Effects of climate change
The effects of climate change span the impacts on physical environment, ecosystems and human societies due to ongoing human-caused climate change. The future impact of climate change depends on how much nations reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change. Effects that scientists predicted in the past—loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise and longer, more intense heat waves—are now occurring. The changes in climate are not expected to be uniform across the Earth. In particular, land areas change more quickly than oceans, and northern high latitudes change more quickly than the tropics. There are three major ways in which global warming will make changes to regional climate: melting ice, changing the hydrological cycle (of evaporation and precipitation) and changing currents in the oceans.
Physical changes include extreme weather, glacier retreat, sea level rise, declines in Arctic sea ice, and changes in the timing of seasonal events (such as earlier spring flowering). Since 1970, the ocean has absorbed more than 90% of the excess heat in the climate system. Even if global surface temperature is stabilized, sea levels will continue to rise and the ocean will continue to absorb excess heat from the atmosphere for many centuries. The uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is leading to ocean acidification.
Climate change has degraded land by raising temperatures, drying soils and increasing wildfire risk. Recent warming has strongly affected natural biological systems. Species worldwide are migrating poleward to colder areas. On land, species move to higher elevations, whereas marine species find colder water at greater depths. Between 1% and 50% of species on land were assessed to be at substantially higher risk of extinction due to climate change. Coral reefs and shellfish are vulnerable to the combined threat of ocean warming and acidification.
Food security and access to fresh water are at risk due to rising temperatures. Climate change has profound impacts on human health, directly via heat stress and indirectly via the spread of infectious diseases.
The vulnerability and exposure of humans to climate change varies from one economic sector to another and will have different impacts in different countries. Wealthy industrialised countries, which have emitted the most CO2, have more resources and so are the least vulnerable to global warming. Economic sectors that are likely to be affected include agriculture, fisheries, forestry, energy, insurance, financial services, tourism, and recreation. Some groups may be particularly at risk from climate change, such as the poor, women, children and indigenous peoples. These groups have much higher levels of vulnerability to environmental determinants of health, wealth and other factors. They also have much lower levels of capacity available for coping with environmental change. This can result in environmental migration, especially in developing countries where people are directly dependent on land for food, feed, fibre, timber and energy.
Observed and future changes in temperature
Global warming affects all elements of Earth's climate system. Global surface temperatures have risen by 1 °C and are expected to rise further in the future. Night-time temperatures have increased faster than daytime temperatures. The impact on the environment, wildlife, society and humanity depends on how much more the Earth warms.
One of the methods scientists use to predict the effects of human-caused climate change, is to investigate past natural changes in climate. To assess changes in Earth's past climate scientists have studied tree rings, ice cores, corals, and ocean and lake sediments. These show that recent warming has surpassed anything in the last 2,000 years. By the end of the 21st century, temperatures may increase to a level not experienced since the mid-Pliocene, around 3 million years ago. At that time, mean global temperatures were about 2–4 °C warmer than pre-industrial temperatures, and the global mean sea level was up to 25 meters higher than it is today.
Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios
How much the world warms depends on what humans do or not to limit GHG emissions, and how sensitive the climate is to greenhouse gases. Scientists are pretty sure that with double the amount of GHG in the atmosphere the world would warm by 2.5 °C to 4 °C; but how much more humans will emit is less certain. The projected magnitude of warming by 2100 is closely related to the level of cumulative emissions over the 21st century (total emissions between 2000 and 2100). The higher the cumulative emissions over this time period, the greater the level of warming is projected to occur.
If emissions of CO2 were to be abruptly stopped and no negative emission technologies deployed, the Earth's climate would not start moving back to its pre-industrial state. Instead, temperatures would stay elevated at the same level for several centuries. After about a thousand years, 20% to 30% of human-emitted CO2 will remain in the atmosphere, not taken up by the ocean or the land, committing the climate to a warmer state long after emissions have stopped.
Mitigation policies currently in place will result in about 2.7 °C (2.0–3.6 °C, depending on how sensitive the climate is to greenhouse gas emissions) warming above pre-industrial levels. If all unconditional pledges and targets made by governments are achieved the temperature will rise by around 2.4 °C. If additionally all the countries that adopted or are considering to adopt net-zero targets will achieve it the temperature will rise by a median of 1.8 °C. There is a substantial gap between national plans and commitments and actions so far taken by governments around the world.
The lower and middle atmosphere, where nearly all of the weather occurs, are heating due to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Increased greenhouse gases cause the higher parts of the atmosphere, the stratosphere to cool. The heated atmosphere contains more water vapour, which is itselfs also a greenhouse gas and acts as an self-reinforcing feedback.
Global warming leads to an increase in extreme weather events such as heat waves, droughts, cyclones, blizzards and rainstorms. Such events will continue to occur more often and with greater intensity. Some individual extreme weather events are caused by climate change.
Warming by greenhouse gas forcing has increased contrasts in rainfall amounts between wet and dry seasons. This means colloquially: "wet seasons are getting wetter, dry seasons are getting drier". Warming has also resulted in a detectable increase in the precipitation of northern high latitudes.
Higher temperatures lead to increased evaporation and surface drying. As the air warms, its water-holding capacity also increases, particularly over the oceans. Air holds 7% more water vapour for every degree Celsius it is warmed. Changes have already been observed in the amount, intensity, frequency, and type of precipitation. Widespread increases in heavy precipitation have occurred even in places where total rain amounts have decreased.
Global warming is expected to be accompanied by a reduction in rainfall in the subtropics and an increase in precipitation in subpolar latitudes and some equatorial regions. In other words, regions which are dry at present will generally become even drier, while regions that are currently wet will generally become even wetter. This projection does not apply to every locale, and in some cases can be modified by local conditions. Drying is projected to be strongest near the poleward margins of the subtropics (for example, South Africa, southern Australia, the Mediterranean, and the south-western U.S.), a pattern that can be described as a poleward expansion of these semi-arid zones. In the case of precipitation, the rising temperatures will intensify the Earth's water cycle, increasing evaporation. Increased evaporation will result in more frequent and intense downpours and cause extended droughts in certain regions. As a result, storm-affected areas are likely to experience increases in precipitation and an increased risk of flooding. In contrast, areas far away from storm tracks are likely to experience less precipitation and an increased risk of drought.
Changes in regional climate are expected to include greater warming over land, with most warming at high northern latitudes, and least warming over the Southern Ocean and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. Future changes in precipitation are expected to follow existing trends, with reduced precipitation over subtropical land areas, and increased precipitation at subpolar latitudes and some equatorial regions.
Heat waves and temperature extremes
Global warming boosts the probability of extreme weather events such as heat waves where the daily maximum temperature exceeds the average maximum temperature by 5 °C (9 °F) for more than five consecutive days. In the last 30–40 years, heat waves with high humidity have become more frequent and severe. Extremely hot nights have doubled in frequency. The area in which extremely hot summers are observed has increased 50–100 fold. Heat waves with high humidity pose a big risk to human health while heat waves with low humidity lead to dry conditions that increase wildfires. The mortality from extreme heat is larger than the mortality from hurricanes, lightning, tornadoes, floods, and earthquakes together.
It was estimated in 2013 that global warming had increased the probability of local record-breaking monthly temperatures worldwide by a factor of 5. This was compared to a baseline climate in which no global warming had occurred. Using a medium global warming scenario, they project that by 2040, the number of monthly heat records globally could be more than 12 times greater than that of a scenario with no long-term warming.
Future climate change will include more very hot days and fewer very cold days. The frequency, length and intensity of heat waves will very likely increase over most land areas. Higher growth in anthropogenic GHG emissions would cause more frequent and severe temperature extremes. Globally, cold waves have decreased in frequency. There is some evidence climate change leads to a weakening of the polar vortex, which would make the jet stream more wavy. This would lead to outbursts of very cold winter weather across parts of Eurasia and North America.
Tropical cyclones and storms
Global warming not only causes changes in tropical cyclones, it may also make some impacts from them worse via sea level rise. The intensity of tropical cyclones (hurricanes, typhoons, etc.) is projected to increase globally, with the proportion of Category 4 and 5 tropical cyclones increasing. Furthermore, the rate of rainfall is projected to increase, but trends in the future frequency on a global scale are not yet clear. Changes in tropical cyclones vary by region.
Increases in temperature are expected to produce more intense convection over land and a higher frequency of the most severe storms.
Increased rainfall intensity due to climate change can worsen flooding. Sea level rise further increases risks of flooding: if sea levels rise by a further 0.15 m, 20% more people will be exposed to a 1 in a 100 year coastal flood, assuming no population growth and no further adaptation. With an extra 0.75 m, this rises to a doubling of people exposed.
It has been determined that climate change and variability have the potential to drastically impact human exposure to flood hazards, but this comes with a lot of uncertainty due to multiple climate models. Similar to droughts, climate change has also been shown to have the potential to increase the frequency of bigger storm events. This increase in the frequency of large storm events would alter existing Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves (IDF curves) due to the change in frequency, but also by lifting and steepening the curves in the future.
Between 1994 and 2006, satellite observations shows an 18% increase in the flow of freshwater into the world's oceans, partly from melting ice and partly from increased precipitation driven by an increase in global ocean evaporation. Much of the increase is in areas which already experience high rainfall. One effect, as perhaps experienced in the 2010 Pakistan floods, is to overwhelm flood control infrastructure.
Climate change affects multiple factors associated with droughts, such as how much rain falls and how fast the rain evaporates again. Warming over land drives an increase in atmospheric evaporative demand which will increase the severity and frequency of droughts around much of the world. Due to limitations on how much data is available about drought in the past, it is often impossible to confidently attribute droughts to human-induced climate change. Some areas however, such as the Mediterranean and California, already show a clear human signature. Their impacts are aggravated because of increased water demand, population growth, urban expansion, and environmental protection efforts in many areas.
In 2019 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued a Special Report on Climate Change and Land. The main statements of the report include: In the years 1960 – 2013 the area of drylands in drought, increased by 1% per year. In the year 2015 around 500 million people lived in areas that was impacted by desertification in the years 1980s – 2000s. People who live in the areas affected by land degradation and desertification are "increasingly negatively affected by climate change".
Globally, climate change promotes the type of weather that makes wildfires more likely. In some areas, an increase of wildfires has been attributed directly to climate change. That warmer climate conditions pose more risks of wildfire is consistent with evidence from Earth's past: there was more fire in warmer periods, and less in colder climatic periods. Climate change increases evaporation, which can cause vegetation to dry out. When a fire starts in an area with very dry vegetation, it can spread rapidly. Higher temperatures can also make the fire season longer, the time period in which severe wildfires are most likely. In regions where snow is disappearing, the fire season may get particularly more extended.
Even though weather conditions are raising the risks of wildfires, the total area burnt by wildfires has decreased globally. This is mostly the result of the conversion of savanna into croplands, after which there is less forest area that can burn. Prescribed burning, an indigenous practice in the US and Australia, can reduce the area burnt too, and may form an adaptation to increased risk. The carbon released from wildfires can further increase greenhouse gas concentrations. This feedback is not yet fully integrated into climate models.
