A centenarian is a person who lives to or beyond the age of 100 years. Because life expectancies worldwide are less than 100, the term is invariably associated with longevity. A supercentenarian is a person who has lived to the age of 110 or more, something only achieved by about one in 1,000 centenarians. Even rarer is a person who has lived to age 115 – there are only 42 people in recorded history who have indisputably reached this age, of whom only Violet Brown, Nabi Tajima, Chiyo Miyako, Ana María Vela Rubio and Marie Josephine Gaudette are still living. There has only been one known case of a person of 120 years of age or older. In 2012, the United Nations estimated that there were 316,600 living centenarians worldwide. As life expectancy is increasing across the world, and the world population has also increased rapidly, the number of centenarians is expected to increase quickly in the future. According to the UK ONS, one-third of babies born in 2013 in the UK are expected to live to 100.
- 1 Current incidence
- 2 British and Commonwealth traditions
- 3 Other countries
- 4 Religious rituals
- 5 Centenarians in ancient times
- 6 Research into centenarians
- 7 Contributing factors
- 8 Japanese bio-study
- 9 Epigenetic studies
- 10 Media references
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
The United States currently has the greatest number of known centenarians of any nation with 53,364 according to the 2010 Census, or 17.3 per 100,000 people. In 2010, 82.8% of US centenarians were female. Japan has the second-largest number of centenarians, with an estimated 51,376 as of September 2012, and the highest proportion of centenarians at 34.85 per 100,000 people. Japan started recording its centenarians in 1963. The number of Japanese centenarians in that year was 153, but surpassed the 10,000 mark in 1998; 20,000 in 2003; and 40,000 in 2009. According to a 1998 United Nations demographic survey, Japan is expected to have 272,000 centenarians by 2050; other sources suggest that the number could be closer to 1 million. The incidence of centenarians in Japan was one per 3,522 people in 2008.
In Japan, the number of centenarians is highly skewed towards females. Japan in fiscal year 2016 had 57,525 female centenarians, while males were 8,167, a ratio of 7:1. The increase of centenarians was even more skewed at 11:6:1.
Centenarian populations by country
The total number of living centenarians in the world remains uncertain. It was estimated by the Population Division of the United Nations as 23,000 in 1950, 110,000 in 1990, 150,000 in 1995, 209,000 in 2000, 324,000 in 2005 and 455,000 in 2009. However, these older estimates did not take into account the contemporary downward adjustments of national estimates made by several countries such as the United States; thus, in 2012, the UN estimated there to be only 316,600 centenarians worldwide. The following table gives estimated centenarian populations by country, including both the latest and the earliest known estimates, where available.
|Country||Latest estimate (year)||Earliest estimate (year)||Centenarians per
|Australia||4,252 (2011)||1901 50 (1901)||18.75|
|Austria||1,371 (2014)||232 (1990), 1960 25 (1960)||16.1|
|Belgium||2,001 (1 January 2015)||1950 23 (1950)||16.9|
|China||48,921 (2011)||1990 4,469 (1990), 17,800 (2007)||3.63|
|Czech Republic||625 (2011)||2006 404 (2006)||5.92|
|Denmark||889 (2010)||32 (1941)||16.08|
|Estonia||150 (2016)||42 (1990)||11.44|
|Finland||759 (2015)||1960 11 (1960)||13.8|
|France||21,393 (1 January 2016)||1900 100 (1900)||32.1|
|Germany||17,000 (2012)||1885232 (1885)||21|
|Hungary||1516 (2013)||1990227 (1990), 76 (1949)||15.32|
|Iceland||32 (2015)||1960 3 (1960)||9.72|
|Ireland||389 (2011)||87 (1990)||8.48|
|Italy||25,000 (2015))||19,095 (2015), 1872 99 (1872)||31.41|
|Japan||61,000 (2015)||54,397 (2013) 1950 111 (1950), 155 (1960)||48|
|Mexico||7,441 (2010)||1990 2,403 (1990)||6.62|
|Netherlands||1,743 (2010)||1830 18 (1830)||10.41|
|New Zealand||297 (1991)||1960 18 (1960)||5.92|
|Norway||636 (2010)||1951 44 (1951)||13.1|
|Poland||2,414 (2009)||1970 500 (1970)||6.27|
|Singapore||724 (2011)||1990 41 (1990)||13.7|
|Slovenia||224 (2013)||1953 2 (1953)||10.88|
|South Africa||15,581 (2011)||-||30.09|
|South Korea||3,861 (2014)||– 961||7.72|
|Spain||17,423 (2016) ||4,269 (2002) ||37.49|
|Sweden||1,953 (2014)||1950 46 (1950)||20.0|
|Switzerland||1,306 (2010)||1860 7 (1860)||16.64|
|United Kingdom||13,780 (2013)||1911 107 (1911)||21.49|
|United States||72,000 (2015)||53,364 (2010), 1950 2,300 (1950)||22|
|World Estimates||451,000 (2015)||316,600 (2012), 1950 23,000 (1950)||6.2|
British and Commonwealth traditions
