||This article possibly contains original research. (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Clockwise from top left: Durban CBD, Ushaka Marine World, Suncoast Casino and Entertainment World, Moses Mabhida Stadium, Inkosi Albert Luthuli International Convention Centre and Durban City Hall.
|• City||225.91 km2 (87.22 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,292 km2 (885 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,600/km2 (6,800/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)|
|Racial makeup (2011)|
|• Black African||51.1%|
|First languages (2011)|
|Postal code (street)||4001|
|GDP||US$ 63.9 billion |
|GDP per capita||US$ 15,575|
Durban (Zulu: eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal. After Johannesburg, the Durban Metropolitan Area ranks second among the most populous urban areas in South Africa, almost equal to Cape Town. It is also the second most important manufacturing hub in South Africa after Johannesburg. It forms part of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality. Durban is famous for being the busiest port in South Africa. It is also seen as one of the major centres of tourism because of the city's warm subtropical climate and extensive beaches. The municipality, which includes neighbouring towns, has a population of almost 3.5 million, making the combined municipality one of the biggest cities on the Indian Ocean coast of the African continent. The metropolitan land area of 2,292 square kilometres (885 sq mi) is comparatively larger than other South African cities, resulting in a somewhat lower population density of 1,513/km2 (3,920/sq mi). It has the highest number of dollar millionaires added per year of any South African city with the number rising 200% between 2000 and 2014.
- 1 History
- 2 Durban today
- 3 Government and politics
- 4 Geography
- 5 Climate
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Crime
- 8 Economy
- 9 Military facilities and units
- 10 Informal sector
- 11 Civil society
- 12 Visitor attractions
- 13 Communications and media
- 14 Sports teams and stadiums
- 15 Transport
- 16 Educational institutions
- 17 International relations
- 18 See also
- 19 References
- 20 External links
Archaeological evidence from the Drakensberg mountains suggests that the Durban area has been inhabited by communities of hunter-gatherers since 100,000 BC. These people lived throughout the area of present-day KwaZulu-Natal until the expansion of Bantu farmers and pastoralists from the north saw their gradual displacement, incorporation or extermination. Little is known of the history of the first residents, as there is no written history of the area until it was sighted by Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, who sailed parallel to the KwaZulu-Natal coast at Christmastide in 1497 while searching for a route from Europe to India. He named the area "Natal", or Christmas in Portuguese.
First European settlers
The modern city of Durban dates from 1824, when a party of 25 men under British Lieutenant F. G. Farewell arrived from the Cape Colony and established a settlement on the northern shore of the Bay of Natal, near today's Farewell Square. Accompanying Farewell was an adventurer named Henry Francis Fynn. Fynn was able to befriend the Zulu King Shaka by helping him to recover from a stab wound he suffered in battle. As a token of Shaka's gratitude, he granted Fynn a "30-mile [50 km] strip of coast a hundred miles [160 km] in depth."
During a meeting of 35 European residents in Fynn's territory on 23 June 1835, it was decided to build a capital town and name it "d'Urban" after Sir Benjamin d'Urban, then governor of the Cape Colony.
Republic of Natalia
Piet Retief, leader of the Voortrekkers in Natal, negotiated with the Zulu King, Dingane, in order to obtain land for their farming purposes. After negotiations were concluded, Dingane however reneged and had Retief and his entire entourage murdered. Thereafter the Zulus attacked and killed more than 500 Voortrekkers at Retief's laager. The Voortrekkers retaliated, and broke Dingane's power at the Battle of Blood River.
Continued tension between the Voortrekkers and the Zulus prompted the governor of the Cape Colony to dispatch a force under Captain Charlton Smith to establish British rule in Natal, for fear of losing British control in Port Natal. The force arrived on 4 May 1842 and built a fortification that was later to be The Old Fort. On the night of 23/24 May 1842 the British attacked the Voortrekker camp at Congella. The attack failed, and the British had to withdraw to their camp which was put under siege. A local trader Dick King and his servant Ndongeni were able to escape the blockade and rode to Grahamstown, a distance of 600 km (372.82 mi) in fourteen days to raise reinforcements. The reinforcements arrived in Durban 20 days later; the Voortrekkers retreated, and the siege was lifted.
British colonial rule
A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony. The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s. Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations, so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India on twenty five-year contracts. As a result of the importation of Indian labourers, Durban has the largest Asian community on the African continent, and has the largest Indian population outside of India.
