gave access to the eastern coast of India.[15] Bimbisara sent Jivaka, his physician, to Ujjain for medical treatment of Pradyota, the king of Avanti, from jaundice.[16] Pukkusati, the king of Gandhara, sent Bimbisara an embassy.[12]

His court is said to have included Sona Kolivisa, Sumana (flower gatherer), Koliya (minister), Kumbhaghosaka (treasurer) and Jivaka (physician).[17]

Marriage alliances[edit]

Bimbisara used marriage alliances to strengthen his position. His first wife was Kosala Devi, the daughter of Mahā Kosala the king of Kosala, and a sister of Prasenjit.[18] His bride brought him Kashi, which was then a mere village, as dowry.[19] This marriage also ended the hostility between Magadha and Kosala and gave him a free hand in dealing with the other states. His second wife, Chellana, was a Lichchhavi princess from Vaishali and daughter of King Chetaka.[20] His third wife, Kshema, was a daughter of the chief of the Madra clan of Punjab.[21] Mahavagga depict him of having 500 wives.[12]

Death[edit]

Bimbisara's jail, where King Bimbisara was imprisoned, in Rajgir

According to tradition, Bimbisara was assassinated by his son Ajatashatru in c. 493 BCE, who then succeeded him on the throne.[15]

Traditional accounts[edit]

Jainism[edit]

Bimbisara is referred to as Shrenika[22][6] of Rajgir in Jain literature who became a devotee of Jainism impressed by the calmness of Yamadhar (a Jain Muni).[23][better source needed] He frequently visited Samavasarana of Lord Mahavira seeking answers to his queries. He asked about the jain version of Ramayana[24] and an illuminating sage (King Prasana).[25] He is said to be a Balabhadra in one of his previous lives.[26]

Per Jain scripture, Bimbisara killed himself in a fit of passion, after his son had imprisoned him. Consequently, he was reborn in hell, where he is currently residing, until the karma which led to his birth there comes to an end.[27][28] It is further written, that he will be reborn as Mahapadma (sometimes called Padmanabha), the first in the chain of future tirthankaras who are to rise at the beginning of the upward motion (Utsarpini) of the next era of time.[29]

Buddhism[edit]

Bimbisara welcomes the Buddha
King Bimbisara, depicted in Burmese art, offering his kingdom to the Buddha.

According to Buddhist scriptures, King Bimbisara met the Buddha for the first time prior to the Buddha's enlightenment, and later became an important disciple that featured prominently in certain Buddhist suttas. He is recorded to have attained sotapannahood, a degree of enlightenment in Buddhist teachings.KTS Sarai, Jeffrey D Long, ed. (2017), Buddhism and Jainism Although Bimbisara let the women in his palace visit Buddha in his monastery in the evenings; the women wanted a hair-and-nail stupa they could use to venerate the Buddha any time. Bimbisara spoke with Buddha who complied with their request.[30]

Others[edit]

According to Puranas, Bimbisara ruled Magadha for a period of 28 or 38 years. Sinhalese chronicles date his reign to be of 52 years.[31]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Bhattiya
King of Magadha
543–491 BC
Succeeded by
Ajatashatru

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Chandra, Jnan (1958). "SOME UNKNOWN FACTS ABOUT BIMBISĀRA". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. Indian History Congress. 21: 215–217.
  2. ^ Hugh George Rawlinson (1950), A Concise History of the Indian People. Oxford University Press, p. 46.
  3. ^ F. Max Muller (2001): The Dhammapada And Sutta-nipata. Routledge (UK), p. xlvii. ISBN 0-7007-1548-7.
  4. ^ Keay, John: India: A History. Revised and Updated: "The date [of Buddha's meeting with Bimbisara] (given the Buddhist 'short chronology') must have been around 400 BC."
  5. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 40-41.
  6. ^ a b Jain & Upadhye 2000, p. 59.
  7. ^ a b V. K. Agnihotri (ed.), Indian History. Allied Publishers, New Delhi 262010, p. 166 f.
  8. ^ Keay, India: A History
  9. ^ Peter N. Stearns (2001), The Encyclopedia of World History. Houghton Mifflin, p. 76 ff. ISBN 0-395-65237-5.
  10. ^ Raychaudhuri 1923, p. 97.
  11. ^ a b "Bimbisara". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  12. ^ a b c Sen 1999, p. 112.
  13. ^ Sastri 1988, p. 11.
  14. ^ Upinder Singh 2016, p. 269.
  15. ^ a b Thapar, Romila (2002). Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300. University of California Press. pp. 152–154. ISBN 0-520-24225-4.
  16. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 99.
  17. ^ Upinder Singh 2016, p. 270.
  18. ^ Upinder Singh 2016, p. 271.
  19. ^ Eck, Diana. (1998) Banaras, Columbia University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-231-11447-8.
  20. ^ Luniya, Bhanwarlal Nathuram. (1967) Evolution of Indian Culture, Lakshmi Narain Agarwal. p. 114.
  21. ^ Krishna, Narendra. (1944) History of India, A. Mukherjee & bros. p. 90.
  22. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 36.
  23. ^ Queen Chelna and King Shrenik, archived from the original on 13 April 2019, retrieved 21 September 2015
  24. ^ Dalal, Roshen (2010), Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide, India: Penguin Books, p. 338, ISBN 9780143414216
  25. ^ Leshyas
  26. ^ Choksi, Mansi; Chhapia, Hemali (10 February 2011), "Now, meet Ravan the saint", The Times of India
  27. ^ Jaini 1998, p. 228.
  28. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 41.
  29. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 40-41.
  30. ^ John S. Strong (2007), Relics of the Buddha, p. 72, ISBN 978-0691117645
  31. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1991, p. 88.

Sources[edit]

See also[edit]