In many countries, people receive a gift or congratulations on their 100th birthday. In the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms, the British (and Commonwealth) monarch sends greetings (formerly as a telegram) on the 100th birthday and on every birthday beginning with the 105th. The tradition of Royal congratulations dates from 1908, when the Secretary for King Edward VII sent a congratulatory letter to Reverend Thomas Lord of Horncastle in a newspaper clipping, declaring, "I am commanded by the King to congratulate you on the attainment of your hundredth year, after a most useful life." The practice was formalised from 1917, under the reign of King George V, who also sent congratulations on the attainment of a 60th Wedding anniversary. Queen Elizabeth II, sends a greeting card style with the notation "I am so pleased to know that you are celebrating your one-hundredth birthday, I send my congratulations and best wishes to you on such a special occasion", there after each few years the card is updated with a current picture of her majesty as to ensure people do not receive the same card more than once. The Queen further sends her congratulations on one's 105th birthday and every year thereafter as well as on special wedding anniversaries, people must apply for greetings 3 weeks before the event, on the official British Monarch's website
In the United States, centenarians traditionally receive a letter from the President, congratulating them for their longevity. NBC's Today Show has also named new centenarians on air since 1983. Centenarians born in Ireland receive a €2,540 "Centenarians' Bounty" and a letter from the President of Ireland, even if they are resident abroad. Japanese centenarians receive a silver cup and a certificate from the Prime Minister of Japan upon their 100th birthday, honouring them for their longevity and prosperity in their lives. Swedish centenarians receive a telegram from the King and Queen of Sweden. Centenarians born in Italy receive a letter from the President of Italy. In Japan, a "National Respect for the Aged Day" has been celebrated every September since 1966.
An aspect of blessing in many cultures is to offer a wish that the recipient lives to 100 years old. Among Hindus, people who touch the feet of elders are often blessed with "May you live a hundred years". In Sweden, the traditional birthday song states, May he/she live for one hundred years. In Judaism, the term May you live to be 120 years old is a common blessing. In Poland, Sto lat, a wish to live a hundred years, is a traditional form of praise and good wishes, and the song "sto lat, sto lat" is sung on the occasion of the birthday celebrations—arguably, it is the most popular song in Poland and among Poles around the globe. Chinese emperors were hailed to live ten thousand years, while empresses were hailed to live a thousand years. In Italy, "A hundred of these days!" (cento di questi giorni) is an augury for birthdays, to live to celebrate 100 more birthdays. Some Italians say "Cent'anni!", which means "a hundred years", in that they wish that they could all live happily for a hundred years. In Greece, wishing someone Happy Birthday ends with the expression να τα εκατοστήσεις (na ta ekatostisis), which can be loosely translated as "may you make it one hundred birthdays".
Centenarians in ancient times
While the number of centenarians per capita was much lower in ancient times than today, the data suggest that they were not unheard of. However, ancient demographics and chronicles are biased in favor of wealthy or powerful individuals rather than the ordinary person. A rare glimpse of an ordinary person is the legionary veteran Julius Valens whose tombstone states he lived 100 years - "VIXIT ANNIS C". Grmek and Gourevitch speculate that during the Classical Greek period, anyone who lived past the age of five years – surviving all the common childhood illnesses of that era – had a reasonable chance of living to a relatively old age. Life expectancy in 400 BC was estimated to be around 30 years.[where?] One demographer of ancient civilizations reported that Greek men lived to 45 years on average (based on a sample size of 91), while women lived to 36.2 years (based on a sample size of 55). Notably, the gender statistics are inverted compared to today – childbirth at the time had a far higher mortality rate than in modern times, skewing female statistics downward. It was common for average citizens to take great care in their hygiene, Mediterranean diet and exercise, although there was much more male trauma per capita than today, due to military service being virtually universal for citizens of Ancient Greece. This also biased the statistics for men downward.