Durban's historic regalia
When the Borough of Durban was proclaimed in 1854, the council had to procure a seal for official documents. The seal was produced in 1855 and was replaced in 1882. The new seal contained a coat of arms without helmet or mantling that combined the coats of arms of Sir Benjamin D’Urban and Sir Benjamin Pine. An application was made to register the coat of arms with the College of Arms in 1906, but this application was rejected on grounds that the design implied that D’Urban and Pine were husband and wife. Nevertheless, the coat of arms appeared on the council’s stationery from about 1912. The following year, a helmet and mantling was added to the council’s stationery and to the new city seal that was made in 1936. The motto reads "Debile principium melior fortuna sequitur"—"Better fortune follows a humble beginning".
The blazon of the arms registered by the South African Bureau of Heraldry and granted to Durban on 9 February 1979. The coat of arms fell into disuse with the re-organisation of the South African local government structure in 2000. The seal ceased to be used in 1995.
Today, Durban is the busiest container port in Africa. The Golden Mile, developed as a welcoming tourist destination in the 1970s, as well as Durban at large, provide ample tourist attractions, particularly for people on holiday from Gauteng. The Golden Mile was redeveloped in late 2009 in time for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. It was resurfaced and widened between Ushaka Marine World and Moses Mabhida Stadium. Durban's most popular beaches are also located along the Golden Mile. The city is also a gateway to the national parks and historic sites of Zulu Kingdom and the Drakensberg.
Government and politics
With the end of apartheid, Durban was subject to restructuring of local government. The eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality was formed in 1994 after South Africa's first multiracial elections, with its first mayor being Sipho Ngwenya. The mayor is elected for a five-year term; however Sipho Ngwenya only served two years. In 1996, the city was changed to Durban UniCity in July 1996 and to eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality in 1999. In July 1996, Obed Mlaba was appointed mayor of Durban UniCity; in 1999 he was elected to mayor of the eThekwini municipality and re-elected in 2006. Following the May 2011 local elections, James Nxumalo, the former Speaker of the Council, was elected as the new mayor.
The name of the Durban municipal government, prior to the post-apartheid reorganisations of municipalities, was the Durban Corporation or City of Durban'm.
Evictions and political controversy
The attack on Kennedy Road informal settlement by an armed mob in 2009 in Durban put local government under sustained scrutiny. It was reported by members of the Abahlali baseMjondolo movement that the attackers were affiliated with the local branch of the African National Congress and associated with the municipal councillor for the ward. It was claimed that the attack was carefully planned and sanctioned by the police department. Academic research seems to confirm that the attackers self-identified as ANC members and that ANC leaders at Municipal and Provincial level later provided public sanction for the attack. Following the attack AbM and the KRDC, democratically elected structures, were removed from the settlement and the provincial government replaced these structures with an unelected ANC affiliated Community Policing Forum. The attacks and forced removal of AbM from the settlement garnered national and international condemnation. 
The government has been under sustained controversy for their eviction of shackdwellers in the Cato Crest area despite a court interdict ordering them not to do so. The General Council of the Bar has also expressed concern over the evictions.
Durban and its suburbs are hilly, except for locations in and around the central business district and the harbour.
Durban has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with hot and humid summers and pleasantly warm and dry winters, which are snow and frost-free. Durban has an annual rainfall of 1,009 millimetres (39.7 in). The average temperature in summer ranges around 24 °C (75 °F), while in winter the average temperature is 17 °C (63 °F). Sunrise in Durban on summer solstice occurs at 04:45 and sunset at 19:00; on winter solstice, sunrise is at 06:30 and sunset at 17:20. The rainy season is in summer which begins in November, ending in mid-April. Summers are sunny, hot and humid during the day, but are relieved by afternoon or evening thunderstorms. The city is also occasionally affected by tropical storms and cyclones during the cyclone season, which is from 15 November to 30 April. Winters, which are from June to August, are generally warm and sunny.
|Climate data for Durban (1961−1990)|
|Record high °C (°F)||36.2
|Average high °C (°F)||27.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||24.1
|Average low °C (°F)||21.1
|Record low °C (°F)||14.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||134
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||15.2||12.9||12.6||9.2||6.8||4.5||4.9||7.1||11.0||15.1||16.0||15.0||130.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||80||80||80||78||76||72||72||75||77||78||79||79||77|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||184.0||178.8||201.6||206.4||223.6||224.9||230.4||217.0||173.3||169.4||166.1||189.9||2,365.4|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organization|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun, extremes and humidity)|
Durban is ethnically diverse, with a cultural richness of mixed beliefs and traditions. Zulus form the largest single ethnic group. It has a large number of people of British descent and has the most Indians of any city outside India.
