Pierre Boulez

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Boulez in 1968

Pierre Boulez CBE (French: [pjɛʁ bu.lɛːz]; 26 March 1925 – 5 January 2016) was a French composer, conductor, writer and pianist. He was also the founder and director of the Paris-based Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM).

In his early career, Boulez played a key role in the development of integral serialism, controlled chance and electronic music. This, coupled with his highly polemical views on the evolution of music, gained him the reputation as an enfant terrible.[1][2][3][4]

As a conductor, Boulez was known mainly for his performances of Béla Bartók, Alban Berg, Anton Bruckner, Claude Debussy, Gustav Mahler, Maurice Ravel, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, Edgard Varèse and Anton Webern. He was chosen to conduct the Jahrhundertring, the performance of Wagner's Ring cycle for the centenary of the Bayreuth Festival. He conducted the work of his contemporaries such as Elliott Carter and György Ligeti. He received a total of 26 Grammy Awards during his career.

Biography[edit]

Early years[edit]

Boulez was born 26 March 1925, in Montbrison, Loire, France, to Léon, an engineer and director of a steel works, and Marcelle (née Calabre) Boulez.[5][6] From the age of six he was educated at the local Catholic school, where he spent 13-hour days and prayed in the chapel every school day for ten years. The grueling schedule instilled in him an iron discipline but, for him, "the Catholic God was the God that Failed".[7] As a child, he began piano lessons and demonstrated aptitude in both music and mathematics. He studied the latter at Lyon before pursuing music at the Paris Conservatoire under Olivier Messiaen and Andrée Vaurabourg (the wife of Arthur Honegger).[8]

Through Messiaen, Boulez discovered twelve-tone technique‍—‌which he would later study privately with René Leibowitz‍—‌and went on to write atonal music in a post-Webernian serial style.[9] Boulez was initially part of a cadre of early supporters of Leibowitz, but after an altercation their relations deteriorated, and Boulez spent much of his career promoting the music of Messiaen instead.

The first fruits of his studies were his cantatas Le visage nuptial and Le soleil des eaux for female voices and orchestra, both composed in the late 1940s and revised several times since, as well as the Second Piano Sonata of 1948, a well-received 32-minute work that Boulez composed at the age of 23. In the late 1940s, Boulez preferred instrumental forms that were superficially affiliated with the neo-classical movement. He used sonata form as a pretext for thematic presentation.[10] Thereafter, Boulez was influenced by Messiaen's research to extend twelve-tone technique beyond the realm of pitch organization, serialising durations, dynamics, mode of attack, and so on. This technique became known as integral serialism.

Boulez quickly became one of the philosophical leaders of the post-war movement in the arts towards greater abstraction and experimentation. Many composers of Boulez's generation taught at the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik in Darmstadt, Germany. According to Scott Burnham, in the so-called Darmstadt School composers were instrumental in creating a style that, for a time, existed as an "antidote" to music of nationalist fervor; an international, cosmopolitan style that could not be 'co-opted' as propaganda in the way that the Nazis used, for example, the music of Ludwig van Beethoven.[11] Boulez was in contact with many composers who would become influential, including Luciano Berio, John Cage, Luigi Nono, Bruno Maderna, and Karlheinz Stockhausen. Early in his career, he performed as a specialist on the ondes Martenot.[12]

Serialism[edit]

[A]ny musician who has not experienced‍—‌I do not say understood, but truly experienced‍—‌the necessity of dodecaphonic music is USELESS. For his whole work is irrelevant to the needs of his epoch.