Diogenes Laertius (c. AD 250) gives one of the earliest references regarding the plausible centenarian longevity given by a scientist, the astronomer Hipparchus of Nicea (c. 185 – c. 120 BC), who, according to the doxographer, assured that the philosopher Democritus of Abdera (c. 470/460 – c. 370/360 BC) lived 109 years. All other ancient accounts of Democritus appear to agree that the philosopher lived at least 90 years. However, such longevity would not be dramatically out of line with that of other ancient Greek philosophers thought to have lived beyond the age of 90 (e.g. Xenophanes of Colophon, c. 570/565 – c. 475/470 BC; Pyrrho of Ellis, c. 360 - c. 270 BC; Eratosthenes of Cirene c. 285 – c. 190 BC). The case of Democritus differs from those of, for example, Epimenides of Crete (7th and 6th centuries BC), who is said to have lived an implausible 154, 157 or 290 years, depending on the source.
Numerous other historical figures were reputed to have lived past 100. The sixth dynasty Egyptian ruler Pepi II is believed by some Egyptologists to have lived to 100 or more (c. 2278 – c. 2184 BC), as he is said to have reigned for 94 years. However this is disputed: others say he only reigned 64 years. Hosius of Córdoba, the man who convinced Constantine the Great to call the First Council of Nicaea, reportedly lived to age 102. The Chronicon of Bernold of Constance records the death in 1097 of Azzo marchio de Longobardia, pater Welfonis ducis de Baiowaria, commenting that he was iam maior centenario. Ultimately, there is no reason to believe that centenarians did not exist in antiquity, even if they were not commonplace.
Research into centenarians
Research in Italy suggests that healthy centenarians have high levels of both vitamin A and vitamin E and that this seems to be important in causing their extreme longevity. Other research contradicts this, however, and has found that this theory does not apply to centenarians from Sardinia, for whom other factors probably play a more important role. A preliminary study carried out in Poland showed that, in comparison with young healthy female adults, centenarians living in Upper Silesia had significantly higher red blood cell glutathione reductase and catalase activities, although serum levels of vitamin E were not significantly higher. Researchers in Denmark have also found that centenarians exhibit a high activity of glutathione reductase in red blood cells. In this study, the centenarians having the best cognitive and physical functional capacity tended to have the highest activity of this enzyme.
Other research has found that people whose parents became centenarians have an increased number of naïve B cells. It is well known that the children of parents who have a long life are also likely to reach a healthy age, but it is not known why, although the inherited genes are probably important. A variation in the gene FOXO3A is known to have a positive effect on the life expectancy of humans, and is found much more often in people living to 100 and beyond - moreover, this appears to be true worldwide.
Men and women who are 100 or older tend to have extroverted personalities, according to Thomas T. Perls, the director of the New England Centenarian Study at Boston University. Centenarians will often have many friends, strong ties to relatives and high self-esteem. In addition, some research suggests that the offspring of centenarians are more likely to age in better cardiovascular health than their peers.
Lymphoblastoid cell lines established from blood samples of centenarians have significantly higher activity of the DNA repair protein PARP (Poly ADP ribose polymerase) than cell lines from younger (20 to 70 years old) individuals. The lymphocytic cells of centenarians have characteristics typical of cells from young people, both in their capability of priming the mechanism of repair after H2O2 sublethal oxidative DNA damage and in their PARP capacity. PARP activity measured in the permeabilized mononuclear leukocyte blood cells of thirteen mammalian species correlated with maximum lifespan of the species. These findings suggest that PARP mediated DNA repair activity contributes to the longevity of centenarians, consistent with the DNA damage theory of aging.
