György Kurtág (Hungarian: [ˈɟørɟ ˈkurtaːɡ]; born 19 February 1926) is a Hungarian classical composer and pianist. He was an academic teacher of piano at the Franz Liszt Academy of Music from 1967, later also of chamber music, and taught until 1993.
György Kurtág was born in Lugoj in the Banat region of Romania, to Hungarian parents. He became a Hungarian citizen in 1948, after moving to Budapest in 1946. There, he began his studies at the Franz Liszt Academy of Music, where he met his wife, Márta Kinsker, as well as composer György Ligeti, who became a close friend. His piano teacher at the academy was Pál Kadosa. He studied composition with Sándor Veress and Ferenc Farkas, chamber music with Leó Weiner, and theory with Lajos Bárdos, and graduated in piano and chamber music in 1951 before receiving his degree in composition in 1955. He married Márta in 1947 and their son György was born in 1954.
Following the Hungarian uprising in 1956, Kurtág's time in Paris between 1957 and 1958 was of critical importance for him. Here, he studied with Max Deutsch, Olivier Messiaen and Darius Milhaud. During this time, however, Kurtag was suffering from severe depression, saying "I realized to the point of despair that nothing I had believed to constitute the world was true…".[This quote needs a citation] Kurtág received therapy from art psychologist Marianne Stein, who encouraged him to work from the simplest musical elements, an encounter that revivified the composer and strongly stimulated his artistic development. During this time, he also discovered the works of Anton Webern and the plays of Samuel Beckett. The string quartet he composed in 1959 after his return to Budapest marks this crucial turning point; he refers to this piece as his Opus 1. He dedicated it to his therapist, Stein.
Kurtág worked as a répétiteur at the Bartók Music School (1958–63) and at the National Philharmonia in Budapest (1960–68). In 1967, he was appointed professor of piano and later also of chamber music at the Franz Liszt Academy, where he taught until 1993.
Kurtág's first international opportunity came in 1968 when his largest work to date, The Sayings of Peter Bornemisza, was performed by Erika Sziklay and Lóránt Szűcs at the Darmstadt Summer Courses for New Music. The critical response was not positive, and his international recognition began to grow only later with Messages of the Late Miss R.V. Troussova for soprano and chamber ensemble, which had its premiere in Paris in 1981.
Since the early 1990s, he has worked abroad with increasing frequency: he was composer in residence at the Berlin Philharmonic (1993–95) and the Vienna Konzerthaus Society (1995). He then lived in the Netherlands (1996–98), again in Berlin (1998–99) and upon invitation by Ensemble InterContemporain, Cité de la Musique, and Festival d’Automne, in Paris (1999–2001). György Kurtág and his wife lived near Bordeaux from 2002 to 2015, when they moved back to Budapest. The couple remained married until her death in October 2019 in Budapest.
According to scholar Rachel Beckles Willson, "Kurtág composes painstakingly and haltingly: in 1985, when he was 59, his output had reached only op.23, and several works remained unfinished or had been withdrawn for revision."
Kurtág's compositions are often made up of many very brief movements. Kafka-Fragments, for instance, is an approximately 55-minute song cycle for soprano and solo violin made up of 40 short movements, setting extracts from Franz Kafka's writings, diaries, and letters. Music journalist Tom Service wrote that Kurtág's music "… involved reducing music to the level of the fragment, the moment, with individual pieces or movements lasting mere seconds, or a minute, perhaps two." Most extreme of all, his piano piece "Flowers We Are, Mere Flowers" from the eighth volume of Játékok ("Games") consists of just seven notes. Because of this interest in miniatures, Kurtág's music is often compared to that of Anton Webern.
Prior to Stele, Op. 33 (written for the Berlin Philharmonic and Claudio Abbado), his compositions consist mainly of vocal solo and choral music as well as instrumental music, ranging from solo pieces to works for chamber ensembles of increasing size. Since Stele, a number of large scale compositions have been premiered, such as Messages Op. 34 and New Messages Op. 34a for orchestra and the double concerto …concertante… Op. 42. Kurtág's first opera, Fin de partie, based on Samuel Beckett's Endgame, was premiered at La Scala on 15 November 2018, eight years after the original commission.
Beginning in the late 1980s, Kurtág wrote several works in which the spatial distribution of instruments plays an important role. His composition, … quasi una fantasia… for piano and ensemble, premiered in 1988, is the first piece in which he explores the idea of music that spatially embraces the audience.
Kurtág often held master classes in chamber music, and appeared in concerts together with his wife Márta. The couple played an always-renewing selection of pieces for two- and four-hand piano from Kurtág's ten-volume collection Játékok as well as transcriptions.
Kurtág is the recipient of numerous awards, including Officier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 1985, the Kossuth Award of the Hungarian government for his life achievement in 1973, the Austrian Ehrenzeichen in 1996, and the Ernst von Siemens Music Prize in 1998. In addition, Kurtág is a member of the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts, Munich, and of the Akademie der Künste, Berlin (both since 1987), and he was named an Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 2001. In 2006, he received the Grawemeyer Award for his composition …concertante… op. 42 for violin, viola and orchestra.