— Pierre Boulez ("Eventuellement...", 1952, translated as "Possibly...")[13]

Boulez's totally serialized, punctual works consist of Polyphonie X (1950–51; withdrawn) for 18 instruments, the two musique concrète Études (1951–52), and Structures, book I for two pianos.[14] Structures was also a turning point for Boulez. As one of the most visible totally serialized works, it became a lightning rod for various kinds of criticism. György Ligeti, for example, published an article that examined its patterns of durations, dynamics, pitch, and attack types in great detail, concluding that its "ascetic attitude" is "akin to compulsion neurosis", and that Boulez "had to break away from it ... And so he created the sensual feline world of the 'Marteau'".[15]

These criticisms, combined with what Boulez felt was a lack of expressive flexibility in the language, as he outlined in his essay "At the Limit of Fertile Land..." had already led Boulez to refine his compositional language. He loosened the strictness of his total serialism into a more supple and strongly gestural music, and did not publicly reveal much about these techniques, which limited further discussion. His first venture into this new kind of serialism was a work for 12 solo voices titled Oubli signal lapidé (1952), but it was withdrawn after a single performance. Its material was reused in the 1970 composition Cummings ist der Dichter.[16]

Le marteau sans maître[edit]

Boulez's strongest achievement in this method is Le marteau sans maître (The Hammer without a Master) for ensemble and voice, from 1953 to 1957, a "keystone of 20th-century music".[14] Le marteau was a surprising and revolutionary synthesis of many different streams in modern music, as well as seeming to encompass the sound worlds of modern jazz, the Balinese Gamelan, as well as traditional African and Japanese musics.

Boulez described one of the work's innovations, called "pitch multiplication", in several articles, most importantly in the chapter "Musical Technique" in Boulez 1971. It was Lev Koblyakov, however, who first described its presence in the three "L'artisanat furieux" movements of Le marteau sans maître,[17] in his 1981 doctoral thesis.[18] However, an explanation of the processes themselves was not made until 1993.[19] Other techniques used in the "Bourreaux de solitude" cycle were first described by Ulrich Mosch,[20] and later fully elaborated by him.[21]

Experimentation[edit]

After Le marteau sans maître, Boulez began to strengthen the position of the music of post-1945 composers through conducting and advocacy.[citation needed] He also began to consider new avenues in his own work. With Pli selon pli (Fold upon fold) for orchestra with solo soprano, he began to work with an idea of improvisation and open-endedness. He considered how the conductor might be able to improvise on vague notations, such as the fermata, and how the players might improvise on irrational durations, such as grace notes. In addition, he worked with the idea of leaving the specific ordering of movements or sections of music open to be chosen for a particular night of a performance, an idea related to the polyvalent form of Karlheinz Stockhausen.[citation needed]

Controlled chance[edit]

Why compose works that have to be re-created every time they are performed? Because definitive, once-and-for-all developments seem no longer appropriate to musical thought as it is today, or to the actual state that we have reached in the evolution of musical technique, which is increasingly concerned with the investigation of a relative world, a permanent 'discovering' rather like the state of 'permanent revolution'.

— Pierre Boulez ("Sonate, que me veux-tu?", 1960)[22]

From the 1950s, beginning with the Third Piano Sonata (1955–57/63), Boulez experimented with what he called "controlled chance" and he developed his views on aleatoric music in the articles "Aléa" and "Sonate, que me veux-tu?"[23] His use of chance, which he would later employ in compositions like Éclat (1965), Domaines (1961–68) and Rituel in memoriam Bruno Maderna (1974–75), is very different from that in the works of, for example, John Cage. While in Cage's music the performers are often given the freedom to create completely unforeseen sounds, with the object of removing the composer's intention from the music, in works by Boulez they only get to choose between possibilities that have been written out in detail by the composer‍—‌a method that, when applied to the successional order of sections, is often described as "mobile form", a formal technique innovated by his colleague Earle Brown in 1952 and originally inspired by Alexander Calder's sculptures.[24]

1970s[edit]

Boulez's output since the late 1970s was of a very different kind from the early works that brought him to initial prominence.[citation needed] After a rapid succession of explosive works, such as the three cantatas on poetry by René Char, the first two piano sonatas, and other chamber music, compositions tended to be contemplated and expanded over a long period of time, and were performed in various stages of development. Now resembling a flute concerto with electronics, ...explosante-fixe... was first published in 1971 as a sketch in the journal Tempo as a memorial tribute to Stravinsky, then worked out in various versions, including one for mixed octet with electronics performed in 1973. Éclat/Multiples remained a large fragment, and Dérive II (1988/2002/2006) and Répons (1980/82/84) have been performed in various stages of development.