According to John W. Santrock's book A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development, there are five factors that research has suggested are most important to longevity in centenarians:
- heredity and family history
- health, i.e. weight, diet, whether or not a person smokes, amount of exercise
- education level
Santrock's book also noted that the largest group of centenarians are women who have never married. Also, people who have been through traumatic life events learn to cope better with stress and poverty and are more likely to reach age 100.|
Many experts attribute Japan's high life expectancy to the typical Japanese diet, which is particularly low in refined simple carbohydrates, and to hygienic practices. The number of centenarians in relation to the total population was, in September 2010, 114% higher in Shimane Prefecture than the national average. This ratio was also 92% higher in Okinawa Prefecture. In Okinawa, studies have shown five factors that have contributed to the large number of centenarians in that region:
- A diet that is heavy on grains, fish, and vegetables and light on meat, eggs, and dairy products.
- Low-stress lifestyles, which are proven significantly less stressful than that of the mainland inhabitants of Japan.
- A caring community, where older adults are not isolated and are taken better care of.
- High levels of activity, where locals work until an older age than the average age in other countries, and more emphasis on activities like walking and gardening to keep active.
- Spirituality, where a sense of purpose comes from involvement in spiritual matters and prayer eases the mind of stress and problems.
Although these factors vary from those mentioned in the previous study, the culture of Okinawa has proven these factors to be important in its large population of centenarians.
Centenarian controversy in Japan
The number of Japanese centenarians was called into question in 2010, following a series of reports showing that hundreds of thousands of elderly people had gone "missing" in the country. The deaths of many centenarians had not been reported, casting doubt on the country's reputation for having a large population of centenarians.
In July 2010, Sogen Kato, a centenarian listed as the oldest living male in Tokyo, registered to be aged 111, was found to have died some 30 years before; his body was found mummified in its bed, resulting in a police investigation into centenarians listed over the age of 105. Soon after the discovery, the Japanese police found that at least 200 other Japanese centenarians were "missing", and began a nationwide search in early August 2010. This incident led to growing concerns that Japan's welfare system can be exploited by unscrupulous family members keen to continue receiving benefits after the pensioners die. In one case, the remains of a mother thought to be 104 had been stuffed into her son's backpack for nearly a decade; in another, a man received around 9.5 million yen (87739USD) in pension payments despite his wife having died six years previously.
By measuring the biological age of various tissues from centenarians, researchers may be able to identify tissues that are protected from aging effects. According to a study of 30 different body parts from centenarians and younger controls, the cerebellum is the youngest brain region (and probably body part) in centenarians (about 15 years younger than expected ) according to an epigenetic biomarker of tissue age known as epigenetic clock. These findings could explain why the cerebellum exhibits fewer neuropathological hallmarks of age related dementias compared to other brain regions. Further, the offspring of semi-supercentenarians (subjects who reached an age of 105–109 years) have a lower epigenetic age than age-matched controls (age difference=5.1 years in peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and centenarians are younger (8.6 years) than expected based on their chronological age.
Centenarians are often the subject of news stories that focus on the fact that they are over 100 years old, like an elderly person receiving a speeding ticket for example. Other than the typical birthday celebrations, these reports provide researchers and cultural historians with evidence as to how the rest of society views this elderly population. Some examples:
- 105-Year-Old Texas Woman Pearl Cantrell Reveals Bacon as her Secret behind Long Life
- 107-year-old Arkansas man Monroe Isadore dies in shootout with SWAT
- Seattle forces 103-year-old Spokane woman Myrtle Woldson to sell her private waterfront parking lot, so city can turn it a city parking lot
- 101-year-old, Japanese man Funchu Tamang rescued from the Nepal earthquake in 2015
- In 2015, Japanese man Hidekichi Miyazaki, a masters athlete breaks a new record as oldest sprinter winning the 100m at 105 and earns a place in the Guinness World Record book, his record has since been surpassed by American Donald Pellmann
- William A."Bill" Del Monte, the last known survivor of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, who passed at a retirement faculty in Marin County at the age of 109
- In May 2015 Marjorie "Bo" Gilbert, from South Wales, became the first centenarian to appear in the magazine Vogue, when she was featured as part of an advertisement for the department store Harvey Nichols
- In April 2016 Evelyn Heller, a 100-year old American woman evicted from her home, moved into a new home, after a report on her plight, with the help of motivational speaker Tony Robbins, and a member of congress.