Changes for oceans
The main physical effects of global warming on the world ocean are sea level rise, ocean warming, ocean acidification, loss of oxygen, an increase in marine heatwaves, and changes to ocean currents including a possible slowdown or shutdown of thermohaline circulation. These physical changes disturb marine ecosystems, which can cause both extinctions and population explosions, change the distribution of species, and impact coastal fishing and tourism.
Warming of the ocean surface due to higher air temperatures leads to increased water temperature stratification. The decline in mixing of the ocean layers piles up warm water near the surface while reducing cold, deep water circulation. The reduced up and down mixing reduces the ability of the ocean to absorb heat, directing a larger fraction of future warming toward the atmosphere and land. Energy available for tropical cyclones and other storms is expected to increase, nutrients for fish in the upper ocean layers are set to decrease, as well as the capacity of the oceans to store carbon.
Warmer water cannot contain as much oxygen as cold water, changing the gas exchange equilibrium to reduce ocean oxygen levels and increase oxygen in the atmosphere. Increased thermal stratification may lead to increases in respiration rates of organic matter, further decreasing water oxygen content. The ocean has already lost oxygen, throughout the entire water column and oxygen minimum zones are expanding worldwide. This has adverse consequences for ocean life.
Sea level rise
Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)
The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), an important component of the Earth's climate system, is a northward flow of warm, salty water in the upper layers of the Atlantic and a southward flow of colder water in the deep Atlantic.: 5 Potential impacts associated with AMOC changes include reduced warming or (in the case of abrupt change) absolute cooling of northern high-latitude areas near Greenland and north-western Europe, an increased warming of Southern Hemisphere high-latitudes, tropical drying, as well as changes to marine ecosystems, terrestrial vegetation, oceanic CO
2 uptake, oceanic oxygen concentrations, and shifts in fisheries.
According to a 2019 assessment in the IPCC's Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate it is very likely (greater than 90% probability, based on expert judgement) that the strength of the AMOC will decrease further over the course of the 21st century. Warming is still expected to occur over most of the European region downstream of the North Atlantic Current in response to increasing GHGs, as well as over North America. With medium confidence, the IPCC report stated that it is very unlikely (less than 10% probability) that the AMOC will collapse in the 21st century. The potential consequences of such a collapse could be severe.: 5
Ice and snow changes
The cryosphere, the area of the Earth covered by snow or ice, is extremely sensitive to changes in global climate. Northern Hemisphere average annual snow cover has declined in recent decades. This pattern is consistent with warmer global temperatures. Some of the largest declines have been observed in the spring and summer months.[needs update] During the 21st century, snow cover is projected to continue its retreat in almost all regions.
Glaciers and ice sheets decline
Since the beginning of the twentieth century, there has been a widespread retreat of glaciers. The melting of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets will continue to contribute to sea level rise over long time-scales. The Greenland ice sheet loss is mainly driven by melt from the top, whereas Antarctic ice loss is driven by warm ocean water melting the outlet glaciers.
Future melt of the West Antarctic ice sheet is potentially abrupt under a high emission scenario, as a consequence of a partial collapse. Part of the ice sheet is grounded on bedrock below sea level, making it possibly vulnerable to the self-enhancing process of marine ice sheet instability. A further hypothesis is that marine ice cliff instability would also contribute to a partial collapse, but limited evidence is available for its importance. A partial collapse of the ice sheet would lead to rapid sea level rise and a local decrease in ocean salinity. It would be irreversible on a timescale between decades and millennia.
In contrast to the West Antarctic ice sheet, melt of the Greenland ice sheet is projected to be taking place more gradually over millennia. Sustained warming between 1 °C (low confidence) and 4 °C (medium confidence) would lead to a complete loss of the ice sheet, contributing 7 m to sea levels globally. The ice loss could become irreversible due to a further self-enhancing feedback: the elevation-surface mass balance feedback. When ice melts on top of the ice sheet, the elevation drops. As air temperature is higher at lower altitude, this promotes further melt.
Sea ice decline
Sea ice reflects 50% to 70% of the incoming solar radiation, while 6% of the incoming solar energy is reflected by the ocean. With less solar energy, the sea ice absorbs and holds the surface colder, which can be a positive feedback toward climate change. As the climate warms, snow cover and sea ice extent decrease. Large-scale measurements of sea-ice have only been possible since the satellite era. The age of the sea ice is an important feature of the state of the sea ice cover. Sea ice in the Antarctic has hardly changed since those measurements began. Though extending the Antarctic sea-ice record back in time is more difficult due to the lack of direct observations in this part of the world.
Arctic sea ice began to decline at the beginning of the twentieth century but the rate is accelerating. Since 1979, satellite records indicate the decline in summer sea ice coverage has been about 13% per decade. The thickness of sea ice has also decreased by 66% or 2.0 m over the last six decades with a shift from permanent ice to largely seasonal ice cover. While ice-free summers are expected to be rare at 1.5 °C degrees of warming, they are set to occur at least once every decade at a warming level of 2.0 °C. The Arctic will likely become ice-free at the end of some summers before 2050.
The southern part of the Arctic region (home to 4 million people) has experienced a temperature rise of 1 °C to 3 °C (1.8 °F to 5.4 °F) over the last 50 years. Canada, Alaska and Russia are experiencing initial melting of permafrost. This may disrupt ecosystems and by increasing bacterial activity in the soil lead to these areas becoming carbon sources instead of carbon sinks. Eastern Siberia's permafrost is gradually disappearing in the southern regions, leading to the loss of nearly 11% of Siberia's nearly 11,000 lakes since 1971. At the same time, western Siberia is at the initial stage where melting permafrost is creating new lakes, which will eventually start disappearing as in the east. Furthermore, permafrost melting will eventually cause methane release from melting permafrost peat bogs.
Wildlife and nature impacts
Recent warming has strongly affected natural biological systems. Species worldwide are moving poleward to colder areas. On land, species move to higher elevations, whereas marine species find colder water at greater depths. Of the drivers with the biggest global impact on nature, climate change ranks third over the five decades before 2020, with only change in land use and sea use, and direct exploitation of organisms having a greater impact.
The impacts of climate change in nature and nature's contributions to humans are projected to become more pronounced in the next few decades. Examples of climatic disruptions include fire, drought, pest infestation, invasion of species, storms, and coral bleaching events. The stresses caused by climate change, added to other stresses on ecological systems (e.g. land conversion, land degradation, harvesting, and pollution), threaten substantial damage to or complete loss of some unique ecosystems, and extinction of some critically endangered species. Key interactions between species within ecosystems are often disrupted because species from one location do not move to colder habitats at the same rate, giving rise to rapid changes in the functioning of the ecosystem. Impacts include changes in regional rainfall patterns, earlier leafing of trees and plants over many regions; movements of species to higher latitudes and altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere; changes in bird migrations in Europe, North America and Australia; and shifting of the oceans' plankton and fish from cold- to warm-adapted communities.
Ecosystems on land
Climate change has been estimated to be a major driver of biodiversity loss in cool conifer forests, savannas, mediterranean-climate systems, tropical forests, and the Arctic tundra. In other ecosystems, land-use change may be a stronger driver of biodiversity loss, at least in the near-term. Beyond the year 2050, climate change may be the major driver for biodiversity loss globally. Climate change interacts with other pressures such as habitat modification, pollution and invasive species. Interacting with these pressures, climate change increases extinction risk for a large fraction of terrestrial and freshwater species. Between 1% and 50% of species in different groups were assessed to be at substantially higher risk of extinction due to climate change.
Rainfall that falls on the Amazon rainforest is recycled when it evaporates back into the atmosphere instead of running off away from the rainforest. This water is essential for sustaining the rainforest. Due to deforestation the rainforest is losing this ability, exacerbated by climate change which brings more frequent droughts to the area. The higher frequency of droughts seen in the first two decades of the 21st century, as well as other data, signal that a tipping point from rainforest to savanna might be close. One study concluded that this ecosystem could enter a mode of a 50-years-long collapse to a savanna around 2021, after which it would become increasingly and disproportionally more difficult to prevent or reverse this shift.
Marine heatwaves have seen an increased frequency and have widespread impacts on life in the oceans, such as mass dying events and coral bleaching. Harmful algae blooms have increased in response to warming waters, loss of oxygen and eutrophication. Between one-quarter and one-third of our fossil fuel emissions are consumed by the earth's oceans, which are now 30 percent more acidic than they were in pre-industrial times. This acidification poses a serious threat to aquatic life, particularly creatures such as oysters, clams, and coral with calcified shells or skeletons. Melting sea ice destroys habitat, including for algae that grows on its underside. It is likely that the oceans warmed faster between 1993 and 2017 compared to the period starting in 1969.
Warm water coral reefs are very sensitive to global warming and ocean acidification. Coral reefs provide a habitat for thousands of species and ecosystem services such as coastal protection and food. The resilience of reefs can be improved by curbing local pollution and overfishing, but 70–90% of today's warm water coral reefs will disappear even if warming is kept to 1.5 °C. Coral reefs are not the only framework organisms, organisms that build physical structures that form habitats for other sea creatures, affected by climate change: mangroves and seagrass are considered to be at moderate risk for lower levels of global warming according to the Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate.
Abrupt changes and irreversible impacts
Self-reinforcing feedbacks amplify climate change. The climate system exhibits "threshold behaviour" or tipping points when these feedbacks lead parts of the Earth system into a new state, such as the runaway loss of ice sheets or the destruction of too many forests. Tipping points are studied using data from Earth's distant past and by physical modelling. There is already moderate risk of global tipping points at 1 °C above pre-industrial temperatures, and that risk becomes high at 2.5 °C.
Tipping points are "perhaps the most 'dangerous' aspect of future climate changes", leading to irreversible impacts on society. Many tipping points are interlinked, so that triggering one may lead to a cascade of effects, even well below 2 °C of warming. A 2018 study states that 45% of environmental problems, including those caused by climate change are interconnected and make the risk of a domino effect bigger.
There are a number of climate change impacts on the environment that may be irreversible, at least over the timescale of many human generations. These include the large-scale singularities such as the melting of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets, and changes to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. In biological systems, the extinction of species would be an irreversible impact. In social systems, unique cultures may be lost or the survival of endangered languages may be exacerbated due to climate change. For example, humans living on atoll islands face risks due to sea level rise, sea surface warming, and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events.
Impacts on health, food security and water security
The effects of climate change on human health include direct effects of extreme weather, leading to injury and loss of life, as well as indirect effects, such as undernutrition brought on by crop failures or lack of access safe drinking water. Climate change poses a wide range of risks to population health. The three main categories of health risks include: (i) direct-acting effects (e.g. due to heat waves, extreme weather disasters), (ii) impacts mediated via climate-related changes in ecological systems and relationships (e.g. crop yields, mosquito ecology, marine productivity), and (iii) the more diffuse (indirect) consequences relating to impoverishment, displacement, and mental health problems.More specifically, the relationship between health and heat (increased global temperatures) includes the following aspects: exposure of vulnerable populations to heatwaves, heat-related mortality, impacts on physical activity and labour capacity and mental health. There is a range of climate-sensitive infectious diseases which may increase in some regions, such as mosquito-borne diseases, diseases from vibrio pathogens, cholera and some waterborne diseases. Health is also acutely impacted by extreme weather events (floods, hurricanes, droughts, wildfires) through injuries, diseases and air pollution in the case of wildfires. Other health impacts from climate change include migration and displacement due rising sea levels; food insecurity and undernutrition, reduced availability of drinking water, increased harmful algal blooms in oceans and lakes and increased ozone levels as an additional air pollutant during heatwaves.