The population of the city of Durban increased 10.9% between 2001 and 2011 from 536,644 to 595,061. The number of Black Africans increased while the number of people in all the other racial groups decreased. Black Africans increased from 34.9% to 51.1%. Indian or Asians decreased from 27.3% to 24.0%. Whites decreased from 25.5% to 15.3%. Coloureds decreased from 10.26% to 8.59%. A new racial group, Other, was included in the 2011 census at 0.93%.
The city’s demographics indicate that 68% of the population are of working age, and 38% of the people in Durban are under the age of 19 years.
There were 1,237 homicides in the Durban metropolitan area in 2015. The murder rate in 2015 was 35.9 per 100,000 people (for comparison, Detroit had a murder rate of 43.9 per 100,000 people in 2015). The murder rate for the whole of South Africa was 33 per 100,000. Today, Durban is more dangerous than Johannesburg but much safer than Cape Town which had a murder rate of 65.53 per 100,000 in 2014. This is a radical shift from previous decades when Johannesburg was the most dangerous of these cities and Cape Town the safest.
Criminals usually avoid targeting tourists because they know that the police response will be greater.
The safest areas are Westville and Berea which both recorded only 2 murders in 2015. There was a period of intense violence in the 1990s and the Durban area recorded a murder rate of 83 per 100,000 in 1999. The murder rate dropped rapidly in the 2000s and has been slowly increasing in the 2010s. Durban is one of the main drug trafficking routes for drugs exiting and entering Sub-Saharan Africa. The drug trade has increased significantly over the past 20 years.
|This section does not cite any sources. (September 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The Durban Metropolitan Area (DMA) has a large and diversified economy with strong manufacturing, tourism, transportation, finance and government sectors. Its coastal location and large port gives it comparative advantage over many other centers in South Africa for export-related industry. Durban's subtropical climate, warm marine current and culturally diverse population has drawn in tourists.
Durban remains the third richest city in South Africa. In 2015, a report by AfrAsia Bank and research company New World Wealth listed Durban among the top cities in Africa with the most millionaires. Durban placed 7th with 2700 millionaires 
The city has revitalised its inner areas with the new Durban Point Waterfront development south-east of downtown sporting uShaka Marine World and many new residential and leisure developments. Efforts by the city to clean up the business district, new developments in Point and the 2010 FIFA World Cup stadium north of the CBD (Moses Mabidha Stadium) has aided in the economic turnaround. In 2010, Durban was rated as a Gamma-level global city.
Durban's economic contribution to the region
The Durban Metropolitan Area is the main economic driver in KwaZulu-Natal, contributing over half of the province's output, employment and income. In national terms, Durban is the second most important economic complex after Gauteng, accounting for 15% of national output, 14% of household income and 11% of national employment. Regional development corridors link Durban northwards to Richards Bay and Maputo, and westward to Pietermaritzburg and Johannesburg.
Military facilities and units
|This section does not cite any sources. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The South African Army's Natal Command was located in Durban for many years. From August 1974 84 Motorised Brigade was based at the Old Fort Road Military Base in Durban. Many of its units were located in Durban. These included the Durban Light Infantry located nearby in their historic buildings within the Greyville Racecourse, the Durban Regiment, 84 Signal Unit SACS, 15 Maintenance Unit, 19 Field Engineer Regiment SAEC, and Natal Field Artillery, all based in the Old Fort Road Military Base. Natal Mounted Rifles, or NMR as it is better known, has their HQ a little further north just across from the Kings Park rugby stadium and the Moses Mabhida Stadium. The Umvoti Mounted Rifles are based across the freeway from the Edgewood campus in the old Highway Command grounds. The Bluff Military Base houses a number of units including a sickbay and the local JOC. The Air Force has a base at the old Durban International Airport, which is still the home of 15 Squadron, a helicopter unit. The Navy has maintained a small presence on Salisbury Island in the Durban harbour, the base is being renovated and expanded as a home for the Navy's offshore patrol flotilla.
The city's treatment of shack dwellers has been strongly criticised by a report from the United Nations linked Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions and there has also been strong criticism of the city's treatment of street traders, street children and sex workers. Durban is known throughout the world for its strain of marijuana called 'durban poison' which was developed in the late 1970s. It is one of the most common strains sold by car guards and street dealers throughout eThekweni.