- In December, 2016, Helen Brooks, of Castro Valley, California—an American super-fan of the Golden State Warriors, better known as "Sweetie"—died aged 107.
- Food preferences in older adults and seniors
- Life extension
- Lists of centenarians
- New England Centenarian Study
- Okinawa Centenarian Study
- Oldest people
- Queensland Community Care Network, which operates the centenarians-only 100+ club
- "Emergence of supercentenarians in low-mortality countries" (PDF). North American Actuarial Journal (Vol. 6). 2002. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Publications". Supercentenarians.org. doi:10.1016/S0531-5565. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Supercentenarians by H. Maier, J. Gampe, B. Jeune, J.-M. Robine and J.W. Vaupel. Springer 2010". Springerlink.com. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Chapter 1: Setting the Scene" (PDF). UNFPA. 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- "Life expectancy to soar". BBC News. 9 May 2002.
- "[ARCHIVED CONTENT] One third of babies born in 2013 are expected to live to 100". ONS. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- Meyer, Julie (December 2012). "Centenarians: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- McCurry, Justin (13 September 2013). "Centenarians set to hit record high of 54,397". London. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "Demographics of older persons". UN. 1 October 1998. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Japan centenarians at record high". BBC News. 12 September 2008. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- De plus en plus de centenaires au Japon (PDF). Agence France Presse via Avmaroc.com. 12 September 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "Aging Japan now has 65692 centenarians". The Japan Times. 2013-09-13. Retrieved 2017-04-22.
- "World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision" Archived 16 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. United Nations. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "World Population Ageing 2009". (PDF) ST/ESA/SER.A/295. Population Division – Department of Economic and Social Affairs. United Nations. October 2010. p.27.
- "Andorra". Medlem.spray.se. 2002. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
Note: Overreported figures, the actual number is around 7 centenarians. The registration of deaths in the period 1948-1994 is considered less than 90% complete, see this table, thus a number of deceased are still included in the population statistics.
- Indec 2010 Cuadro – Total del país. Población total por país de nacimiento, según sexo y grupo de edad (in Spanish). 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Article1Jun 2011 "3101.0 - Australian Demographic Statistics, Jun 2011". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 10 December 2011. Compare "3201.0 – Population by Age and Sex, Australian States and Territories, Jun 2010". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 December 2010.
- Austrian Demographics retrieved 1 October 2014
- Jeune, B. (March 2000). "In Search of the First Centenarians". Demogr.mpg.de. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Statbel « Structure de la population selon l'âge et le sexe : centenaires ». Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Herm, A.; Cheung, S.L.K.; Poulain, M. (1 June 2012). "Population Statistics". Asian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics. pp. 19–25 . Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- China Daily. "China has over 48,000 centenarians". 8 November 2011; People's Daily Overseas Edition "China boasts nearly 50,000 centenarians". 8 November 2011; Xinhua. "China has over 48,000 centenarians: survey". 8 November 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Lee, Sharon. "17.8 thousand centenarians in China". Rednet.cn. 30 December 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Prague Daily Monitor. "Number of centenarians rising in Czech Republic". 14 October 2011 (against 404 in November 2006: Horaova, Pavla. "Number of Centenarians Rising as Population Ageing Continues". Radio Praha. 15 November 2006).
- Robine, Jean-Marie; Caselli, Graziella (January–March 2005). "An unprecedented increase in the number of centenarians". 61 (1): 57–82. JSTOR 29788836.
- "PEesti vanim inimene elab Põlvamaal" (in Estonian). Postimees.
- "Population 31 Dec by Area, Urban-rural classification, Sex, Age and Year-Tilastokeskuksen PX-Web tietokannat". Tilastokeskuksen PX-Web tietokannat. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
- Mayotte included. See Insee « Population totale par sexe et âge au 1er janvier 2016, France » (« data ») or "Pyramide des âges au 1er janvier 2016", January 2016.
- INED « Nombre de centenaires » ; data.
- Insee "Pyramide des âges au 1er janvier 2016", January 2016.