Food security, agriculture and marine food production
Climate change will impact agriculture and food production around the world due to the effects of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere; higher temperatures; altered precipitation and transpiration regimes; increased frequency of extreme events; and modified weed, pest, and pathogen pressure. Droughts result in crop failures and the loss of pasture for livestock. The rate of soil erosion is 10–20 times higher than the rate of soil accumulation in agricultural areas that use no-till farming. In areas with tilling it is 100 times higher. Climate change makes this type of land degradation and desertification worse.
Climate change is projected to negatively affect all four pillars of food security: not only how much food is available, but also how easy food is to access (prices), food quality and how stable the food system is.
In many areas, fisheries have already seen their catch decrease because of global warming and changes in biochemical cycles. In combination with overfishing, warming waters decrease the maximum catch potential. Global catch potential is projected to reduce further in 2050 by less than 4% if emissions are reduced strongly, and by about 8% for very high future emissions, with growth in the Arctic Ocean.
Between 1.5 and 2.5 billion people live in areas with regular water security issues. If global warming would reach 4 °C, water insecurity would affect about twice as many people. Water resources are projected to decrease in most dry subtropical regions and mid-latitudes, but increase in high latitudes. However, as streamflow becomes more variable, even regions with increased water resources can experience additional short-term shortages. The arid regions of India, China, the US and Africa are already seeing dry spells and drought impact water availability.
Water resources can be affected by climate change in various ways. The total amount of freshwater available can change, for instance due to dry spells or droughts. Heavy rainfall and flooding can have an impact on water quality: pollutants can be transported into water bodies by the increased surface runoff. In coastal regions, more salt may find its way into water resources due to higher sea levels and more intense storms. Higher temperatures also directly degrade water quality: warm water contains less oxygen.
Water-related impacts from climate change impact people's water security on a day-to-day basis. They include: increased frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation, accelerated melting of glaciers, changes in frequency, magnitude and timing of floods; more frequent and severe droughts in some places; decline in groundwater storage and reduction in recharge and water quality deterioration due to extreme events.: 4–8Global climate change is "likely to increase the complexity and costs of ensuring water security". It creates new threats and adaptation challenges. This is because climate change leads to increased hydrological variability and extremes. Climate change has many impacts on the water cycle, resulting in higher climatic and hydrological variability, which means that water security will be compromised.: vII Changes in the water cycle threaten existing water infrastructure and make it harder to plan future investments that can cope with uncertain changes in hydrologic variability. This makes societies more vulnerable to extreme water-related events and therefore increases water insecurity.: vII
The effects of climate change on humans are far reaching. Climate change impacts health, the availability of drinking water and food, inequality and economic growth. The effects of climate change are often interlinked and can exacerbate each other as well as existing vulnerabilities. The impacts are often exacerbated by related environmental disruptions and pressures such as pollution and biodiversity loss.[better source needed] Some areas may become too hot for humans to live in while people in some areas may experience internal or long-distance displacement (and thus become climate refugees) triggered by climate change related changes or disasters.
The effects of climate change, in combination with the sustained increases in greenhouse gas emissions, have led scientists to characterize it as a "climate emergency" or "climate crisis". Some climate researchers and activists have called it an "existential threat to civilization".
Overall economy and inequality
Economic forecasts of the impact of global warming vary considerably. Researchers have warned that current economic modelling may seriously underestimate the impact of potentially catastrophic climate change, and point to the need for new models that give a more accurate picture of potential damages. Nevertheless, one 2018 study found that potential global economic gains if countries implement mitigation strategies to comply with the 2 °C target set at the Paris Agreement are in the vicinity of US$17 trillion per year up to 2100 compared to a very high emission scenario.
Global losses reveal rapidly rising costs due to extreme weather events since the 1970s. Socio-economic factors have contributed to the observed trend of global losses, such as population growth and increased wealth. Part of the growth is also related to regional climatic factors, e.g., changes in precipitation and flooding events. It is difficult to quantify the relative impact of socio-economic factors and climate change on the observed trend. The trend does, however, suggest increasing vulnerability of social systems to climate change.
Climate change has contributed towards global economic inequality. Wealthy countries in colder regions have either felt little overall economic impact from climate change, or possibly benefited, whereas poor hotter countries very likely grew less than if global warming had not occurred.
The total economic impacts from climate change are difficult to estimate, but increase for higher temperature changes. For instance, total damages are estimated to be 90% less if global warming is limited to 1.5 °C compared to 3.66 °C, a warming level chosen to represent no mitigation. One study found a 3.5% reduction in global GDP by the end of the century if warming is limited to 3 °C, excluding the potential effect of tipping points. Another study noted that global economic impact is underestimated by a factor of two to eight when tipping points are excluded from consideration. In the Oxford Economics high emission scenario, a temperature rise of 2 degrees by 2050 would reduce global GDP by 2.5% – 7.5%. By the year 2100 in this case, the temperature would rise by 4 degrees, which could reduce the global GDP by 30% in the worst case.
Most affected sectors apart from agriculture and fisheries
Thermal power stations (fossil fuel plants and nuclear power plants) depend on water to cool them. Not only is there increased demand for fresh water, but climate change can increase the likelihood of drought and fresh water shortages. Another impact for thermal power plants, is that increasing the temperatures in which they operate reduces their efficiency and hence their output. Changes in the amount of river flow correlate with the amount of energy produced by a dam. The result of diminished river flow can be a power shortage in areas that depend heavily on hydroelectric power. Brazil in particular, is vulnerable due to its having reliance on hydroelectricity as increasing temperatures, lower water flow, and alterations in the rainfall regime, could reduce total energy production by 7% annually by the end of the century.
Insurance is an important tool to manage risks, but often unavailable to poorer households. Due to climate change, premiums are going up for certain types of insurance, such as flood insurance. Poor adaptation to climate change further widens the gap between what people can afford and the costs of insurance, as risks increase. In 2019, Munich Re noted that climate change could cause home insurance to become unaffordable for households at or below average incomes.
Roads, airport runways, railway lines and pipelines, (including oil pipelines, sewers, water mains etc.) may require increased maintenance and renewal as they become subject to greater temperature variation. Regions already adversely affected include areas of permafrost, which are subject to high levels of subsidence, resulting in buckling roads, sunken foundations, and severely cracked runways.[better source needed]
Displacement and migration
Climate change affects displacement of people in several ways. Firstly, involuntary displacement may increase through the increased number and severity of weather-related disasters which destroy homes and habitats. Effects of climate change such as desertification and rising sea levels gradually erode livelihood and force communities to abandon traditional homelands for more accommodating environments. On the other hand, some households may fall (further) into poverty due to climate change, limiting their ability to move to areas less affected.
According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre in 2020 approximately 30 million people were displaced by extreme weather events while approximately 10 million by violence and wars and climate change significantly contributed to this. The United Nations says there are already 64 million migrants in the world fleeing wars, hunger, persecution and the effects of global warming. In 2018, the World Bank estimated that climate change will cause internal migration of between 31 and 143 million people as they escape crop failures, water scarcity, and sea level rise. The study only included Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America.
Asia and the Pacific is the global area most prone to natural disasters, both in terms of the absolute number of disasters and of populations affected. It is highly exposed to climate impacts, and is home to highly vulnerable population groups, who are disproportionately poor and marginalized. A 2015 Asian Development Bank report highlights "environmental hot spots" that are particular risk of flooding, cyclones, typhoons, and water stress.
Gradual but pervasive environmental change and sudden natural disasters both influence the nature and extent of human migration but in different ways. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees stated that climate change increases mass displacement, in many regions, including Sahel, East Africa, South Asia, the "drought corridor" in Latin America. 90% of refugees comes from "climate vulnerable hotspots".
Governments have considered various approaches to reduce migration compelled by environmental conditions in at-risk communities, including programs of social protection, livelihoods development, basic urban infrastructure development, and disaster risk management. Some experts support migration as an appropriate way for people to cope with environmental changes. However, this is controversial because migrants – particularly low-skilled ones – are among the most vulnerable people in society and are often denied basic protections and access to services.
Slow-onset disasters and gradual environmental erosion such as desertification, reduction of soil fertility, coastal erosion and sea-level rise are likely to induce long-term migration. Migration related to desertification and reduced soil fertility is likely to be predominantly from rural areas in developing countries to towns and cities.
Climate change can worsen conflicts by exacerbating tensions over limited resources like drinking water (in the case of water conflicts). Climate change also has the potential to cause large population dislocations and migration, which can also lead to increased tensions. However, factors other than climate change are judged to be substantially more important in affecting conflict. These factors include intergroup inequality and low socio-economic development. In some cases, climate change can even lead to more peaceful relationships between groups, as environmental problems requires common policy to be developed.
Global warming has been described as a "threat multiplier". Certain conditions make it more likely that climate change impacts conflict: ethnic exclusion, an economy dependent on agriculture, insufficient infrastructure, poor local governance, and low levels of development. A spike in wheat prices following crop losses from a period of drought may have contributed to the onset of the "Arab Spring" protests and revolutions in 2010.
Social impacts on vulnerable groups
The impacts of climate change on humans are not distributed uniformly within communities. Individual and social factors such as gender, age, education, ethnicity, geography and language lead to differential vulnerability and capacity to adapt to the effects of climate change. The following more vulnerable groups have been identified:
- People living in poverty: Climate change disproportionally affects poor people in low-income communities and developing countries around the world. Those in poverty have a higher chance of experiencing the ill-effects of climate change due to the increased exposure and vulnerability. A 2020 World Bank paper estimated that between 32 million to 132 million additional people will be pushed into extreme poverty by 2030 due to climate change.
- Women: Climate change increases gender inequality, reduces women's ability to be financially independent, and has an overall negative impact on the social and political rights of women, especially in economies that are heavily based on agriculture.
- Indigenous peoples: Indigenous communities geographically tend to be located in regions more vulnerable to climate change such as native rainforests, the Arctic, and coastal areas. Indigenous communities across the globe generally have economic disadvantages that are not as prevalent in non-indigenous communities due to the ongoing oppression they have experienced. These disadvantages include lower education levels and higher rates of poverty and unemployment, which add to their vulnerability to climate change.
- Children: The Lancet review on health and climate change lists children as the worst-affected category by climate change. Children are also 14–44 percent more likely to die from environmental factors, again leaving them the most vulnerable. Those in urban areas will be affected by lower air quality and overcrowding, and will struggle the most to better their situation.
- Racial minorities: The environmental justice (EJ) movement and climate justice (CJ) movement address environmental racism in bringing attention and enacting change so that marginalized populations are not disproportionately vulnerable to climate change and pollution.