There are a number of prominent civil society organisations based in Durban. These include: Abahlali baseMjondolo (shackdwellers') movement, the Diakonia Council of Churches, the Right2Know Campaign, the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance and the South African Unemployed Peoples' Movement.
- The Golden Mile: Segway and bike hires provide the best tour and experience of the Durban Beachfront.
- uShaka Marine World, consisting of a water theme park and one of the largest aquariums in the world.
- The Markets of Warwick—possibly the largest informal street market in South Africa
- The Victoria Embankment (also known as the Esplanade) is home to many tourist sites.
- Revolving Restaurant is present on the Victoria Embankment
- The International Convention Centre (ICC)—the leading conference centre in Africa for the last 5 years, and rated 4th in the world in 2005.
- uMhlanga Beach with the iconic lighthouse
Dining and entertainment areas
- Florida Road, Morningside
- uMhlanga Ridge
- Swapo Road, Durban North
Nature and wildlife
- Burman Bush
- The Durban Botanic Gardens offer great scenery and occasional musical events near the lake.
- Hawaan Forest
- New Germany Nature Reserve
- Pigeon Valley Nature reserve
- Umgeni River Bird Park
- Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve
- Suncoast Casino and Entertainment World located on the beachfront in close proximity to the Moses Mabhida Stadium.
- Sibaya Casino and Entertainment World
- Gateway Theatre of Shopping
- The Pavilion Shopping Centre
- Galleria on the Durban South Coast
- Bridge City Shopping Centre in the Inanda, KwaMashu, Phoenix intersection
- Westwood Mall
- La Lucia Mall in Durban North
- Musgrave Shopping Centre, Berea
- Watercrest Shopping Center—Inanda road in the Hillcrest area
- Rinaldo Shopping Centre in Durban North
- City View Shopping Centre in Durban Central
Stadia and sports facilities
- Moses Mabhida Stadium. Activities include a Skycar ride or Adventure Walk to the top of the arch with 360 degree views over Durban; Guinness world record Bungee swing; Segway gliding tours of the stadium; Cafes and Restaurants; Monthly I Heart Durban market;
- Kingsmead Cricket Ground is a major test match and one-day cricket venue.
- Kings Park Stadium is host to the internationally renowned Sharks Rugby Team.
- Greyville Racecourse (home of the Durban July Handicap) and Durban Country Club and golf course.
- Durban Ice Arena Activities include leisure ice skating , birthday parties , school excursions , sporting events , teambuilding activities , corporate functions and group bookings.
Communications and media
Two major English-language daily newspapers are published in Durban, both part of the Independent Newspapers, the national group owned by Irish media magnate Tony O'Reilly. These are the morning editions of The Mercury and the afternoon Daily News. Like most news media in South Africa, they have seen declining circulations in recent years. Major Zulu language papers comprise Isolezwe ( Independent Newspapers), UmAfrika and Ilanga, the latter being seen to be politically aligned to the IFP. Independent Newspapers also publish Post, a newspaper aimed largely at the Indian community. A national Sunday paper, the Sunday Tribune is also published by Independent Newspapers as is the Independent on Saturday.
A variety of free weekly suburban newspapers are published by the Caxton Group and there are numerous "community" newspapers, some of which are short lived and others which have had stable tenure. The tabloid newspaper group situated in North Coast Road, Durban has also added to the variety of community newspapers. They have ten newspaper publications, three of them in the isiZulu language. Community newspapers target specific areas or zones rooting out and exposing community issues like a magnifying glass. These papers rely solely on advertising revenue and are delivered to each house hold irrespective of race or wealth. Many journalists gain experience at these papers before moving on to other major national publications.
A major city initiative is the eZasegagasini Metro Gazette (). It is the official newspaper of the eThekwini Municipality, through which ratepayers and residents are kept informed about projects, programmes and activities of the eThekwini Municipality. It is also a forum for readers’ views. Published fortnightly, the newspaper hits the streets on a Friday morning, with 400 000 copies distributed in English and Zulu. The publication is an in-house product of the Municipality’s Communications Department.
The national broadcaster, the SABC, has regional offices in Durban and operates two major stations here, the Zulu language Ukhozi FM with a huge national listenership of over 6.67 million which makes it the second largest radio station in the world. The SABC also operates Radio Lotus, which is aimed at South Africans of Indian origin. The other SABC national stations have smaller regional offices here, as does TV for news links and sports broadcasts. A major English language radio station, East Coast Radio (www.ecr.co.za), operates out of Durban and is owned by SA media giant Kagiso Media. There are a number of smaller stations which are independent, having been granted licences by ICASA, the national agency charged with the issue of broadcast licences.