- Magazine Focus 2013-2-8, retrieved 14. Nov. 2013
- [ Displaying Abstract ] (25 October 2010). "CENTENARIANS IN GERMANY". New York Times. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Döbbenet: egyre többen élnek 100 évnél tovább". borsonline.hu. 07 October 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- "Mannfjöldi eftir kyni og aldri 1841-2015". Hagstofa Íslands. 21 March 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- PEW: World’s centenarian population projected to grow eightfold by 2050 Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- "Census 2011 Profile 2 - Older and Younger" Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "Population by age, sex and urban/rural residence: latest available year, 2003-2012" Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "Popolazione residente al 1° gennaio".
- Kannisto, Väinö (1994). "Development of Oldest-Old Mortality, 1950–1990: Evidence from 28 Developed Countries". Monographs on Population Aging. No.1. Odense University Press: Odense, Denmark. 108 pp. Updated 1 February 1999. Table5.
- Garssen, Joop and Harmsen, Carel. "More Male Centenarians". Statistics Netherlands (CBS). 16 September 2010.
- 1830 Census (in Dutch). Volkstellingen.nl. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Wilkinson, T. J.; Sainsbury, R. (1998). "A census-based comparison of centenarians in New Zealand with those in the United States". Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 46 (4): 488–491. PMID 9560074.
- EleccionesPeru and Elcomercio.pe. "1,682 electors are over 100 years". Lima, Peru. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Specemerytura dla stulatka (in Polish)". Money.pl. 30 August 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- "Сколько долгожителей в России? (in Russian)". mosmedclinic.ru. 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- Long, Cheryl; Tai, Janice (18 December 2011). "S'pore's rising centenarians". Thestar.com. Star Publications (M) Bhd. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
- Dolenc, Danilo; Kalin, Katja; Razpotnik, Barica; Šter, Darja; Žnidaršič, Tina (2012). "Prebivalstvo po starosti in spolu, 1. julij 2012 in 1. januar 2013". Statistični letopis 2013. Statistični urad Republike Slovenije. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "Prebivalstvo" (PDF). Statistični letopis Republike Slovenije 1966. Statistični urad Republike Slovenije. 1966. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "15 000 in SA aged over 100 - Census". News24. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
- "100세 이상 노인인구가 15000명?". 아시아 경제. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
- "Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain) 2016". Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- "Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain)".
- "Rekordmånga hundraåringar i Sverige". Dagens Nyheter. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Centenarians in Thailand". Department of Provincial Administration, Ministry of Interior. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Türkiye'de 5 bin 293 kişi 100 yaşın üzerinde". CNN Türk. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Number of centenarians at record high: World War 1 generation hit 100". gov.uk. Department for Work and Pensions. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Scotland in 1911". scotland.org. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- Krach, Constance A. and Velkoff, Victoria A (1999). "Centenarians in the United States". Current Population Reports (Series P23-199RV). U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. iii + 18 pp.
- "Población por área y sexo, según grupo quinquenal de edades". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Uruguay). Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Total population: 3,285,877 + 437 homeless, per 2011 census data.
- "A Royal tradition: The Queen's 100th birthday messages".
- "Centenarians abroad to get birthday bonus". Irish Times. 3 March 2006. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Fler 100-åringar ger hovet merarbete" (in Swedish). Göteborgs-Posten. 29 December 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Italian Translation. AllExperts.com. 21 June 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- Funerary inscription for Julius Valens. Roman Inscriptions of Britain - RIB 363.
- Mirko Grmek and Danielle Gourevitch (1998). Illness in Antiquity. Fayard.
- "A Short History of Egypt: Part I: From the Predynastic Period to the Old Kingdom" (PDF). Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- Jacques Kinnaer. "Pepi II". Ancient-Egypt.org. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- Bernoldi Chronicon (1097). MGH SS V, p. 465.
- Postel-Vinay O (July–August 1999). "Histoire Le Cas de la Grèce Antique". La Recherche Special (in French). 322: 90.
- Mecocci P, Polidori MC, Troiano L, et al. (April 2000). "Plasma antioxidants and longevity: a study on healthy centenarians". Free Radic Biol Med. 28 (8): 1243–8. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(00)00246-X. PMID 10889454. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- Polidori MC, Mariani E, Baggio G, et al. (Jul 2007). "Different antioxidant profiles in Italian centenarians: the Sardinian peculiarity". Eur J Clin Nutr. 61 (7): 922–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602596. PMID 17228351.