He received the 2014 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the category of Contemporary Music for, in the view of the jury, its "rare expressive intensity". "The novel dimension of his music," the citation continues, “lies not in the material he uses but in its spirit, the authenticity of its language, and the way it crosses borders between spontaneity and reflection, between formalism and expression."
Invited by Walter Fink, he was the 14th composer featured in the annual Komponistenporträt of the Rheingau Musik Festival in 2004. The Ensemble Modern and soloists performed his works op. 19, op. 31b and op. 17. On the occasion of his 80th birthday in February 2006, the Budapest Music Centre honoured György Kurtág with the celebration of a festival in his hometown. The same year's editions of Musikfest Berlin, Vienna modern, Holland Festival and Festival d'Automne in Paris dedicated special programmes to Kurtág.
- Erkel Prize in 1955 and 1969
- Kossuth Prize (1973)
- UNESCO's International Rostrum of Composers (1983)
- Music Prize of the Prince Pierre of Monaco Foundation (1993)
- International Antonio Feltrinelli Prize (1993)
- Composers Award of the State of Austria (1994)
- Denis de Rougemot Prize of the European Festivals Association (1994)
- Kossuth Prize for Lifetime Achievement (1996)
- Austrian Decoration for Science and Art (1997)
- Composers Award "Promotion of the European economy" (1998)
- Ernst von Siemens Music Prize (1998)
- Honorary Prize for Art and Science of the Institute for Advanced Study Berlin (1999)
- Pour le Mérite for Science and Art (1999)
- Foundation for Contemporary Arts Grants to Artists Award (2000)
- Commander with Star of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (2001)
- John Cage Award (2003)
- Sonning Award (2003; Denmark)
- Grand Cross of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (2006)
- University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition (2006; U.S.)
- Golden Lion of the Venice Biennale for lifetime achievement (53rd International Festival of Contemporary Music; 2009)
- Zurich Festival Prize (2010)
- Royal Philharmonic Society Gold Medal (2013)
- BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Contemporary Music (2014)
- Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2015)
- Rolf Schock Prize (2020)
- Service, Tom (12 March 2013). "A guide to György Kurtág's music". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "György Kurtág". info.bmc.hu. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- Willson, Rachel Beckles (2001). "Kurtág, György". Grove Music Online. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- György Kurtág biography, UE
- Griffiths, Paul (1995). Modern Music and After. Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-8126-9435-X.
- Allen, David (25 October 2019). "Marta Kurtag Dies at 92, Sundering a Profound Musical Partnership". The New York Times.
- "Fin de partie – Teatro alla Scala". www.teatroallascala.org. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- Clements, Andrew (19 November 2018). "Fin de Partie review – Kurtág's compelling musical testament". the Guardian. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "The BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the Contemporary Music category goes in this seventh edition to the Hungarian composer György Kurtág". 10 February 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- Leticia, Yustos (10 February 2015). "György Kurtág premio Fundación BBVA Fronteras del Conocimiento en la especialidad de música contemporánea". Doce Notas. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- Miguel, Pérez Martín (10 February 2015). "György Kurtág gana el Premio BBVA de Música Contemporánea" (in Spanish). El País (Grupo Prisa). Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "György Kurtág". Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "Recipients of the Foundation for Contemporary Arts". Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "György Kurtág". Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "2006– György Kurtág". Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "Gyorgy Kurtag". Royal Philharmonic Society. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "The Schock Prizes reward the creation of theories, art and music". The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- "György Kurtág". info.bmc.hu. Retrieved 25 January 2010. BMC biography in Magyar (English biography used inline)
- "György Kurtág" (in French). IRCAM – Centre Pompidou. 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- Kennedy, Michael (2006). "György Kurtág". The Oxford Dictionary of Music, second edition. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861459-4.
- Halász, Péter. 1998. György Kurtág. Magyar zeneszerzok 3. Budapest: Mágus Kiadó. ISBN 963-8278-07-2.
- Varga, Bálint András. 2009. György Kurtág: Three Interviews and Ligeti Homages. Eastman studies in Music. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. ISBN 978-1-58046-328-7.
- Willson, Rachel Beckles. 1998a. "The Fruitful Tension between Inspiration and Design in Kurtág's The Sayings of Péter Bornemisza op.7". Mitteilungen der Paul Sacher Stiftung 11:36–41.
- Willson, Rachel Beckles. 1998b. "Kurtág's Instrumental Music, 1988–98". Tempo, new series, no. 207:15–21.
- Willson. Rachel Beckles. 2004. György Kurtág, The Sayings of Peter Bornemisza, op. 7: A "Concerto" for Soprano and Piano. Landmarks in Music Since 1950. Aldershot, Hants, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-0809-7
- György Kurtág biography and works on the UE website (publisher)
- György Kurtág works (59) on the Editio Musica Budapest website (publisher)
- György Kurtág: Biography on the Boosey & Hawkes website
- György Kurtág: Great Hungarian Jewish Composer, No Monk article by Benjamin Ivry in "The Forward", including a picture of Márta and György Kurtág at the piano, 6 February 2009
- Gyorgy Kurtag/ Attendere l'imprevedibile: gli 8 pezzi per pianoforte op. 3, by Luca Belloni. ilsussidiario.net, 29 December 2009 (in Italian)
- Excerpts from sound archives of Kurtag's works.
- Education project on Kurtág`s collection "Játékok" (in German)
- on YouTube