Sports teams and stadiums
Durban is home to the Sharks who compete in the domestic Currie Cup competition as well as in the international Super Rugby competition. The Sharks' home ground is the 56,000 capacity Kings Park Stadium, sometimes referred to as the Shark Tank.
The city is home to two clubs in the Premier Soccer League—AmaZulu, and Golden Arrows. AmaZulu play most of their home games at the Moses Mabhida Stadium. While Golden Arrows play most of their home games at the King Zwelithini Stadium in the suburb of Umlazi, but sometimes play some of their matches at Moses Mabhida Stadium or Chatsworth Stadium.
Durban is host to the KwaZulu-Natal cricket team, who play as the Dolphins when competing in the Sunfoil Series. Shaun Pollock, Jonty Rhodes, Lance Klusener, Barry Richards, Andrew Hudson, Hashim Amla, Vince van der Bijl, Kevin Pietersen, Dale Benkenstein and David Miller are all players or past players of the Natal cricket team. International cricketers representing them include Malcolm Marshall, Dwayne Bravo and Graham Onions. Cricket in Durban is played at Kingsmead cricket ground.
Durban hosted matches in the 2003 ICC Cricket World Cup. In 2007 the city hosted nine matches, including a semi-final, as part of the inaugural ICC World Twenty20. The 2009 IPL season was played in South Africa, and Durban was selected as a venue. 2010 saw the city host six matches, including a semi-final, in the 2010 Champions League Twenty20.
The city is home to Greyville Racecourse, a major thoroughbred horse racing venue which annually hosts a number of prestigious races including the country's premier event, the July Handicap, and the premier staying event in South Africa, the Gold Cup. Clairwood racecouse, south of the city was a popular racing venue for many years, but was sold by the KZN racing authority in 2012.
A professional tennis venue is located at Westridge Park near the Berea, in addition Durban has facilities for water polo, hockey and other sports. Durban and the surrounding areas are also well patronised by professional and amateur golfers, with the golf course at Durban Country Club near the CBD being particularly well known.
An Olympic-standard swimming pool is found in the Kings Park Sporting Precinct. Durban is home to Chad le Clos, the 200 meter butterfly Olympic Champion of 2012. The outstanding beach front has played host to numerous surfing competitions such as the Gunston 500 competition and the related Ocean Action festival. Beach volleyball is regularly played on local beaches and Powerboat racing has taken place in the harbour.
King Shaka International Airport services both domestic and international flights, with regularly scheduled services to Dubai, Istanbul, Doha, Addis Ababa, Mauritius, Harare, Lusaka & Maputo, as well as 8 domestic destinations. The airport's position forms part of the Golden Triangle between Johannesburg and Cape Town, which is important for convenient travel and trade between these three big South African cities. The airport opened in May 2010, replacing all operations from Durban International Airport. King Shaka International Airport handled 4.93 million passengers in the 2015/2016 year, up 9 percent from the 2014/2015 year. King Shaka International Airport was constructed at La Mercy, about 36 kilometres (22 mi) north of central Durban. All operations at Durban International have been transferred to King Shaka International as of 1 May 2010; with plans for flights to Singapore, London, Mumbai, Australia, Gaborone, Windhoek, Luanda, Lilongwe & Nairobi.
The Durban International Airport was used by the South African Defence Force during the 2010 FIFA World Cup and as a secondary airport to handle overflow. The airport serves as a major gateway for travellers to KwaZulu-Natal and the Drakensberg.
Durban has a long tradition as a port city. The Port of Durban, which was formerly known as the Port of Natal, is one of the few natural harbours between Port Elizabeth and Maputo, and is also located at the beginning of a particular weather phenomenon which can cause extremely violent seas. These two features made Durban an extremely busy port of call for ship repairs when the port was opened in the 1840s. The Port of Durban is now the busiest port in South Africa, as well as the third busiest container port in the Southern Hemisphere.
The modern Port of Durban grew around trade from Johannesburg, as the industrial and mining capital of South Africa is not located on any navigable body of water. Thus, products being shipped from Johannesburg outside of South Africa have to be loaded onto trucks or railways and transported to Durban. The Port of Maputo was unavailable for use until the early 1990s due to civil war and an embargo against South African products. There is now an intense rivalry between Durban and Maputo for shipping business.