- Kłapcińska B, Derejczyk J, Wieczorowska-Tobis K, Sobczak A, Sadowska-Krepa E, Danch A (2000). "Antioxidant defense in centenarians (a preliminary study)" (PDF). Acta Biochim Pol. 47 (2): 281–92. PMID 11051193.
- Andersen HR, Jeune B, Nybo H, Nielsen JB, Andersen-Ranberg K, Grandjean P (Sep 1998). "Low activity of superoxide dismutase and high activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes from centenarians". Age Ageing. 27 (5): 643–8. doi:10.1093/ageing/27.5.643. PMID 12675104. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- "Blood tests 'could be used to predict lifespan'". The Daily Telegraph. 25 June 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- "Living longer thanks to the 'longevity gene'". PhysOrg.com. 3 February 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2009.
- Adams ER, Nolan VG, Andersen SL, Perls TT, Terry DF (Nov 2008). "Centenarian offspring: start healthier and stay healthier". J Am Geriatr Soc. 56 (11): 2089–92. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01949.x. PMC . PMID 18811609.
- Muiras ML, Müller M, Schächter F, Bürkle A (1998). "Increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in lymphoblastoid cell lines from centenarians". J. Mol. Med. 76 (5): 346–54. doi:10.1007/s001090050226. PMID 9587069.
- Chevanne M, Calia C, Zampieri M, Cecchinelli B, Caldini R, Monti D, Bucci L, Franceschi C, Caiafa P (2007). "Oxidative DNA damage repair and parp 1 and parp 2 expression in Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocyte cells from young subjects, old subjects, and centenarians". Rejuvenation Res. 10 (2): 191–204. doi:10.1089/rej.2006.0514. PMID 17518695.
- Grube K, Bürkle A (1992). "Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in mononuclear leukocytes of 13 mammalian species correlates with species-specific life span". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (24): 11759–63. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.24.11759. PMC . PMID 1465394.
- Bernstein H, Payne CM, Bernstein C, Garewal H, Dvorak K (2008). Cancer and aging as consequences of un-repaired DNA damage. In: New Research on DNA Damages (Editors: Honoka Kimura and Aoi Suzuki) Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, Chapter 1, pp. 1-47. open access, but read only https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=43247 ISBN 978-1-60456-581-2
- Santrock, John (2008). "Physical Development and Biological Aging". In Mike Ryan, Michael J. Sugarman, Maureen Spada, and Emily Pecora (eds.): A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development (pp. 129-132). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
- Japan Times (15 September 2010). "Centenarians to Hit Record 44,000". Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- In 2006, official data from the Okinawa Prefectural government were slightly inflated because of a methodological flaw. See Willcox, D. Craig; Willcox, Bradley J.; He Qimei; Wang Nien-chiang and Suzuki Makoto. "They Really Are That Old: A Validation Study of Centenarian Prevalence in Okinawa". (PDF) The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. Vol. 63. 2008. pp. 338–349.
- "Upside to castration? Eunuchs lived longer, study finds". Reuters via NBC. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Fackler, Martin (10 September 2010). "Japan's Elderly Count Was Off by 234,000". New York Times. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "More than 230,000 Japanese centenarians 'missing'". BBC. 10 September 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- Font size Print E-mail Share 2 Comments (10 September 2010). "More Than 230,000 Centenarians Missing in Japan". CBS News. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "234,000 centenarians listed in registries missing". Japan Times. 11 September 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Tokyo's 'oldest man' dead for 30 years". The Daily Telegraph. 29 July 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Nearly 200 of Japan's oldest citizens 'missing'". AFP. 11 August 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Japanese man kept dead mother in backpack". The Daily Telegraph. 20 August 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Horvath S, Mah V, Lu AT, Woo JS, Choi OW, Jasinska AJ, Riancho JA, Tung S, Coles NS, Braun J, Vinters HV, Coles LS (2015). "The cerebellum ages slowly according to the epigenetic clock." (PDF). Age (Albany US). 7 (5): 294–306. doi:10.18632/aging.100742. PMC . PMID 26000617.
- Horvath, S (2013). "DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types". Genome Biology. 14: R115. doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-10-r115. PMC . PMID 24138928.