A major challenge for human settlements is sea level rise, indicated by ongoing observation and research of rapid declines in ice-mass balance from both Greenland and Antarctica. Estimates for 2100 are at least twice as large as previously estimated by IPCC AR4, with an upper limit of about two meters. Depending on regional changes, increased precipitation patterns can cause more flooding or extended drought stresses water resources.
A 2020 study projects that regions inhabited by a third of the human population could become as hot as the hottest parts of the Sahara within 50 years without a change in patterns of population growth and without migration, unless greenhouse gas emissions are reduced. The projected annual average temperature of above 29 °C for these regions would be outside the "human temperature niche" – a suggested range for climate biologically suitable for humans based on historical data of mean annual temperatures (MAT) – and the most affected regions have little adaptive capacity as of 2020.
In small islands and megadeltas, inundation as a result of sea level rise is expected to threaten vital infrastructure and human settlements. This could lead to issues of statelessness for populations in countries such as the Maldives and Tuvalu and homelessness in countries with low-lying areas such as Bangladesh.
Projections for cities in 2050
In 2019 the Crowther Lab from ETH Zürich paired the climatic conditions of 520 major cities worldwide with the predicted climatic conditions of cities in 2050. 22% of the major cities are predicted to have climatic conditions that do not exist in any city today. 2050 London will have a climate similar to 2019 Melbourne, Athens and Madrid like Fez, Morocco, Nairobi like Maputo. The Indian city Pune will be like Bamako in Mali, Bamako will be like Niamey in Niger. Brasilia will be like Goiania.
Impacts on people in especially affected regions
The Arctic, Africa, small islands, Asian megadeltas and the Middle East are regions that are likely to be especially affected by climate change. Low-latitude, less-developed regions are at most risk of experiencing negative impacts due to climate change.
The ten countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are among the most vulnerable in the world to the negative effects of climate change, however, ASEAN's climate mitigation efforts are not commensurate with the climate change threats the region faces. Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate variability and change because of multiple existing stresses and low adaptive capacity. Climate change is projected to decrease freshwater availability in central, south, east and southeast Asia, particularly in large river basins. With population growth and increasing demand from higher standards of living, this decrease could adversely affect more than a billion people by the 2050s. Small islands, whether located in the tropics or higher latitudes, are already exposed to extreme weather events and changes in sea level. This existing exposure will likely make these areas sensitive to the effects of climate change.
Developed countries are also vulnerable to climate change, and have already been negatively affected by increases in the severity and frequency of some extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, wildfires, and tropical cyclones.
Low-lying coastal regions
For historical reasons to do with trade, many of the world's largest and most prosperous cities are on the coast. In developing countries, the poorest often live on floodplains, because it is the only available space, or fertile agricultural land. These settlements often lack infrastructure such as dykes and early warning systems. Poorer communities also tend to lack the insurance, savings, or access to credit needed to recover from disasters.
Socioeconomic impacts of climate change in coastal and low-lying areas will be overwhelmingly adverse. The following impacts were projected in 2007 with very high confidence:
- Coastal and low-lying areas would be exposed to increasing risks including coastal erosion due to climate change and sea level rise.
- By the 2080s, millions of people would experience floods every year due to sea level rise. The numbers affected were projected to be largest in the densely populated and low-lying mega-deltas of Asia and Africa; and smaller islands were judged to be especially vulnerable.
Given high coastal population density, estimates of the number of people at risk of coastal flooding from climate-driven sea-level rise varies from 190 million, to 300 million or even 640 million in a worst-case scenario related to the instability of the Antarctic ice sheet. The most people affected are in the densely-populated and low-lying megadeltas of Asia and Africa.
The Greenland ice sheet is estimated to have reached a point of no return, continuing to melt even if warming stopped. Over time that would submerge many of the world's coastal cities including low-lying islands, especially combined with storm surges and high tides.
Small islands developing states are especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, especially sea level rise. They are expected to experience more intense storm surges, salt water intrusion, and coastal destruction. Low-lying small islands in the Pacific, Indian, and Caribbean regions are at risk of permanent inundation and population displacement. On the islands of Fiji, Tonga and western Samoa, concentrations of migrants from outer islands inhabit low and unsafe areas along the coasts.
Atoll nations, which include countries that are composed entirely of the smallest form of islands, called motus, are at risk of entire population displacement. These nations include Kiribati, Maldives, the Marshall Islands, Tokelau, and Tuvalu. Vulnerability is increased by small size, isolation from other land, low financial resources, and lack of protective infrastructure.
A study that engaged the experiences of residents in atoll communities found that the cultural identities of these populations are strongly tied to these lands. Human rights activists argue that the potential loss of entire atoll countries, and consequently the loss of national sovereignty, self-determination, cultures, and indigenous lifestyles cannot be compensated for financially. Some researchers suggest that the focus of international dialogues on these issues should shift from ways to relocate entire communities to strategies that instead allow for these communities to remain on their lands.
- "The Causes of Climate Change". climate.nasa.gov. NASA. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019.
- "Climate Science Special Report / Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4), Volume I". science2017.globalchange.gov. U.S. Global Change Research Program. Archived from the original on 14 December 2019.
- "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). ipcc.ch. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 January 2020.
- "The Study of Earth as an Integrated System". nasa.gov. NASA. 2016. Archived from the original on 2 November 2016.
- Oppenheimer, M., et al., Section 19.7.1: Relationship between Adaptation Efforts, Mitigation Efforts, and Residual Impacts, in: Chapter 19: Emergent risks and key vulnerabilities (archived 20 October 2014), pp.1080–1085, in IPCC AR5 WG2 A 2014
- Oppenheimer, M., et al., Section 126.96.36.199. The Role of Adaptation and Alternative Development Pathways, in: Chapter 19: Emergent risks and key vulnerabilities (archived 20 October 2014), pp.1072–1073, in IPCC AR5 WG2 A 2014
- "The Effects of Climate Change". NASA.gov. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022.
- IPCC SROCC Summary for Policymakers. 2019. p. 9.
- IPCC SRCCL Summary for Policymakers. 2019. p. 9.
- Rosenzweig; et al., "Chapter 1: Assessment of Observed Changes and Responses in Natural and Managed Systems", IPCC AR4 WG2 2007, Executive summary, archived from the original on 23 December 2018, retrieved 28 December 2018
- Pecl, Gretta T.; Araújo, Miguel B.; Bell, Johann D.; Blanchard, Julia; Bonebrake, Timothy C.; Chen, I.-Ching; Clark, Timothy D.; Colwell, Robert K.; Danielsen, Finn; Evengård, Birgitta; Falconi, Lorena (31 March 2017). "Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being". Science. 355 (6332): eaai9214. doi:10.1126/science.aai9214. hdl:10019.1/120851. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 28360268. S2CID 206653576. Archived from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- Settele, J.; Scholes, R.; Betts, R.; Bunn, S.; et al. (2014). "Chapter 4: Terrestrial and Inland Water Systems" (PDF). IPCC AR5 WG2 A 2014. p. 300. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
- Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Jacob, D.; Taylor, M.; Bindi, M.; et al. (2018). "Chapter 3: Impacts of 1.5ºC Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems" (PDF). IPCC SR15 2018. p. 179. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 November 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
- Director, International (15 October 2018). "The Industries and Countries Most Vulnerable to Climate Change". International Director. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
- Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Jacob, D.; Taylor, M.; Bindi, M.; et al. (2018). "Chapter 3: Impacts of 1.5ºC Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems" (PDF). IPCC SR15 2018. pp. 212–213, 228, 252. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 November 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
- Schneider, S.H.; et al., "Ch 19: Assessing Key Vulnerabilities and the Risk from Climate Change", In IPCC AR4 WG2 2007, p. 796, Distribution of Impacts, in: Sec 19.3.7 Update on 'Reasons for Concern', archived from the original on 23 December 2018, retrieved 28 December 2018
- Wilbanks, T.J.; et al., "Ch 7: Industry, Settlement and Society", IPCC AR4 WG2 2007, pp. 373–376, Sec 188.8.131.52 Social issues and Sec 7.4.3 Key vulnerabilities, archived from the original on 23 December 2018, retrieved 28 December 2018
- IPCC SRCCL Summary for Policymakers. 2019. p. 7.
- Climate Change Is Already Driving Mass Migration Around the Globe Archived 18 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Natural Resources Defense Council, 25 January 2019
- Kennedy, John; Ramasamy, Selvaraju; Andrew, Robbie; Arico, Salvatore; Bishop, Erin; Braathen, Geir (2019). WMO statement on the State of the Global Climate in 2018. Geneva: Chairperson, Publications Board, World Meteorological Organization. p. 6. ISBN 978-92-63-11233-0. Archived from the original on 12 November 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. Archived 26 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change p.20
- Davy, Richard; Esau, Igor; Chernokulsky, Alexander; Outten, Stephen; Zilitinkevich, Sergej (2017). "Diurnal asymmetry to the observed global warming". International Journal of Climatology. 37 (1): 79–93. Bibcode:2017IJCli..37...79D. doi:10.1002/joc.4688. ISSN 1097-0088.
- Schneider; et al., "Chapter 19: Assessing key vulnerabilities and the risk from climate change", Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007, Sec. 19.3.1 Introduction to Table 19.1, archived from the original on 23 December 2018, retrieved 28 December 2018, in IPCC AR4 WG2 2007.
- Joyce, Christopher (30 August 2018). "To Predict Effects Of Global Warming, Scientists Looked Back 20,000 Years". NPR. Archived from the original on 29 December 2019. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- Overpeck, J.T. (20 August 2008), NOAA Paleoclimatology Global Warming – The Story: Proxy Data, NOAA Paleoclimatology Program – NCDC Paleoclimatology Branch, archived from the original on 3 February 2017, retrieved 20 November 2012
- The 20th century was the hottest in nearly 2,000 years, studies show Archived 25 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine, 25 July 2019
- Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K. R.; Duplessy, J.-C.; et al. "Chapter 6: Palaeoclimate". In IPCC AR4 WG1 2007. Sec. 6.3.2 What Does the Record of the Mid-Pliocene Show?. Archived from the original on 23 December 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- Oppenheimer, M.; Glavovic, B.; Hinkel, J.; van de Wal, R.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 4: Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low Lying Islands, Coasts and Communities" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. p. 323. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- "By 2500 earth could be alien to humans". Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News. 14 October 2021. Archived from the original on 18 October 2021. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
- Lyon, Christopher; Saupe, Erin E.; Smith, Christopher J.; Hill, Daniel J.; Beckerman, Andrew P.; Stringer, Lindsay C.; Marchant, Robert; McKay, James; Burke, Ariane; O'Higgins, Paul; Dunhill, Alexander M.; Allen, Bethany J.; Riel-Salvatore, Julien; Aze, Tracy (2021). "Climate change research and action must look beyond 2100". Global Change Biology. 28 (2): 349–361. doi:10.1111/gcb.15871. ISSN 1365-2486. PMID 34558764. S2CID 237616583.