Durban has a very popular cruise industry. MSC Cruises bases the MSC Sinfonia in Durban from November to April every year. Durban is the most popular cruise hub in Southern Africa. Cruise destinations from Durban on the MSC Sinfonia include Mozambique, Mauritius, Madagascar and other domestic destinations such as Port Elizabeth and Cape Town. Many other ships cruise through Durban every year including some of the worlds biggest such as the RMS Queen Mary 2 which is the biggest ocean liner in the world.
Naval Base Durban on Salisbury Island (now joined to the mainland and part of the Port of Durban), was established as a naval base during the Second World War. It was downgraded in 2002 to a naval station. In 2012 a decision was made to renovate and expand the facilities back up to a full naval base to accommodate the South African Navy's offshore patrol flotilla. In December 2015 it was redesignated Naval Base Durban.
Durban is well-served by railways due to its role as the largest trans-shipment point for goods from the interior of South Africa. Shosholoza Meyl, the passenger rail service of Spoornet, operates two long-distance passenger rail services from Durban: a daily service to and from Johannesburg via Pietermaritzburg and Newcastle, and a weekly service to and from Cape Town via Kimberley and Bloemfontein. These trains terminate at Durban railway station.
Metrorail operates a commuter rail service in Durban and the surrounding area. The Metrorail network runs from Durban Station outwards as far as Stanger on the north coast, Kelso on the south coast, and Cato Ridge inland.
The city's main position as a port of entry onto the southern African continent has led to a development of national roads around it. The N3 Western Freeway; which links Durban with the economic hinterland of Gauteng heads west out of the city. The N2 Outer Ring Road links Durban with the Eastern Cape to the south, and Mpumalanga in the north. The Western Freeway is particularly important because freight is shipped by truck to and from the Witwatersrand for transfer to the port.
The N3 Western Freeway starts in the central business district and heads west under Tollgate Bridge and through the suburbs of Sherwood and Mayville. The EB Cloete Interchange (which is informally nicknamed the Spaghetti Junction) lies to the east of Westville, allowing for transfer of traffic between the N2 Outer Ring Road and the Western Freeway.
Durban also has a system of freeway and dual arterial metropolitan routes, which connect the sprawling suburbs that lie to the north, west and south of the city. The M4 exists in two segments: The northern segment, named the Ruth First Highway, starts as an alternative highway at Ballito where it separates from the N2. It passes through the northern suburbs of Umhlanga and La Lucia where it becomes a dual carriageway and ends at the northern edge of the CBD. The southern segment of the M4, the Albert Lutuli  Highway, starts at the southern edge of the CBD, connecting through to the old, decommissioned Durban International Airport, where it once again reconnects with the N2 Outer Ring Road.
The M13 is an untolled alternative to the N3 Western Freeway (which is tolled at Mariannhill). It also feeds traffic through Gillitts, Kloof, and Westville. In the Westville area it is called the Jan Smuts Highway, while in the Kloof area it is named the Arthur Hopewell Highway.
A number of streets in Durban were renamed in the late 2000s to the names of figures related to the anti-apartheid struggle, persons related to liberation movements around the world (including Che Guevara, Kenneth Kaunda and SWAPO), and others associated with the governing African National Congress. A few street names were changed in the first round of renaming, followed by a larger second round. The renamings provoked incidents of vandalism, as well as protests from opposition parties and members of the public.
The People Mover is a tourist-oriented bus service which runs every 15 minutes and consists of three routes within the central business district and along the beachfront, connecting various attractions.
Several companies run long-distance bus services from Durban to the other cities in South Africa. Buses have a long history in Durban. Most of them run by Indian owners since the early 1930s. Privately owned buses who are not subsidised by the government service the communities timeoulsy. Buses operate in all areas of the eThekwini Municipality. Since 2003 buses have been violently taken out of the routes and bus ranks by taxi operators. This has brought bus operations into disarray. Bus owners have bought into taxi operations using their bus permits to make a living.
Durban has two kinds of taxis: metered taxis and minibus taxis. Unlike many cities, metered taxis are not allowed to drive around the city to solicit fares and instead must be called and ordered to a specific location. There are a number of companies which service the Durban and surrounding regions. These taxis can also be called upon for airport transfers, point to point pick ups and shuttles.