- Horvath, S (2015). "Decreased epigenetic age of PBMCs from Italian semi-supercentenarians and their offspring.". Aging (Albany NY) (Dec).
- "105-Year-Old Texas Woman Reveals Bacon as her Secret behind Long Life". Retrieved 8 September 2013. Science World Report, 8 May 2013.
- "105-Year-Old Woman Says Bacon Keeps Her Alive". Time. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013. TIME.com, 9 May 2013, with news video.
- Evans, Becky (8 May 2013). "105-year-old woman reveals that BACON is the secret to a long and happy life". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 26 October 2013. Daily Mail, 8 May 2013.
- "The secret to long life? Bacon, says 105-year-old". CBS News. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013. CBS News, 9 May 2013.
- "The secret to a long life? BACON, says feisty 105-year-old woman". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 26 October 2013. New York Daily News, 8 May 2013.
- Stuart, Hunter (7 May 2013). "Pearl Cantrell, 105-Year-Old Woman, Says Bacon Is Key To Longevity". Huffington Post. Retrieved 26 October 2013. Huffington Post, 7 May 2013
- "107-year-old Arkansas man dies in shootout with S.W.A.T.". Retrieved 8 September 2013. CBS affiliate KTVH 11, 8 September 2013. Includes photo of deceased.
- "107-year-old man killed in gun battle with SWAT team". Retrieved 9 September 2013. Christian Science Monitor, 8 September 2013. Video, photo of house.
- "SWAT team shoots and kills one of the oldest men in America". Daily Mail. London. 8 September 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.Daily Mail Online, 8 September 2013. Photos of exterior crime scene.
- "Monroe Isadore, 107-year-old Arkansas man, killed during shootout with SWAT team". CBS News. 9 September 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013. CBS News, 9 September 2013
- "City tells 103-year-old: We're buying your parking lot, like it or not". Q13Fox News, 23 October 2013, with news video. "The city is forcing a 103-year-old Spokane woman to sell her parking lot in Seattle to make way for, well, a parking lot."
- "Seattle seizes elderly woman's parking lot to turn it into -- a parking lot". Fox News. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013. FOXNews.com, 25 October 2013. "The city of Seattle is using its power of eminent domain to force a 103-year-old woman to give up her private waterfront parking lot to make way for a city-owned parking lot."
- "Parking lot operator talks about 103-year-old's lot being taken by City of Seattle". Retrieved 26 October 2013.KIRO Radio, 24 October 2013, with 9:38 audio link.
- Dominique Mosbergen (5 May 2015). "101-Year-Old Man Rescued From Rubble With 'Minor Injuries' 1 Week After Nepal Earthquake". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Miraculous rescue of 101-year-old man pulled alive from Nepal quake rubble". 3 May 2015.
- "Japan 105 year old 'Golden Bolt' sets a sprint record, misses personal best". reuturs. 24 September 2015.
- "Japans's 105-year-old 'Golden Bolt' sets world record for 100m".
- "William Del Monte, Last known Survivor of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, Dies at 109". The Associated Press. 11 January 2016.
- "William Del Monte". The Times.
- "Here's The First 100-Year-Old To Appear In Vogue". Uk.style.yahoo.com. 25 March 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- "Harvey Nichols 100 Year Old Model Campaign". Vogue.co.uk. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- The Desert Sun (25 April 2016). "Tony Robbins saves 100-year-old from homelessness".
- "Warriors super fan Sweetie dies at age 107".
- "Wariors super fan 'Sweetie' Helen Brooks dies at 107".
- Koch, Tina; Kralik, Debbie; Power, Charmaine (2005). 100 Years Old: 24 Australian Centenarians Tell Their Stories. Camberwell, Vic: Viking. ISBN 0-670-02872-X.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Centenarians.|
- New England Centenarian Study
- Okinawa Centenarian Study
- Mortality of Centenarians via Princeton University
- U.S. politicians who lived the longest via Political Graveyard
- Noted Nonagenarians and Centenarians via Genarians.com
- Centenarian research and celebration via AdlerCentenarians.org
- Living Beyond 100 via International Longevity Center UK
- Table of numbers of centenarians for select nations, 1960 and 1990 via Demogr.mpg.de
- Centenarians’ Road Project website
- Oldest People in Britain