Bremer River (Queensland)
Railway bridge across the Bremer River in
|Name origin: Captain James Gordon Bremer|
|Regions||Scenic Rim, South East Queensland|
|Part of||Brisbane River catchment|
|- left||Western Creek, Franklin Vale Creek|
|- right||Warrill Creek, Reynold Creek, Purga Creek, Deebing Creek, Bundamba Creek|
|- location||Main Range National Park|
|- elevation||140 m (459 ft)|
|Mouth||confluence with the Brisbane River|
|- elevation||4 m (13 ft)|
|Length||100 km (62 mi)|
|Basin||2,032 km2 (785 sq mi)|
|National park||Main Range National Park|
Location of Bremer River river mouth in Queensland
|Wikimedia Commons: Bremer River|
The Bremer River is a river that is a tributary of the Brisbane River, located in the Scenic Rim and Brisbane regions of South East Queensland, Australia. The 100-kilometre (62 mi)-long Bremer River drains several Scenic Rim valleys in south-east Queensland, including the Fassifern Valley, with its catchment area covering approximately 2,032 square kilometres (785 sq mi). Most valleys within the catchment have extensive river terraces. The Bremer River system is extremely degraded.
Europeans John Oxley and Allan Cunningham discovered the river in 1824 and it was first named by Oxley as Bremer's Creek presumably after Captain James Gordon Bremer who was in charge of HMS Tamar, at that time performing duties in the waters of the colony of New South Wales.
Course and features
The Bremer rises in the hills of the Scenic Rim, passes close to the town of Rosewood and winds through the city of Ipswich. The catchment area is bordered by the Little Liverpool Range to the west, with the Main Range lying to the south and south-west. Towards the east is Flinders Peak and the Teviot Range. The river has a number of tributaries including Deebing Creek, Bundamba Creek, Purga Creek, Reynolds Creek, Warrill Creek, Western Creek and Franklin Vale Creek. The town of Grandchester is situated on Western Creek and Rosevale was settled on the upper reaches. Its length is about 100 km (62 mi).
The first sighting of the Bremer River by Europeans was made by John Oxley and Allan Cunningham on 19 September 1824 as they explored the Brisbane River.:9 On their return journey six days later the exploration party camped on the opposite side of the river where the tributary entered the main stream. Shortly after Oxley began to refer to the tributary as the Bremer River but didn't specify from who the name was derived from.:10 It has been assumed to be named in honour of James Gordon Bremer, a naval officer on the HMS Tamar. No attempt to explore the Bremer was made at this time. Edmund Lockyer passed through the area in 1825, noting the junction of the Bremer, referring to it as Bremer's Creek but he did not explore it. The first European to travel along the river was Captain Patrick Logan who in either late 1826 or early 1827 investigated the Bremer. He discovered deposits of limestone at the site of what was to become Ipswich.:10 Upstream from there the river became shallow and rocky, so Logan did not explore further.
The upper reaches of the river were explored by Alan Cunningham in 1828 while he was searching for a route to the Darling Downs. Cunningham made measurements and produced a map which he sent to Governor Darling.:11
In 1863, an immigration depot was built on the north bank of the Bremer, after residents of Ipswich petitioned for a depot to alleviate a shortage of labour.:25 Immigrants were brought to Ipswich by paddle steamer. The depot was sometimes overcrowded and continued to operate until 1900.
Before the railway line from Ipswich to Brisbane was completed in 1875, the river served as an important navigation route between the two towns.
The Bremer Catchment Association was established in 1995.:99 The group engages small community groups in projects such as weed control and tree planting.
Industrial waste has flowed into the river soon after the catchment was settled. Photos from 1870 show the riverbanks cleared of vegetation. This may have been from the cutting of timber or because an engineer had encouraged the clearing of trees close to the river because when they fell into the river they dragged earth with them, creating an obstacle for steamers in an already narrow channel.:95
The slow-flowing river system is known to flood and is considered to be heavily polluted, suffering from poor water quality. The Bremer does not receive enough water in its catchment to meet both human requirements and the need to flush out impurities. This results in poor water quality with high levels of turbidity, high nutrient levels and high levels of bacteria, especially where sewerage and drain runoff from the city of Ipswich is discharged into the river.
Coordinated attempts to improve water quality began after the establishment of the Water Quality Council in 1973. Testing revealed the worst pollution came from woolen mills and meatworks at Dinmore, where organic waste entered the river untreated.:99
Land degradation was identified as a serious problem in the catchment after a Department of Primary Industries survey was conducted in 1979. Riparian vegetation has been nearly completely removed and the banks are now weed-infested. Downstream the river suffers from not only sewerage and farming runoff but also abattoir effluent.
In 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 the Healthy Waterways annual assessment of water quality rated the Bremer River an F, the lowest grading possible. The Ipswich City Council has responded by increasing fines for allowing pollutants to contaminate the river.
Heavy metals including mercury, chromium, nickel and cadmium were found in Warrill Creek, a tributary of the Bremer, in 2009. The source of the contamination was discharge from the RAAF Base Amberley. The contaminates did not reach the Bremer River itself. In 2010, the Ipswich City Council and the International Riverfoundation launched a fund to help clean up the river.
- "Ipswich - Culture and History". The Age. Retrieved 8 December 2009.[dead link]
- "Map of Bremer River, QLD". Bonzle Digital Atlas of Australia. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- Strategic Guide to Natural Resource Management in South East Queensland. South East Queensland Regional Strategic Group. November 2000. p. 105. ISBN 0-7345-1740-8.
- "Rivers - Assessment of River Condition - Queensland - Brisbane River". Australian Natural Resources Atlas. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- "Recreation". Ipswich City Council. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Buchanan, Robyn (2009). The Bremer River. Ipswich City Council. ISBN 978-0-9587063-8-4.
- "Bremer Catchment". Ipswich City Council. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Dennison, William C.; Abal, Eva G. (1999). Moreton Bay Study: A Scientific Basis for the Healthy Waterways Campaign. Brisbane: South East Queensland Regional Water Quality Management Strategy Team. p. 190. ISBN 0-9586368-1-8.
- Lawrence, Elissa (30 December 2006). "Our worst waterways". The Sunday Mail (News Queensland). Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Moore, Tony (22 October 2008). "Brisbane's rivers, creeks in ailing health: report". Brisbane Times. Fairfax Digital. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- Jackson, Zane (18 February 2011). "Stay away from the river". The Queensland Times. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Healthy Waterways (24 October 2012). "Healthy Waterways - Bremer River". Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Moore, Tony (22 October 2008). "Water polluters to face tougher fines". Brisbane Times (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Jacobi, Nikole; Tapim, Francis (8 September 2009). "'Exhaustive investigation' into Amberley creek contamination". ABC News Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- Pollard, Emma (17 December 2009). "Defence Dept to fix Amberley base creek pollution". ABC News Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- Jackson, Zane (16 March 2010). "Campaign to clean up Bremer River". The Queensland Times. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- "Latest River Heights for Reynolds Ck at Moogerah Dam". Bureau of Meteorology. Australian Government. Retrieved 24 September 2009.