Mini bus taxis are the standard form of transport for the majority of the population who cannot afford private cars. With the high demand for transport by the working class of South Africa, minibus taxis are often filled over their legal passenger allowance, making for high casualty rates when minibuses are involved in accidents. Minibuses are generally owned and operated in fleets, and inter-operator violence flares up from time to time, especially as turf wars over lucrative taxi routes occur.
Durban is also famous for its iconic Zulu Rickshaw pullers navigating throughout the city. These colourful characters are famous for their giant, vibrant hats and costumes. Although they had been a mode of transportation since the early 1900s, they have been displaced by other forms of motorised transport, and the 25 or so remaining rickshaws mostly cater to tourists today.
- University of KwaZulu-Natal
- Durban University of Technology
- Mangosuthu University of Technology
- Varsity College
- Regent Business School
- University of South Africa
Twin towns and sister cities
- Alexandria, Egypt
- Bremen, Germany
- Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
- Chicago, Illinois, USA
- Daejeon, South Korea
- Guangzhou, China
- Le Port, Réunion
- Leeds, UK
- Maputo, Mozambique
- Nantes, France
- New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
- Oran, Algeria
- Rotterdam, Netherlands
Other twins
- Art Deco in Durban
- Black December
- Durban Industry Climate Change Partnership Project (DICCPP)
- Durban International Film Festival
- Durban Youth Council
- World Conference against Racism 2001 – held in Durban
- "Chronological order of town establishment in South Africa based on Floyd (1960:20-26)" (PDF). pp. xlv–lii.
- "Main Place Durban". Census 2011.
- "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- Statistics South Africa, Community Survey, 2007, Basic Results Municipalities (pdf-file). Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- Municipal Demarcation Board, South Africa. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- Skade, Thandi (2015-05-07). "Durban is SA’s fastest-growing 'Millionaire City' | DESTINY Magazine". Destinyconnect.com. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- Tejada, Ariel Paolo (9 May 2015). "Vigan declared 'Wonder City'". Manila: The Philippine STAR. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Eric A. Walker (1964) . "Chapter I: The discovery". A History of Southern Africa. London: Longmans.
- Eric A. Walker (1965) . "Chapter VII: The period of change 1823–36". A History of Southern Africa. London: Longmans.
- Adrian Koopman. "The Names and the Naming of Durban". Natalia, the Journal of the Natal Society. Archived from the original on 3 November 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
- T.V. Bulpin (1977) . "Chapter XII: Twilight of the Republic". Natal and the Zulu Country. Cape Town: T.V. Bulpin Publications.
- Bruce Berry (8 May 2006). "Durban (South Africa) - Flags of the World". Retrieved 8 July 2010.
- Ralf Hartemink. "Durban - Civic Heraldry of South Africa". Retrieved 8 July 2010.
- "South Africa's transport network". SouthAfrica.info. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Durban Corporation BylawseThekwini Online
- "ngopulse". ngopulse. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "'Attackers associated with ANC'". News24.
- "Joint Statement on the attacks on the Kennedy Road Informal Settlement in Durban". Professor John Dugard SC, et al.
- The Work of violence:a timeline of armed attacks at Kennedy Road, Kerry Chance School of Development Studies Research Report, 83, July 2010.]
- The Work of Violence: Armed Attacks at the Kennedy Road Shack Settlement, Kerry Chance, UKZN, March 2011
- "Academics condemn attack on settlement". BusinessDay.
- "Democracy's Everyday Death – The Country's Quiet Coup". AllAfrica.
- "Statement in support of Abahlali baseMjondolo". Abahlali baseMjondolo.
- Statement in support of Abahlali baseMjondolo, by Noam Chomsky et al, 9 October 2009
- "The Return to Kennedy Road Campaign". TMP Online.
- eThekwini interdicted from evictiong cato crest residents SERI-SA
- Shack dwellers take the fight to eThekwini – and the ANC takes note SERI-SA
- General bar council expresses concern over cato crest evictions SERI-SA
- "World Weather Information Service—Durban". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
- "Durban/Louis Both Climate Normals 1961−1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
- Mukherji, Anahita (23 June 2011). "Durban largest 'Indian' city outside India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
- "Census 2001 — Main Place “Durban”". Census2001.adrianfrith.com. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- "Census 2011 — Main Place “Durban”". Census2011.adrianfrith.com. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- "Biblioteca". Seguridadjusticiaypaz.org.mx. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- "FACTSHEET: South Africa's 2014/15 murder and robbery crime statistics". Daily Maverick. 2015-09-29. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- "World’s most violent cities: SA getting worse". Businesstech.co.za. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- "Top Durban, South Africa Warnings and Dangers on VirtualTourist". Virtualtourist.com. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- "City crime trends - Nedbank ISS Crime Index vol 5 No 1". Issafrica.org. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- SABC. "SABC News - Illegal drug trading on the rise in Durban:Wednesday 5 March 2014". sabc.co.za.
