De facto embassy
A de facto embassy is an office or organisation that serves de facto as an embassy in lack of regular/official diplomatic relations among countries (thus paradiplomacy). Diplomatic immunity and extraterritoriality are usually not granted.
In many cases, these organisations represent nations which lack full diplomatic recognition or regions with disputed borders. For instance, many countries maintain formal diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China but operate unofficial 'trade missions' or 'representative offices' in Taipei to deal with Taiwan-related commercial and consular issues. Often, these delegations may forward visa applications to their nearest embassy or consulate rather than processing them locally.
France maintains a "French Institute" in Taipei, whose first apparent purpose is "cultural," but which also has consular and economic sections, as does Germany's German Institute Taipei, the United States' American Institute in Taiwan, and the United Kingdom's British Office Taipei. Similarly, Taiwan (ROC) maintains Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices or Taipei Representative Offices in other countries, which handle visa applications as well as relations with local authorities.
Prior to the reunification of Germany, West and East Germany were represented by "permanent missions", headed by "permanent representatives", who served as de facto ambassadors. These were established under the terms of the Basic Treaty in 1972.
Following its Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, Rhodesia maintained overseas missions in Lisbon and Lourenço Marques (now Maputo) until 1975 and an Accredited Diplomatic Representative in Pretoria.
The Tibet Religious Foundation of His Holiness the Dalai Lama has been called "the de facto embassy of the exiled government in Taiwan" by Taipei Times chief staff reporter Loa lok sin.
Some foreign diplomatic missions in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region function independently of their embassies in Beijing, reporting directly to their foreign ministries. For example, the United States Consulate General reports to the Department of State with the Consul General as the "Chief of Mission".
Similarly, when Hong Kong was under British administration, diplomatic missions of Commonwealth countries, such as Canada, Australia New Zealand India Malaysia and Singapore were known as Commissions, and functioned independently of each country's High Commission in London. After the transfer of sovereignty to China in 1997, they were renamed Consulates-General. with the last commissioner becoming consul-general.
When Hong Kong and Macau were under British and Portuguese administration, the People's Republic of China was informally represented by a branch of the Xinhua News Agency Nanguang trading company respectively. Since the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong and Macau, the Central People's Government has been formally represented by the Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Macau Special Administrative Region
Under apartheid, South Africa maintained trade missions in neighbouring countries, such as Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Similarly, neighbouring countries, such as Mauritius, maintained trade missions in Johannesburg, the country's commercial capital. Following majority rule in 1994, full diplomatic relations were established, and these became High Commissions, after South Africa rejoined the Commonwealth.
In some cases, states which have no direct bilateral ties will be represented by an "interests section" housed as part of the embassy of a third country recognised by both states. For example, the United States is nominally represented in Iran by an interests section of the Swiss embassy in Tehran, with the corresponding Iranian section to the US housed as part of recognised Pakistani embassy in Washington, D.C.
Prior to the restoration of diplomatic relations on July 20, 2015, the US was represented by an interests section at the Swiss embassy in Havana, with the corresponding Cuban section to the US housed as part of the Swiss embassy in Washington. Unlike in Iran, where the former United States embassy building in Tehran has remained in disuse since its seizure during the hostage crisis in 1979, the former embassy building in Havana housed the "interests section" in Cuba between 1977 and 2015.
Other previous examples of interests sections include those of Britain and Argentina between 1982 and 1992, during which time there was a British interests section of the Swiss embassy in Buenos Aires, and an Argentine interests section of the Brazilian embassy in London Similarly, Iraq maintained an interest section in the Jordanian embassy in London between 1990 and 2003. Prior to the restoration of diplomatic relations between Indonesia and Portugal, severed following the Indonesian invasion of East Timor in 1975, Portugal established an interests section in the Dutch embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia established an interests section in the Thai embassy in Lisbon.
*: Government organization; flag positioned left: country of origin ("sending"); flag positioned right: location
- Diplomatic mission and lists of diplomatic missions
- High Commissioner (Commonwealth)
- Protecting power
- Provincial delegation (paradiplomacy)
- Representative office
- Délégation Générale du Québec
- Delegation of the Ismaili Imamat
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- La France à Taiwan
- British Trade & Cultural Office
- Visa Requirements for the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan
- History of the Berlin Wall
- East-West German trade up 8 percent, in Bonn and East Berlin respectively The Christian Science Monitor, September 8, 1982
- Collective Responses to Illegal Acts in International Law: United Nations Action in the Question of Southern Rhodesia, Vera Gowlland-Debbas, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 1990
- Loa Iok-sin, Tibetans confirm WikiLeak, Taipei Times, 25 décembre 2010
- "Christopher J. Marut Appointed as Director of the Taipei Office of the American Institute in Taiwan" (Press release). American Institute in Taiwan. 2012-05-08.
- Inspection of The Canadian Consulate General Hong Kong
- "Chiefs of Mission". U.S. Department of State.
- 2 China Dissidents Granted Asylum, Fly to Vancouver, Los Angeles Times, September 17, 1992
- Australian Commission Office Requirements, Sydney Morning Herald, August 18, 1982
- NZer's credibility under fire in Hong Kong court, New Zealand Herald, March 27, 2006
- Indians in Limbo as 1997 Hand-over Date Draws Nearer, Inter Press Service, February 12, 1996
- Officials puzzled by Malaysian decision, New Straits Times, July 3, 1984
- Singapore Lure Stirs Crowds In Hong Kong, Chicago Tribune, July 12, 1989
- About the Consulate-General
- In the swing of things, Embassy Magazine, September 2010
- Thousands Rampage Through Harare, Upset Over Machel's Death, Associated Press, 21 October 1986
- Youths Attack South African Trade Mission, United Press International, November 5, 1986
- Port Louis Journal; Land of Apartheid Befriends an Indian Ocean Isle, New York Times, December 28, 1987
- Embassy of Switzerland in Iran - Foreign Interests Section, Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (page visited on 4 April 2015).
- Interests Section of the Islamic Republic of Iran - Washington D.C
- Press Availability With Cuban Foreign Minister Bruno Rodriguez, United States Department of State, July 20, 2015
- Argentina and Britain Move To Restore Diplomatic Ties, New York Times, September 1, 1989
- Indonesia names envoy to Lisbon, Jakarta Post, November 16, 2000
- India-Taipei Association