The desire to expand unrealized possibilities also led Boulez to create related works in series. His early twelve miniatures for piano, Notations (1945), was, since the 1970s, in the process of being expanded as an orchestral cycle. At least seven movements were completed before Boulez's death, although only five have been performed. The material contained in Anthèmes for solo violin was later expanded into an extended composition for violin and electronics Anthèmes 2 and Boulez had been developing it further into a large-scale work for violin and orchestra.[25] Incises, a short work for solo piano, later exploded into Sur Incises for three percussive groups (pianos, harps, percussion) in two very extended movements.

Electronic music[edit]

After the 1960s, during which he had produced little, Boulez began to turn back to the electronic medium and to large extended works. Although unsatisfied with the products of his work with tape in the 1950s (Two Studies, Poésie pour pouvoir), he began to explore the possibilities of live electronic sound manipulation. His first attempt was the 1973 version of ...explosante-fixe.... However, at around this time president Georges Pompidou began to discuss with Boulez the possibility of creating an institute for the exploration and development of modern music where there would be a chance to explore the medium seriously. This was to become IRCAM.[citation needed]

At IRCAM, Boulez created an environment where composers would have at hand the best performers available, and where the most advanced technology and computer scientists would be at their service. Boulez now began to explore the use of electronic sound transformation in real time.[citation needed] Previously, electronic music had to be recorded to tape, which thus 'fixed' it. The temporal aspect of any live music-making in which it played a part had to be coordinated with the tape exactly. Boulez found this impossibly restrictive. Now at IRCAM, he composed Répons, for six soloists, chamber orchestra, and live electronics. With the assistance of Andrew Gerzso, Boulez fashioned a work in which the computer captured the resonance and spatialization of sounds created by the ensemble and processed them in real time.

Last years[edit]

Boulez in 2004

Until his death, Boulez remained one of the leading exponents of 20th-century music.[14] His compositions have made a contribution to musical culture, and his advocacy of modern and postmodern music has been decisive for many. Boulez continued to conduct and compose until his final days. From 1976 to 1995, he held the Chair in Invention, technique et langage en musique at the Collège de France. In 2001, he was the recipient of the Grawemeyer Prize for music composition, for his work Sur Incises. In 2002, he was awarded the Glenn Gould Prize for his contributions. In 2004, with festival director Michael Haefliger, he founded the Lucerne Festival Academy, a summer orchestral institute for young musicians, dedicated to music of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The resident professors are members of the Ensemble InterContemporain.

Early in 2012, Boulez cancelled conducting engagements after an eye operation left him with severely impaired sight.[26] Other health problems included a shoulder injury resulting from a fall.[26][27] He died on 5 January 2016, at his home in Baden-Baden, at the age of 90.[28] He had been ill for some time and had been unable to take part in the many celebrations, held across the world, for his 90th birthday.[29] He was buried on 13 January in Baden-Baden's main cemetery following a church service. At a memorial service the next day at the Church of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, eulogists included Daniel Barenboim, Renzo Piano, and Laurent Bayle, president of the Philharmonie de Paris.[30]

Personal life[edit]

According to music critic Norman Lebrecht, who knew him for decades, Boulez was gay. He moved to Baden-Baden in the 1960s with his lifelong partner, Hans Messmer,[5] whom he sometimes referred to as his valet.[31] In its obituary, The New York Times reported that "about his private life he remained tightly guarded" and that apart from his older sister, Jeanne, "few others were able to break through his reserve".[6] Boulez, who was nevertheless known for his humor, charm, and personal warmth, once said he would be the first composer to die without a biography.[5]

Boulez as a conductor[edit]