- Zamaswazi Mdhuli. "Durban ranked in the top cities with the most millionaires in Africa". 5 Star Durban - Showcasing Beautiful KwaZulu-Natal.
- South Africa: Business as Usual – housing rights and slum eradication in Durban, Centre on Housing Rights & Evictions, Geneva, 2008
- From best practice to Pariah: the case of Durban, South Africa by Pat Horn, Street Net Archived 6 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Criminalising the Livelihoods of the Poor: The impact of formalising informal trading on female and migrant traders in Durban by Blessing Karumbidza, Socio-Economic Rights Institute of South Africa (February 2011)
- Life in 'Tin Can Town' for the South Africans evicted ahead of World Cup, David Smith, The Guardian, 1 April 2010
- The dirty shame of Durban's 'clean-up' campaign of city streets, The Daily Maverick, 24 December 2013
- "Cannabis Encyclopedia strain review: Durban Poison | Marijuana and Cannabis News". Toke of the Town. 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- The opening remarks of S'bu Zikode, President of the Abahlali baseMjondolo movement of South Africa,at the Center for Place, Culture and Politics at the CUNY Graduate Center (NYC), 16 November 2010
- ANC Intimidates Witness X, More Intimidation and More Killing in Kennedy Road, 23 December 2010
- Churches want justice
- Independent Newspapers Online. "200 march against Information Bill". Independent Online.
- Churches Ask Parties to Preach Tolerance
- No mercy, no grants, says Mkhize
- "New Germany Nature Reserve". durban.gov.za. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
- "Durban hosts 2022 Commonwealth Games". BBC Sport. 2 September 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
- "Clairwood Racecourse sold for R430 million". Sporting Post. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
- Carnie, Tony (25 February 2014). "R2bn Clairwood racecourse park rejected". Business Report. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
- Leon Engelbrecht. "Navy may upgrade Naval Station Durban". defenceweb.co.za.
- Helfrich, Kim (2015-12-09). "Minister says it’s Naval Base Durban, not Station". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
- Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways, vol 1: 1859–1910, (D.F. Holland, 1971), p11, 20–21, ISBN 0-7153-5382-9
- "Railway Gazette: Ambitious plans will still need funding". Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- Independent Newspapers Online (2 July 2008). "New road names go up - Politics | IOL News". Independent Online. South Africa. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Bainbridge, James (2009). South Africa, Lesotho & Swaziland. Lonely Planet. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
-  Archived 5 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Wines, Michael (25 May 2007). "Where the Road to Renaming Does Not Run Smooth". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Durban People Mover. "Durban People Mover ... The future begins here". Retrieved 3 May 2009.
- Reporter, Staff. "Durban city buses torched". The M&G Online. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- "Transport". CapeTown.org.
- "South Africa's minibus wars: uncontrollable law-defying minibuses oust buses and trains from transit". LookSmart.[dead link]
- "Transportation in Developing Countries: Greenhouse Gas Scenarios of south alabama". Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, formerly the Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
- "Taxing Alternatives: Poverty Alleviation and the South African Taxi/Minibus Industry". Enterprise Africa! Research Publications. Archived from the original on 25 August 2006.
- Ethekwini Municipality Communications Department, edited by Fiona Wayman, Neville Grimmet and Angela Spencer. "Zulu Rickshaws". Durban.gov.za. Archived from the original on 19 May 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Isipingo Secondary School". IsipingoSecondary.com. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Virginia Preparatory School". Virginiaprep.co.za. 21 January 1958. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- Sister Cities Home Page at the Wayback Machine (archived August 10, 2011)
- Frohmader, Andrea. "Bremen - Referat 32 Städtepartnerschaften / Internationale Beziehungen" [Bremen - Unit 32 Twinning / International Relations]. Das Rathaus Bremen Senatskanzlei [Bremen City Hall - Senate Chancellery] (in German). Retrieved 2013-08-09.[dead link]
- "Guangzhou Sister Cities [via WaybackMachine.com]". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- Le Port est jumelé à quatre villes portuaires (French)
- Villes de Durban (eThekwini en zulu) et du Port sont jumelées depuis le 4 novembre 2005 (French)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Durban.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Durban.|