- Thomas R. Karl; Jerry M. Melillo; Thomas C. Peterson (eds.). "Global Climate Change". Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (PDF). pp. 22–24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 November 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
- "In-depth Q&A: The IPCC's sixth assessment report on climate science". Carbon Brief. 9 August 2021. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (November 2010), "Ch 2: Which emissions pathways are consistent with a 2 °C or a 1.5 °C temperature limit?: Sec 2.2 What determines long-term temperature?" (PDF), The Emissions Gap Report: Are the Copenhagen Accord pledges sufficient to limit global warming to 2 °C or 1.5 °C? A preliminary assessment (advance copy), UNEP, archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2011, p.28. This publication is also available in e-book format Archived 25 November 2010 at the Library of Congress Web Archives
- Collins, M.; Knutti, R.; Arblaster, J. M.; Dufresne, J.-L.; et al. (2013). "Chapter 12: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility" (PDF). IPCC AR5 WG1 2013. p. 1104. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- "Temperatures". Climate Action Tracker. 9 November 2021. Archived from the original on 26 January 2022.
- Hausfather, Zeke (21 June 2017). "Study: Why troposphere warming differs between models and satellite data". Carbon Brief. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- "Climate change: evidence and causes | Royal Society". royalsociety.org. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- Rosenzweig; et al., "Chapter 1: Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems", Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007, Sec. 184.108.40.206 Summary of disasters and hazards, archived from the original on 23 December 2018, retrieved 28 December 2018, in IPCC AR4 WG2 2007.
- Effects of Global Warming Archived 6 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Live Science, 12 August 2017
- The science connecting extreme weather to climate change Archived 25 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Fact sheet: Union of Concerned Scientists, June 2018.
- IPCC AR6 WG1 Ch8 2021, p. 8-6, line 51
- IPCC AR6 WG1 Ch8 2021, p. 8-6,8–119
- "Summary for policymakers", In IPCC SREX 2012, p. 8, archived from the original on 27 June 2019, retrieved 17 December 2012
- This article incorporates public domain material from the NOAA document: NOAA (February 2007). "Will the wet get wetter and the dry drier?" (PDF). GFDL Climate Modeling Research Highlights. 1 (5).. Revision 10/15/2008, 4:47:16 PM.
- IPCC, Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers, Section 3: Projected climate change and its impacts, in IPCC AR4 SYR 2007.
- NOAA (February 2007). "Will the wet get wetter and the dry drier?" (PDF). GFDL Climate Modeling Research Highlights. 1 (5): 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2013.
- "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2021. p. SPM-23 Fig. SPM.6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 November 2021.
- Global Warming Makes Heat Waves More Likely, Study Finds Archived 7 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine 10 July 2012 The New York Times
- Hansen, J; Sato, M; Ruedy, R (2012). "Perception of climate change". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (37): E2415–23. Bibcode:2012PNAS..109E2415H. doi:10.1073/pnas.1205276109. PMC 3443154. PMID 22869707.
- Heat wave: meteorology Archived 15 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- "Heat Waves: The Details". Climate Communication. Archived from the original on 12 July 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
- Coumou, D.; Robinson, A.; Rahmstorf, S. (2013). "Global increase in record-breaking monthly-mean temperatures". Climatic Change. 118 (3–4): 771. Bibcode:2013ClCh..118..771C. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0668-1. S2CID 121209624.
- IPCC (2013), Table SPM.1, in Summary for Policymakers, p. 5 (archived PDF), in IPCC AR5 WG1 2013
- Stocker, T.F., et al. (2013), Temperature Extremes, Heat Waves and Warm Spells, in: TFE.9, in: Technical Summary, p. 111 (archived PDF), in IPCC AR5 WG1 2013
- "Summary for Policymakers". Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis (PDF). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2021. p. SPM-10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 November 2021.
- NOAA (16 February 2022). "Understanding the Arctic polar vortex". www.climate.gov. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- "How global warming can cause Europe's harsh winter weather". Deutsche Welle. 11 February 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
- "Climate change: Arctic warming linked to colder winters". BBC News. 2 September 2021. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
- Cohen, Judah; Agel, Laurie; Barlow, Mathew; Garfinkel, Chaim I.; White, Ian (3 September 2021). "Linking Arctic variability and change with extreme winter weather in the United States". Science. 373 (6559): 1116–1121. Bibcode:2021Sci...373.1116C. doi:10.1126/science.abi9167. PMID 34516838. S2CID 237402139.
- Douglas, Erin (14 December 2021). "Winters get warmer with climate change. So what explains Texas' cold snap in February?". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
- Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; et al. (July 2012). "The New Climate Dice: Public Perception of Climate Change" (PDF). New York, USA: Dr James E. Hansen, Columbia University. pp. 3–4.
- Christensen, J.H.,et al. (2013), Cyclones, in: Executive Summary, in: Chapter 14: Climate Phenomena and their Relevance for Future Regional Climate Change, p. 1220 (archived PDF), in IPCC AR5 WG1 2013
- Collins, M.; Sutherland, M.; Bouwer, L.; Cheong, S. M.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 6: Extremes, Abrupt Changes and Managing Risks" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. p. 592. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
- Del Genio, Tony (2007). "Will moist convection be stronger in a warmer climate?". Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (16): L16703. Bibcode:2007GeoRL..3416703D. doi:10.1029/2007GL030525.
- US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "What is high tide flooding?". oceanservice.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 16 October 2020. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
- IPCC AR6 WG1 Ch8 2021, p. 8-6, line 28; 8–119, line 18
- Pörtner, Hans-O.; Roberts, Debra; Adam, Helen; Adler, Caroline; et al. "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. In Press. ¶SPM.B.4.5.
- Arnell, Nigel W.; Gosling, Simon N. (1 February 2016). "The impacts of climate change on river flood risk at the global scale". Climatic Change. 134 (3): 387–401. Bibcode:2016ClCh..134..387A. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1084-5. ISSN 1573-1480.
- Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Mahendran, Roobavannan; Koirala, Sujan; Konoshima, Lisako; Yamazaki, Dai; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kim, Hyungjun; Kanae, Shinjiro (2013). "Global flood risk under climate change". Nature Climate Change. 3 (9): 816–821. Bibcode:2013NatCC...3..816H. doi:10.1038/nclimate1911. ISSN 1758-6798.
- Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Willems, Patrick (November 2020). "Climate change impact on short-duration extreme precipitation and intensity–duration–frequency curves over Europe". Journal of Hydrology. 590: 125249. Bibcode:2020JHyd..59025249H. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125249. S2CID 224947610.
- Syed, T. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Chambers, D. P.; Willis, J. K.; Hilburn, K. (2010). "Satellite-based global-ocean mass balance estimates of interannual variability and emerging trends in continental freshwater discharge". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (42): 17916–17921. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10717916S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1003292107. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 2964215. PMID 20921364.
- IPCC AR6 WG1 Ch8 2021, p. 8-6, line 37
- Cook, Benjamin I.; Mankin, Justin S.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J. (12 May 2018). "Climate Change and Drought: From Past to Future". Current Climate Change Reports. 4 (2): 164–179. doi:10.1007/s40641-018-0093-2. ISSN 2198-6061. S2CID 53624756.
- Mukherjee, Sourav; Mishra, Ashok; Trenberth, Kevin E. (23 April 2018). "Climate Change and Drought: a Perspective on Drought Indices". Current Climate Change Reports. 4 (2): 145–163. doi:10.1007/s40641-018-0098-x. ISSN 2198-6061. S2CID 134811844.
- Mishra, A. K.; Singh, V. P. (2011). "Drought modeling – A review". Journal of Hydrology. 403 (1–2): 157–175. Bibcode:2011JHyd..403..157M. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.03.049.
- IPCC SRCCL 2019, pp. 7, 8
- IPCC SRCCL Summary for Policymakers 2019, p. 7,8
- "Wildfire acres burned in the United States". OurWorldInData. 2021. Archived from the original on 12 October 2021. Data published by National Interagency Coordination Center; National Interagency Fire Center. (archive of NIFC data)
- Jones, Matthew; Smith, Adam; Betts, Richard; Canadell, Josep; Prentice, Collin; Le Quéré, Corrine. "Climate Change Increases the Risk of Wildfires". ScienceBrief. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
- Dunne, Daisy (14 July 2020). "Explainer: How climate change is affecting wildfires around the world". Carbon Brief. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
- "Summary for Policymakers". Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis (PDF). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2021. p. SPM-20. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 November 2021.
- State of the Climate in 2009, as appearing in the July 2010 issue (Vol. 91) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS). Supplemental and Summary Materials: Report at a Glance: Highlights (PDF). Website of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: National Climatic Data Center. July 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
- "NOAA: NESDIS: NCDC: Frequently Asked Questions: How do we know the Earth's climate is warming?". NOAA. 10 March 2010.
- Summary for Policymakers (SPM) (PDF). IPCC (Report). Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCC). 25 September 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- Bindoff, N. L.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Kairo, J. G.; Arístegui, J.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 5: Changing Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, and Dependent Communities" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. p. 471. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Freedman, Andrew (29 September 2020). "Mixing of the planet's ocean waters is slowing down, speeding up global warming, study finds". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 15 October 2020. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
- Crowley, T. J.; North, G. R. (May 1988). "Abrupt Climate Change and Extinction Events in Earth History". Science. 240 (4855): 996–1002. Bibcode:1988Sci...240..996C. doi:10.1126/science.240.4855.996. PMID 17731712. S2CID 44921662.
- Shaffer, G. .; Olsen, S. M.; Pedersen, J. O. P. (2009). "Long-term ocean oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels". Nature Geoscience. 2 (2): 105–109. Bibcode:2009NatGe...2..105S. doi:10.1038/ngeo420.
- IPCC (2021). "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. A.1.7.
- WCRP Global Sea Level Budget Group (2018). "Global sea-level budget 1993–present". Earth System Science Data. 10 (3): 1551–1590. Bibcode:2018ESSD...10.1551W. doi:10.5194/essd-10-1551-2018.
This corresponds to a mean sea-level rise of about 7.5 cm over the whole altimetry period. More importantly, the GMSL curve shows a net acceleration, estimated to be at 0.08mm/yr2.
- Mengel, Matthias; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Robinson, Alexander; Marzeion, Ben; Winkelmann, Ricarda (8 March 2016). "Future sea level rise constrained by observations and long-term commitment". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (10): 2597–2602. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113.2597M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1500515113. PMC 4791025. PMID 26903648.
- Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Hewitt, Helene T.; Xiao, Cunde; et al. (2021). "Chapter 9: Ocean, Cryosphere, and Sea Level Change" (PDF). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate. Cambridge University Press. Executive Summary.
- Caldeira, K.; Wickett, M. E. (2003). "Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH". Nature. 425 (6956): 365. Bibcode:2001AGUFMOS11C0385C. doi:10.1038/425365a. PMID 14508477. S2CID 4417880.
- "Ocean Acidification". www.whoi.edu/. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), economic and population scenarios predict that atmospheric CO2 levels could reach 500 ppm by 2050 and 800 ppm or more by the end of the century. This will [reduce] the pH an estimated 0.3 to 0.4 units by 2100, a 150 percent increase in acidity over preindustrial times.