Boulez was also a conductor, known for having directed most of the world's leading symphony orchestras and ensembles since the late fifties. His rhythmic precision, achieved with only his hands without the use of a baton, combined with his acute tonal discernment to engender many orchestral legends: "There are countless stories of him detecting, for example, faulty intonation from the third oboe in a complex orchestral texture", wrote The New York Times.[6] He served concurrently as musical adviser of the Cleveland Orchestra from 1970 to 1972, chief conductor of the BBC Symphony Orchestra from 1971 to 1975, and music director of the New York Philharmonic from 1971 to 1977. In addition, he was the Music Director at the Ojai Music Festival on eight different occasions from 1967 to 2003. At the time of his death, he was Conductor Emeritus of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, after having been its Principal Guest Conductor. The orchestras he conducted include the Berlin and Vienna Philharmonics, the London Symphony Orchestra (2004 tour), the Orchestre de Paris, the Ensemble InterContemporain, and the Mahler Chamber Orchestra. In 2005, he began a collaboration with the Staatskapelle Berlin.

Boulez was particularly famed for his polished interpretations of twentieth-century classics‍—‌Alban Berg, Claude Debussy, Gustav Mahler, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, Béla Bartók, Anton Webern and Edgard Varèse[32]‍—‌as well as for numerous performances of contemporary music. Clarity, precision, rhythmic agility and a respect for the composers' intentions as notated in the musical score are the hallmarks of his conducting style.[33][34][35][36] In 1984, he collaborated with Frank Zappa and conducted the Ensemble InterContemporain, who performed three of Zappa's pieces. His 19th-century repertoire focused upon Ludwig van Beethoven, Hector Berlioz, Robert Schumann and especially Richard Wagner. His recording of Anton Bruckner's Eighth Symphony met with considerable critical acclaim.[37] In 1974, he also recorded Maurice Ravel's then little-known orchestral version of "Une Barque sur l'océan" from Miroirs, when there was still no printed score.[38] The score was published only in 1983, and even then in only the first of two slightly different versions Ravel had made.

During his tenure as music director of the New York Philharmonic, he was criticized, even by members of the orchestra, for his concentration on modern repertoire.[39] Nonetheless, Boulez's "Rug Concerts" featuring some contemporary compositions with the New York Philharmonic played a significant role in bridging the widening gap between the New York downtown music scene with concerts of "uptown" music, directed primarily at Columbia University by a former classmate at the Paris Conservatoire and a pupil of Leibowitz, Jacques-Louis Monod. In his 1981 volume of compilation of reviews from The New York Times, Facing the Music, critic Harold C. Schonberg includes a column in which he details how unhappy some members of the New York Philharmonic orchestra were with Boulez during his tenure.

Boulez and Roger Wright, Director of the BBC Proms, returning to the Royal Albert Hall

Boulez also conducted opera productions and made several recordings of opera. He joined the Bayreuth Festival's roster for 1966's Parsifal, after Hans Knappertsbusch died. Subsequently, he was the conductor for the 1976 centenary production of Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, directed by Patrice Chéreau, recordings of which were commercially released in audio and video formats. Boulez reunited with Chéreau for a late-seventies production of Alban Berg's Lulu at the Paris Opera (the first production of the complete opera) and a 2007 production originating at Vienna's Theater an der Wien, later traveling to Amsterdam, of Leoš Janáček's From the House of the Dead, in what Boulez said was the last opera production that he would ever conduct.[40]

In 2004 and 2005, Boulez returned to Bayreuth to conduct a controversial new production of Parsifal directed by Christoph Schlingensief. Other operas Boulez conducted include Berg's Wozzeck (Opéra National de Paris), Wagner's Tristan und Isolde (Bayreuth, Japan tour), Bartók's Bluebeard's Castle (Aix-en-Provence Festival, choreographed by Pina Bausch, and concert performances), Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande (productions for Covent Garden and WNO and concert performances with the Cleveland Orchestra) and Arnold Schoenberg's Moses und Aron (Amsterdam and Salzburg).

On 15 August 2008, he conducted a concert of the music of Leoš Janáček for the BBC Proms at the Royal Albert Hall, preceded by a discussion of the music with Roger Wright, Director of the Proms, in the Royal College of Music.[41]

In 2010, Boulez finished recording his 15-year, multi-orchestra Mahler cycle for Deutsche Grammophon with the Adagio from Mahler's uncompleted Tenth Symphony with the Cleveland Orchestra. To celebrate Boulez's 85th birthday, Deutsche Grammophon released his first Karol Szymanowski recording featuring the composer's popular Violin Concerto No. 1 and Symphony No. 3 "Song of the Night", with the Wiener Philharmoniker, violinist Christian Tetzlaff, tenor Steve Davislim and the Wiener Singverein.

In 2015 Deutsche Grammophon issued a 44 CD limited edition box set of Boulez's recordings of 20th century music to celebrate his 90th birthday, including works by Bartok, Berg, Harrison Birtwistle, Debussy, Ligeti, Messiaen, Ravel, Schoenberg, Stravinsky, and Boulez himself.

In January 2016 BBC Four broadcast the hour-long documentary Pierre Boulez at the BBC: Master and Maverick, introduced by Tom Service.[42]

Boulez as a writer[edit]

Boulez has been called an articulate, perceptive and sweeping writer on music.[43] He wrote on questions of technique and aesthetics in a reflective if sometimes elliptical manner. These writings have mostly been republished under the titles Stocktakings from an Apprenticeship, Orientations: Collected Writings, and Boulez on Music Today, as well as in the journal of the Darmstadt composers of the time, Die Reihe. A third edition of the French texts, with previously uncollected material, appeared under the title Points de repère I, II, and III.[44] Two interviews with Pierre Boulez were published in 2007 and 2008.[45]

Boulez as a performer[edit]

During World War II and for a number of years after, Boulez performed in various capacities on the piano and allied keyboard instruments, often as a "supplemental" musician in orchestral works with choirs and soloists. This activity not only provided him with income, but also gave the young artist the opportunity of meeting and working with important personalities of the time, such as Arthur Honegger.[46] It was as a pianist that Boulez first introduced himself to UK audiences, in a partial premiere of book 2 of his Structures for two pianos, which he performed together with Yvonne Loriod at the Wigmore Hall, London, in March 1957 (Griffiths 1973). The same performers gave the premiere of the complete second book, with two different versions of chapter 2, in a chamber-music concert that was part of the Donaueschinger Musiktage on 21 October 1961 (Südwestrundfunk n.d.).

Selected compositions[edit]

The Ensemble InterContemporain after a performance of Sur Incises in Barbican Hall, London, April 2015
  • Domaines (clarinet solo, 1968–69)
  • Domaines (clarinet and ensemble, 1968–69)
  • Cummings ist der Dichter (for chorus and ensemble, 1970)
  • Ainsi parla Zarathoustra, incidental music (1974)
  • Rituel in memoriam Bruno Maderna (orchestra, 1974–75)
  • Messagesquisse (seven cellos, 1976–77),
  • Notations (piano version 1945, orchestral version 1978/1999–...)
  • Répons (two pianos, harp, vibraphone, glockenspiel, cimbalom, orchestra and electronics, 1980–84)
  • Dialogue de l'ombre double (for clarinet and electronics, 1982–85)
  • Dérive 1 (for six instruments, 1984)
  • Dérive 2 (for eleven instruments, 1988–2006)
  • ...explosante-fixe... (first version for flute, clarinet and trumpet, 1972; second version for octet and electronics, 1973–74; third version for vibraphone and electronics, 1985; fourth version for MIDI-flute, chamber orchestra and electronics, 1991–93)
  • Sur Incises (3 pianos, 3 harps and 3 percussion parts, 1996–98)
  • Dialogue de l'ombre double (transcribed for bassoon and electronics, 1985/1995)
  • Anthèmes 2 (violin and electronics, 1998)
  • Une page d'éphéméride (piano, 2005)