- "Ocean acidification | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration". www.noaa.gov. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- Jacobson, M. Z. (2005). "Studying ocean acidification with conservative, stable numerical schemes for nonequilibrium air-ocean exchange and ocean equilibrium chemistry". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 110: D07302. Bibcode:2005JGRD..11007302J. doi:10.1029/2004JD005220.
- Hall-Spencer, J. M.; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Martin, S.; et al. (July 2008). "Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification". Nature. 454 (7200): 96–9. Bibcode:2008Natur.454...96H. doi:10.1038/nature07051. hdl:10026.1/1345. PMID 18536730. S2CID 9375062.
- "Report of the Ocean Acidification and Oxygen Working Group, International Council for Science's Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR) Biological Observatories Workshop" (PDF).
- Riebeek, H.. design by R. Simmon (9 May 2006). "Paleoclimatology: Explaining the Evidence: Explaining Rapid Climate Change: Tales from the Ice". NASA Earth Observatory. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- CCSP (2008b). Abrupt Climate Change. A report by the US Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Reston, VA: US Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013.
- Schneider; et al., "Chapter 19: Assessing key vulnerabilities and the risk from climate change", In IPCC AR4 WG2 2007, Sec. 220.127.116.11 Possible changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC), archived from the original on 23 December 2018, retrieved 28 December 2018
- Collins, M.; Sutherland, M.; Bouwer, L.; Cheong, S. M.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 6: Extremes, Abrupt Changes and Managing Risks" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. p. 592. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
- Slater, Thomas; Lawrence, Isobel R.; Otosaka, Inès N.; Shepherd, Andrew; et al. (25 January 2021). "Review article: Earth's ice imbalance". The Cryosphere. 15 (1): 233–246. Bibcode:2021TCry...15..233S. doi:10.5194/tc-15-233-2021. ISSN 1994-0416. S2CID 234098716. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021. Fig. 4.
- Getting to Know the Cryosphere Archived 15 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Earth Labs
- IPCC (2019). "Technical Summary" (PDF). In Pörtner, H.-O.; Roberts, D.C.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Zhai, P.; et al. (eds.). IPCC SROCC 2019. pp. 39–69. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
- Mass Balance of Mountain Glaciers in 2011, archived from the original on 14 June 2013, retrieved 20 March 2013, in Kennedy 2012
- Glavovic, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Abd-Elgawad, A.; Cai, R.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 4: Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low Lying Islands, Coasts and Communities" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. p. 234. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 November 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Hewitt, Helene T.; Xiao, Cunde; et al. (2021). "Chapter 9: Ocean, Cryosphere, and Sea Level Change" (PDF). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate. Cambridge University Press. Executive Summary.
- Collins, M.; Sutherland, M.; Bouwer, L.; Cheong, S. M.; Frölicher, T.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 6: Extremes, Abrupt Changes and Managing Risks" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. pp. 595–596. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
- Meredith, M.; Sommerkorn, M.; Cassotta, S.; Derksen, C.; Ekaykin, A.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 3: Polar Regions" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. pp. 244–246. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
- Glavovic, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Abd-Elgawad, A.; Cai, R.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 4: Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low Lying Islands, Coasts and Communities" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. p. 363. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 November 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- Glavovic, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Abd-Elgawad, A.; Cai, R.; Cifuentes-Jara, M.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 4: Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low Lying Islands, Coasts and Communities" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. p. 362. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 November 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- "Thermodynamics: Albedo | National Snow and Ice Data Center". nsidc.org. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
- "Arctic Report Card 2012". NOAA. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "NOAA: NESDIS: NCDC: Frequently Asked Questions: Is the climate warming?". NOAA. 10 March 2010.
- Impacts of a melting cryosphere ice loss around the world Archived 15 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Carbon Brief, 9 June 2011
- 2011 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum, archived from the original on 14 June 2013, retrieved 20 March 2013, in Kennedy 2012
- Kwok, R. (12 October 2018). "Arctic sea ice thickness, volume, and multiyear ice coverage: losses and coupled variability (1958–2018)". Environmental Research Letters. 13 (10): 105005. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aae3ec. ISSN 1748-9326.
- IPCC (2018). "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). IPCC SR15 2018. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 July 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
- IPCC AR6 WG1 Ch9 2021, p. 9-6
- Watts, Jonathan (27 February 2018). "Arctic warming: scientists alarmed by 'crazy' temperature rises". The Guardian.
- Romanovsky, Vladimir. "How rapidly is permafrost changing and what are the impacts of these changes?". NOAA. Retrieved 6 December 2007.
- Paton Walsh, Nick (10 June 2005). "Shrinking lakes of Siberia blamed on global warming". The Guardian.
- IPCC AR6 WG1 Ch9 2021, p. 9-8
- Koven, Charles D.; Riley, William J.; Stern, Alex (1 October 2012). "Analysis of Permafrost Thermal Dynamics and Response to Climate Change in the CMIP5 Earth System Models". Journal of Climate. 26 (6): 1877–1900. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00228.1. ISSN 0894-8755. OSTI 1172703.
- Nelson, F. E.; Anisimov, O. A.; Shiklomanov, N. I. (1 July 2002). "Climate Change and Hazard Zonation in the Circum-Arctic Permafrost Regions". Natural Hazards. 26 (3): 203–225. doi:10.1023/A:1015612918401. ISSN 1573-0840. S2CID 35672358.
- Barry, Roger Graham; Gan, Thian-Yew (2021). The global cryosphere past, present and future (Second revised ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom. ISBN 978-1-108-48755-9. OCLC 1256406954.
- The Natural Fix?: The Role of Ecosystems in Climate Mitigation UNEP 2009 page. 20, 55
- Díaz, S.; et al. (2019). Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (PDF). Bonn, Germany: ISBES secretariat. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 July 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Díaz, S.; et al. (2019). Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (PDF). Bonn, Germany: ISBES secretariat. p. 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 July 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Van Riper, Charles. (2014) Projecting Climate Effects on Birds and Reptiles of the Southwestern United States. Archived 23 July 2021 at the Wayback Machine Reston, Va.: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
- Rosenzweig, C. (December 2008). "Science Briefs: Warming Climate is Changing Life on Global Scale". Website of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Archived from the original on 4 April 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- February 23; Denchak, 2017 Melissa. "Global Climate Change: What You Need to Know". NRDC. Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- Fischlin; et al., "Chapter 4: Ecosystems, their properties, goods and services", Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007, Sec. 4.4.11 Global synthesis including impacts on biodiversity, archived from the original on 28 December 2018, retrieved 28 December 2018, in IPCC AR4 WG2 2007.
- Settele, J.; Scholes, R.; Betts, R.; Bunn, S.; et al. (2014). "Chapter 4: Terrestrial and Inland Water Systems" (PDF). IPCC AR5 WG2 A 2014. p. 275. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
- Butler, Rhett A. (31 March 2021). "Global forest loss increases in 2020". Mongabay. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. ● Mongabay graphing WRI data from "Forest Loss / How much tree cover is lost globally each year?". research.WRI.org. World Resources Institute — Global Forest Review. January 2021. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021.
- Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Nobre, Carlos (2019). "Amazon tipping point: Last chance for action". Science Advances. 5 (12): eaba2949. Bibcode:2019SciA....5A2949L. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aba2949. PMC 6989302. PMID 32064324.
- "Ecosystems the size of Amazon 'can collapse within decades'". The Guardian. 10 March 2020. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- Cooper, Gregory S.; Willcock, Simon; Dearing, John A. (10 March 2020). "Regime shifts occur disproportionately faster in larger ecosystems". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 1175. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.1175C. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-15029-x. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7064493. PMID 32157098.
- Smale, Dan A.; Wernberg, Thomas; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Thomsen, Mads; Harvey, Ben P.; Straub, Sandra C.; Burrows, Michael T.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Donat, Markus G.; Feng, Ming (2019). "Marine heatwaves threaten global biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services". Nature Climate Change. 9 (4): 306–312. Bibcode:2019NatCC...9..306S. doi:10.1038/s41558-019-0412-1. ISSN 1758-6798. S2CID 91471054. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
- Bindoff, N. L.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Kairo, J. G.; Arístegui, J.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 5: Changing Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, and Dependent Communities" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. p. 451. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
- Riebesell, Ulf; Körtzinger, Arne; Oschlies, Andreas (2009). "Sensitivities of marine carbon fluxes to ocean change". PNAS. 106 (49): 20602–20609. doi:10.1073/pnas.0813291106. PMC 2791567. PMID 19995981.
- Bindoff, N. L.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Kairo, J. G.; Arístegui, J.; Guinder, V. A.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 5: Changing Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, and Dependent Communities" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. p. 450. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Jacob, D.; Taylor, M.; Bindi, M.; et al. (2018). "Chapter 3: Impacts of 1.5ºC Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems" (PDF). IPCC SR15 2018. p. 266. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 November 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
- Kopp, R. E.; Hayhoe, K.; Easterling, D.R.; Hall, T.; et al. (2017). "Chapter 15: Potential Surprises: Compound Extremes and Tipping Elements". In USGCRP 2017 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFUSGCRP2017 (help). US National Climate Assessment. p. 411. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018.
- Kopp, R. E.; Hayhoe, K.; Easterling, D.R.; Hall, T.; et al. (2017). "Chapter 15: Potential Surprises: Compound Extremes and Tipping Elements". In USGCRP 2017 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFUSGCRP2017 (help). US National Climate Assessment. p. 417. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018.
- Carrington, Damian (27 November 2019). "Climate emergency: world 'may have crossed tipping points'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 January 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Jacob, D.; Taylor, M.; Bindi, M.; et al. (2018). "Chapter 3: Impacts of 1.5ºC Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems" (PDF). IPCC SR15 2018. pp. 254, 258. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 November 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
- Lontzek, Thomas S.; Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L.; Lenton, Timothy M. (2015). "Stochastic integrated assessment of climate tipping points indicates the need for strict climate policy". Nature Climate Change. 5 (5): 441–444. Bibcode:2015NatCC...5..441L. doi:10.1038/nclimate2570. hdl:10871/35041. ISSN 1758-6798. Archived from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
- Lenton, Timothy M.; Rockström, Johan; Gaffney, Owen; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Richardson, Katherine; Steffen, Will; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim (2019). "Climate tipping points — too risky to bet against". Nature. 575 (7784): 592–595. Bibcode:2019Natur.575..592L. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03595-0. PMID 31776487.
- Carrington, Damian (3 June 2021). "Climate tipping points could topple like dominoes, warn scientists". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
- C. Rocha, Juan; Peterson, Garry; Bodin, Örjan; Levin, Simon (21 December 2018). "Cascading regime shifts within and across scales". Science. 362 (6421): 1379–1383. Bibcode:2018Sci...362.1379R. doi:10.1126/science.aat7850. PMID 30573623. S2CID 56582186.
- Watts, Jonathan (20 December 2018). "Risks of 'domino effect' of tipping points greater than thought, study says". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
- Schneider; et al., "Chapter 19: Assessing key vulnerabilities and the risk from climate change", In IPCC AR4 WG2 2007, Sec.19.2 Criteria for selecting 'key' vulnerabilities: Persistence and reversibility, archived from the original on 23 December 2018, retrieved 28 December 2018
- Sabūnas, Audrius; Miyashita, Takuya; Fukui, Nobuki; Shimura, Tomoya; Mori, Nobuhito (10 November 2021). "Impact Assessment of Storm Surge and Climate Change-Enhanced Sea Level Rise on Atoll Nations: A Case Study of the Tarawa Atoll, Kiribati". Frontiers in Built Environment. doi:10.3389/fbuil.2021.752599. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
- Barnett, J; WN Adger (2003). "Climate dangers and atoll countries" (PDF). Climatic Change. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 61 (3): 321–337. doi:10.1023/b:clim.0000004559.08755.88. S2CID 55644531. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2011. This paper was published in 2001 as Tyndall Centre Working Paper 9 Archived 16 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Human Health: Impacts, Adaptation, and Co-Benefits — IPCC". Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- "Water and the global climate crisis: 10 things you should know". www.unicef.org. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
- "WHO calls for urgent action to protect health from climate change – Sign the call". www.who.int. World Health Organization. 2015. Archived from the original on 8 October 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
- Marina Romanello; et al. (2021). "The 2021 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: code red for a healthy future" (PDF). The Lancet. 398 (10311): 1619–1662. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01787-6. hdl:10278/3746207. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 34687662. S2CID 239046862.
- McMichael, Anthony J; Woodruff, Rosalie E; Hales, Simon (March 2006). "Climate change and human health: present and future risks". The Lancet. 367 (9513): 859–869. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(06)68079-3. ISSN 0140-6736.
- Easterling; et al., "Chapter 5: Food, Fibre, and Forest Products", In IPCC AR4 WG2 2007, p. 282, archived from the original on 23 December 2018, retrieved 28 December 2018
- Ding, Y.; Hayes, M. J.; Widhalm, M. (2011). "Measuring economic impacts of drought: A review and discussion". Disaster Prevention and Management. 20 (4): 434–446. doi:10.1108/09653561111161752. Archived from the original on 23 July 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
- IPCC SRCCL Summary for Policymakers 2019, p. 5.
- Mbow, C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Barioni, L. G.; Benton, T.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 5: Food Security" (PDF). IPCC SRCCL 2019. p. 442. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
- IPCC (2019). "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 November 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- Bindoff, N. L.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Kairo, J. G.; Arístegui, J.; Guinder, V. A.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 5: Changing Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, and Dependent Communities" (PDF). IPCC SROCC 2019. p. 504. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- Caretta, Martina Angela; Mukherji, Aditi; et al. "Chapter 4: Water" (PDF). Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. FAQ4.1.
- Jiménez Cisneros, B. E.; Oki, T.; Arnell, N. W.; Benito, G.; et al. (2014). "Chapter 3: Freshwater Resources" (PDF). IPCC AR5 WG2 A 2014. p. 251. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- Caretta, M.A., A. Mukherji, M. Arfanuzzaman, R.A. Betts, A. Gelfan, Y. Hirabayashi, T.K. Lissner, J. Liu, E. Lopez Gunn, R. Morgan, S. Mwanga, and S. Supratid, 2022: Water (Chapter 4). In: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. In Press.
- Grey, David; Sadoff, Claudia W. (2007). "Sink or Swim? Water security for growth and development" (PDF). Water Policy. 9 (6): 545–571. doi:10.2166/wp.2007.021. ISSN 1366-7017.
- Sadoff, Claudia; Grey, David; Borgomeo, Edoardo (2020), "Water Security", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199389414.013.609, ISBN 978-0-19-938941-4, retrieved 12 April 2022
- UN-Water (2013) Water Security & the Global Water Agenda - A UN-Water Analytical Brief, ISBN 978-92-808-6038-2, United Nations University
- O'Brien, Karen L; Leichenko, Robin M (1 October 2000). "Double exposure: assessing the impacts of climate change within the context of economic globalization". Global Environmental Change. 10 (3): 221–232. doi:10.1016/S0959-3780(00)00021-2. ISSN 0959-3780.
- Zhang, Li; Chen, Fu; Lei, Yongdeng (2020). "Climate change and shifts in cropping systems together exacerbate China's water scarcity". Environmental Research Letters. 15 (10): 104060. Bibcode:2020ERL....15j4060Z. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/abb1f2. S2CID 225127981.
- Cramer, Wolfgang; Guiot, Joël; Fader, Marianela; Garrabou, Joaquim; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Iglesias, Ana; Lange, Manfred A.; Lionello, Piero; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Paz, Shlomit; Peñuelas, Josep; Snoussi, Maria; Toreti, Andrea; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Xoplaki, Elena (November 2018). "Climate change and interconnected risks to sustainable development in the Mediterranean". Nature Climate Change. 8 (11): 972–980. Bibcode:2018NatCC...8..972C. doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0299-2. ISSN 1758-6798. S2CID 92556045.
- "MOTION FOR A RESOLUTION on the 2021 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow, UK (COP26)". www.europarl.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- Watts, Jonathan (5 May 2020). "One billion people will live in insufferable heat within 50 years – study". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 May 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- Xu, Chi; M. Lenton, Timothy; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Scheffer, Marten (26 May 2020). "Future of the human climate niche". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 117 (21): 11350–11355. doi:10.1073/pnas.1910114117. PMC 7260949. PMID 32366654.
- Ripple, William J.; Wolf, Christopher; Newsome, Thomas M.; Barnard, Phoebe; Moomaw, William R. (2020). "World Scientists' Warning of a Climate Emergency". BioScience. 70 (1): 8–12. doi:10.1093/biosci/biz088. ISSN 0006-3568. Archived from the original on 15 April 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
- World Scientists' Warning of a Climate Emergency, William J Ripple, Christopher Wolf, Thomas M Newsome, Phoebe Barnard, William R Moomaw. BioScience, biz088, https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biz088. A correction has been published: BioScience, biz152 Archived 7 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine, https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biz152 Archived 28 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine
- Scientists Around the World Declare 'Climate Emergency' Archived 16 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Smithsonian Magazine, 5 November 2019
- Climate change could pose 'existential threat' by 2050: report Archived 27 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine, CNN, 5 June 2019.
- Climate tipping points — too risky to bet against Archived 5 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Nature, 27 November 2019.
- Greta Thunberg showed the world what it means to lead Archived 2021-10-29 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 25 September 2019
- Kompas, Tom; Pham, Van Ha; Che, Tuong Nhu (2018). "The Effects of Climate Change on GDP by Country and the Global Economic Gains From Complying With the Paris Climate Accord". Earth's Future. 6 (8): 1153–1173. Bibcode:2018EaFut...6.1153K. doi:10.1029/2018EF000922. ISSN 2328-4277.
- Bouwer, Laurens M. (2019), Mechler, Reinhard; Bouwer, Laurens M.; Schinko, Thomas; Surminski, Swenja (eds.), "Observed and Projected Impacts from Extreme Weather Events: Implications for Loss and Damage", Loss and Damage from Climate Change: Concepts, Methods and Policy Options, Climate Risk Management, Policy and Governance, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 63–82, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-72026-5_3, ISBN 978-3-319-72026-5
- IPCC, Synthesis Report, Question 2, Sections 2.25 and 2.26, archived from the original on 5 March 2016, retrieved 21 June 2012, p. 55, IPCC TAR SYR 2001 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFIPCC_TAR_SYR2001 (help).
- Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Burke, Marshall (2019). "Global warming has increased global economic inequality". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (20): 9808–9813. doi:10.1073/pnas.1816020116. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6525504. PMID 31010922.
- Begum, Rawshan Ara; Lempert, Robert; et al. "Chapter 1: Point of Departure and Key Concept" (PDF). Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Section 18.104.22.168.
- *IPCC (2014). "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). IPCC AR5 WG2 A 2014. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
- Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Jacob, D.; Taylor, M.; Bindi, M.; et al. (2018). "Chapter 3: Impacts of 1.5 ºC Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems" (PDF). IPCC SR15 2018. p. 256. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 November 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
- Koning Beals, Rachel. "Global GDP will suffer at least a 3% hit by 2050 from unchecked climate change, say economists". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- Dr. Frauke Urban and Dr. Tom Mitchell 2011. Climate change, disasters and electricity generation Archived 20 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. London: Overseas Development Institute and Institute of Development Studies
- Nichols, Will; Clisby, Rory. "40% of Oil and Gas Reserves Threatened by Climate Change". Verisk Maplecroft. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
- Surminski, Swenja; Bouwer, Laurens M.; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne (2016). "How insurance can support climate resilience". Nature Climate Change. 6 (4): 333–334. Bibcode:2016NatCC...6..333S. doi:10.1038/nclimate2979. ISSN 1758-6798.
- Neslen, Arthur (21 March 2019). "Climate change could make insurance too expensive for most people – report". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- Studies Show Climate Change Melting Permafrost Under Runways in Western Arctic Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine Weber, Bob Airportbusiness.com October 2007
- Kaczan, David J.; Orgill-Meyer, Jennifer (2020). "The impact of climate change on migration: a synthesis of recent empirical insights". Climatic Change. 158 (3): 281–300. Bibcode:2020ClCh..158..281K. doi:10.1007/s10584-019-02560-0. ISSN 1573-1480. S2CID 207988694.
- GRID Internal displacement in a changing climate (PDF). Internal Displacement Monitoring Center. 2021. pp. 42–53. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
- Niranjan, Ajit (21 May 2021). "Extreme Weather Displaces Record Numbers of People as Temperatures Rise". Ecowatch. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
- Environmental Migrants: Up To 1 Billion By 2050, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climactici (CMCC)
- 143 Million People May Soon Become Climate Migrants Archived 19 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, National Geographic, 19 March 2018
- Kumari Rigaud, Kanta; de Sherbinin, Alex; Jones, Bryan; et al. (2018). Groundswell: preparing for internal climate migration (PDF). Washington DC: The World Bank. p. xxi. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- "Addressing Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific: Final Report" (PDF). Asian Development Bank. 6 April 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- Cheshirkov, Boris. "Climate change fuels violence and mass displacement in Cameroon". United Nations. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
- "First wave". Science News. 28 February 2009. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Environmental Migrants: Up To 1 Billion By 2050 Archived 19 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climactici (CMCC)
- The World Bank, "Part One: Chapter 2: Reducing Human Vulnerability: Helping People Help Themselves" (PDF), Managing social risks: Empower communities to protect themselves, archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2011, retrieved 29 August 2011, p. 109, WDR 2010 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWDR2010 (help).
- Koubi, Vally (2019). "Climate Change and Conflict". Annual Review of Political Science. 22: 343–360. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-050317-070830.
- Burrows, Kate; Kinney, Patrick L. (April 2016). "Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13 (4): 443. doi:10.3390/ijerph13040443. PMC 4847105. PMID 27110806.
- Mach, Katharine J.; Kraan, Caroline M.; Adger, W. Neil; Buhaug, Halvard; Burke, Marshall; Fearon, James D.; Field, Christopher B.; Hendrix, Cullen S.; Maystadt, Jean-Francois; O'Loughlin, John; Roessler, Philip (2019). "Climate as a risk factor for armed conflict". Nature. 571 (7764): 193–197. Bibcode:2019Natur.571..193M. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1300-6. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 31189956. S2CID 186207310. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
- Birkmann, Joern; Liwenga, Emma; Pandey, Rajiv; et al. "Chapter 8: Poverty, Livelihoods and Sustainable Developmen" (PDF). Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Box 8.4.
- Spaner, J S; LeBali, H (October 2013). "The Next Security Frontier". Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute. 139 (10): 30–35. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Perez, Ines (4 March 2013). "Climate Change and Rising Food Prices Heightened Arab Spring". Republished with permission by Scientific American. Environment & Energy Publishing, LLC. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
- Rayner, S. and E.L. Malone (2001). "Climate Change, Poverty, and Intragernerational Equity: The National Leve". International Journal of Global Environmental Issues. 1. I (2): 175–202. doi:10.1504/IJGENVI.2001.000977.
- "Revised Estimates of the Impact of Climate Change on Extreme Poverty by 2030" (PDF). September 2020.
- Eastin, Joshua (1 July 2018). "Climate change and gender equality in developing states". World Development. 107: 289–305. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.02.021. ISSN 0305-750X. S2CID 89614518.
- Goli, Imaneh; Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Lashgarara, Farhad (9 March 2020). "Where are We Standing and Where Should We Be Going? Gender and Climate Change Adaptation Behavior". Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 33 (2): 187–218. doi:10.1007/s10806-020-09822-3. ISSN 1573-322X. S2CID 216404045.
- McGregor, Deborah; Whitaker, Steven; Sritharan, Mahisha (1 April 2020). "Indigenous environmental justice and sustainability". Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 43: 35–40. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2020.01.007. ISSN 1877-3435.
- Ford, James D. (17 May 2012). "Indigenous Health and Climate Change". American Journal of Public Health. 102 (7): 1260–1266. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300752. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 3477984. PMID 22594718.
- Watts, Nick; Amann, Markus; Arnell, Nigel; Ayeb-Karlsson, Sonja; Belesova, Kristine; Boykoff, Maxwell; Byass, Peter; Cai, Wenjia; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Capstick, Stuart; Chambers, Jonathan (16 November 2019). "The 2019 report of The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: ensuring that the health of a child born today is not defined by a changing climate". Lancet. 394 (10211): 1836–1878. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32596-6. ISSN 1474-547X. PMID 31733928. S2CID 207976337.
- Bartlett, Sheridan (2008). "Climate change and urban children: Impacts and implications for adaptation in low- and middle-income countries". Environment and Urbanization. 20 (2): 501–519. doi:10.1177/0956247808096125. S2CID 55860349.
- "WHO | The global burden of disease: 2004 update". WHO. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009.
- Lee, Jan (6 June 2013). "Understanding Environmental Justice Policies". Triple Pundit. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
- Hardy, Dean; Milligan, Richard; Heynen, Nik (December 2017). "Racial coastal formation: The environmental injustice of colorblind adaptation planning for sea-level rise". Geoforum. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 87: 62–72. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.10.005.
- I. Allison; et al. (2009). The Copenhagen Diagnosis, 2009: Updating the World on the Latest Climate Science (PDF).
- "Climate change: More than 3bn could live in extreme heat by 2070". BBC News. 5 May 2020. Archived from the original on 5 May 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- Xu, Chi; Kohler, Timothy A.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Scheffer, Marten (26 May 2020). "Future of the human climate niche – Supplementary Materials". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (21): 11350–11355. doi:10.1073/pnas.1910114117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7260949. PMID 32366654.
- Pachauri, R.K.; Reisinger, A. (eds.). "3.3.3 Especially affected systems, sectors and regions". Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: IPCC.
- Mimura, N.; et al. (2007). "Chapter 16: Small Islands: Executive summary". In Parry, M.L.; et al. (eds.). Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: IPCC; Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521880107.
- "Climate change and the risk of statelessness" (PDF). May 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
- Cities of the future: visualizing climate change to inspire action, current vs future cities, Crowther Lab, Department für Umweltsystemwissenschaften, Institut für integrative Biologie, ETH Zürich, zugegriffen: 11 July 2019.
- Understanding climate change from a global analysis of city analogues, Bastin J-F, Clark E, Elliott T, Hart S, van den Hoogen J, Hordijk I, et al. (2019), PLoS ONE 14(7): e0217592, Crowther Lab, Department for Environmental Systems Science, Institut for Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, 10 July 2019.
- Tuholske, Cascade; Caylor, Kelly; Funk, Chris; Verdin, Andrew; Sweeney, Stuart; Grace, Kathryn; Peterson, Pete; Evans, Tom (12 October 2021). "Global urban population exposure to extreme heat". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 118 (41): e2024792118. doi:10.1073/pnas.2024792118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 8521713. PMID 34607944.
- "Synthesis report", Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Sec. 3.3.3 Especially affected systems, sectors and regions, archived from the original on 23 December 2018, retrieved 28 December 2018, in IPCC AR4 SYR 2007.
- Waha, Katharina (April 2017). "Climate change impacts in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region and their implications for vulnerable population groups". Regional Environmental Change. 17 (6): 1623–1638. doi:10.1007/s10113-017-1144-2. S2CID 134523218. Archived from the original on 23 July 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
- Overland, Indra; Sagbakken, Haakon Fossum; Chan, Hoy-Yen; Merdekawati, Monika; Suryadi, Beni; Utama, Nuki Agya; Vakulchuk, Roman (December 2021). "The ASEAN climate and energy paradox". Energy and Climate Change. 2: 100019. doi:10.1016/j.egycc.2020.100019. hdl:11250/2734506.
- Schneider, S.H.; et al., "Ch 19: Assessing Key Vulnerabilities and the Risk from Climate Change", IPCC AR4 WG2 2007, Sec 19.3.3 Regional vulnerabilities, archived from the original on 23 December 2018, retrieved 28 December 2018
- BORENSTEIN, SETH; JORDANS, FRANK (4 August 2021). "This summer's disasters show climate change is very much 'a rich-country problem' now". Associated Press. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 9 August 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
- BORENSTEIN, SETH; JORDANS, FRANK (4 August 2021). "This year's summer of climate extremes hits wealthier places". Associaeted Press. Archived from the original on 9 August 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
- Nicholls, Robert J.; et al. (2007). "Coastal systems and low-lying areas". In Parry, M.L.; et al. (eds.). Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: IPCC; Cambridge University Press. pp. 315–356. ISBN 978-0521880107. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
- Climate change: Sea level rise to affect 'three times more people' Archived 6 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 30 October 2019
- Rising sea levels pose threat to homes of 300m people – study Archived 30 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 29 October 2019
- Kulp, Scott A.; Strauss, Benjamin H. (29 October 2019). "New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 4844. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10.4844K. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12808-z. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 6820795. PMID 31664024. S2CID 204962583.
- IPCC (2007). "3.3.1 Impacts on systems and sectors. In (section): Synthesis Report. In: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A. (eds.))". Book version: IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. This version: IPCC website. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
- "'A Climate Emergency Unfolding Before Our Eyes.' Arctic Sea Ice Has Shrunk to Almost Historic Levels". Time. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- Rasheed Hassan, Hussain; Cliff, Valerie (24 September 2019). "For small island nations, climate change is not a threat. It's already here". World Economic Fourm. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
- Barnett, Jon; Adger, W. Neil (2003). "Climate Dangers and Atoll Countries". Climatic Change. 61 (3): 321–337. doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000004559.08755.88. ISSN 0165-0009. S2CID 55644531.
- Church, John A.; White, Neil J.; Hunter, John R. (2006). "Sea-level rise at tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean islands". Global and Planetary Change. 53 (3): 155–168. Bibcode:2006GPC....53..155C. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.04.001.
- Mimura, N (1999). "Vulnerability of island countries in the South Pacific to sea level rise and climate change". Climate Research. 12: 137–143. Bibcode:1999ClRes..12..137M. doi:10.3354/cr012137.
- Tsosie, Rebecca (2007). "Indigenous People and Environmental Justice:The Impact of Climate Change". University of Colorado Law Review. 78: 1625.
- Mortreux, Colette; Barnett, Jon (2009). "Climate change, migration and adaptation in Funafuti, Tuvalu". Global Environmental Change. 19 (1): 105–112. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.09.006.
- Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Hewitt, Helene T.; Xiao, Cunde; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; et al. (2021). "Chapter 9: Ocean, cryosphere, and sea level change" (PDF). IPCC AR6 WG1 2021.
- Douville, Hervé; Raghavan, Krishnan; Renwick, James A.; Allan, Richard P.; et al. (2021). "Chapter 8: Water cycle changes" (PDF). IPCC AR6 WG1 2021.
- IPCC AR4 WG1 (2007), Solomon, S.; Qin, D.; Manning, M.; Chen, Z.; Marquis, M.; Averyt, K.B.; Tignor, M.; Miller, H.L. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-88009-1 (pb: 978-0-521-70596-7).
- IPCC AR4 WG2 (2007), Parry, M.L.; Canziani, O.F.; Palutikof, J.P.; van der Linden, P.J.; Hanson, C.E. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-88010-7 (pb: 978-0-521-70597-4).
- IPCC AR4 SYR (2007), Core Writing Team; Pachauri, R.K; Reisinger, A. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC, ISBN 978-92-9169-122-7.
- IPCC SREX (2012), Field, C.B.; et al. (eds.), Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX), Cambridge University Press, archived from the original on 19 December 2012. Summary for Policymakers available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish.
- IPCC AR5 WG1 (2013), Stocker, T.F.; et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group 1 (WG1) Contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), Cambridge University Press. Climate Change 2013 Working Group 1 website.
- IPCC AR5 WG2 A (2014), Field, C.B.; et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II (WG2) to the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Cambridge University Press, archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Archived
- IPCC (2018). Masson-Delmotte, V.; Zhai, P.; Pörtner, H. O.; Roberts, D.; et al. (eds.). Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty (PDF). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
- IPCC (2019). Pörtner, H.-O.; Roberts, D.C.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Zhai, P.; et al. (eds.). IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (PDF). IPCC.
- IPCC (2019). Shukla, P.R.; Skea, J.; Calvo Biendia, E.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; et al. (eds.). Climate Change and Land. An IPCC Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse gas fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems (PDF). In press.
- IPCC (2021). Masson-Delmotte, V.; Zhai, P.; Pirani, A.; Connors, S. L.; et al. (eds.). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis (PDF). Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press (In Press).
- This article incorporates public domain material from the NOAA document: Kennedy, C.H. (10 July 2012), ClimateWatch Magazine » State of the Climate in 2011: Highlights, NOAA, archived from the original on 10 May 2013, retrieved 20 March 2013
- This article incorporates public domain material from the US EPA document: Glossary of Climate Change Terms: Climate Change: US EPA, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Climate Change Division, 14 June 2012
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Effects of global warming.|
- IPCC Working Group I (WG I). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change group which assesses the physical scientific aspects of the climate system and climate change.
- Climate from the World Meteorological Organization
- Climate change UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development
- Effects of climate change from the Met Office
- Global Humanitarian Forum
- United Nations Environment Programme and climate change
- International Strategy for Disaster Reduction disaster risk reduction and climate change