Decorations and awards[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Anon. 2008. "Pierre Boulez—Every Composer Chooses His Fathers". In Talking to Kinky and Karlheinz—170 Musicians Get Vocal on the Music Show, edited by Anni Heino, 254–62. Sydney: ABC Books. ISBN 978-0-7333-2008-8.
  • Barulich, Frances. 1988. "Pierre Boulez by Dominique Jameux; Pierre Boulez und sein Werk by Theo Hirsbrunner; Pierre Boulez: A Symposium edited by William Glock; Orientations: Collected Writings by Pierre Boulez edited and with an introduction by Jean-Jacques Nattiez and translated by Martin Cooper; Éclats/Boulez edited by Claude Samuel with the collaboration of Jacqueline Muller; Pierre Boulez: Eine Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag am 26. März 1985 edited by Josef Häusler; Boulez in Bayreuth/Boulez à Bayreuth: Der Jahrhundert-Ring/The Centenary 'Ring'/Le 'Ring' du centenaire Histoire d'un 'Ring' Entretiens sur la 'Tétralogie du centenaire': Pierre Boulez, Jeffrey Tate, Jean-Jacques Nattiez" [book review]. Notes 2nd series, 45, no. 1 (September): 48–52.
  • Blaustein, Susan. 1989. "The Survival of Aesthetics: Books by Boulez, Delio, Rochberg". Perspectives of New Music 27, no. 1 (Winter): 272–303.
  • Boulez, Pierre. 1971. Boulez on Music Today, translate by Susan Bradshaw and Richard Rodney Bennett. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-08006-8; London: Faber. ISBN 0-571-09420-1
  • Boulez, Pierre 1981. Orientations: Collected Writings, collected and edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez, translated by Martin Cooper. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-64376-3. New edition, translated by Martin Cooper from the second French edition of Points de repère, London and Boston: Faber & Faber, 1986. ISBN 0-571-13811-X (cased); ISBN 0-571-13835-7 (pbk).
  • Boulez, Pierre. 1986. "Sonate, que me veux-tu?" (1960). In his Orientations: Collected Writings, translated by, 143–154. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-14347-4.
  • Boulez, Pierre. 1991a. "Schoenberg is Dead" (1952). In his Stocktakings from an Apprenticeship, collected and presented by Paule Thévenin, translated by Stephen Walsh, with an introduction by Robert Piencikowski, 209–14. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-311210-8
  • Boulez, Pierre. 1991b. "Possibly..." (1952). In his Stocktakings from an Apprenticeship, collected and presented by Paule Thévenin, translated by Stephen Walsh, with an introduction by Robert Piencikowski, 111–40. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-311210-8
  • Boulez, Pierre. 1991c. "Alea" (1957). In his Stocktakings from an Apprenticeship, collected and presented by Paule Thévenin, translated by Stephen Walsh, with an introduction by Robert Piencikowski, 26–38. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-311210-8
  • Boulez, Pierre. 1995. Points de repère. I: Imaginer, edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez and Sophie Galaise, with the collaboration of Robert Piecikowski. Musique/passé/présent. Paris: Bourgois.
  • Boulez, Pierre. 2005a. Points de repère. II: Regards sur autrui, edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez and Sophie Galaise. Musique/passé/présent. Paris: Bourgois.
  • Boulez, Pierre. 2005b. Points de repère. III: Leçons de musique: Deux décennies d'enseignement au Collège de France, edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez, preface by Jonathan Goldman, foreword by Michel Fouculta. Musique/passé/présent. Paris: Bourgois.
  • Boulez, Pierre, and Dan Albertson. 2007. ". . .'ouvert', encore. . .". Contemporary Music Review 26, nos. 3–4 (June–August):.339–40.
  • Burnham, Scott G. "Beethoven, Ludwig van, §19: Posthumous influence and reception (iii) Political reception.", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy. (Subscription access).
  • Di Pietro, Rocco. 2001. Dialogues with Boulez. Lanham, Md.:The Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8108-3932-6
  • Ewen, David. 1971. "Pierre Boulez". In David Ewen, Composers of Tomorrow's Music: A Non-technical Introduction to the Musical Avant-garde Movement, 78–93. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. ISBN 0-396-06286-5
  • Griffiths, Paul. 1973. "Two Pianos: Boulez, Structures, Book 2". The Musical Times 114, no. 1562 (April): 390.
  • Griffiths, Paul. 1995. Modern Music and After: Directions Since 1945. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816578-1 (cloth); ISBN 0-19-816511-0 (pbk)
  • Harvey, Jonathan. 1971. "A Clear View". Musical Times 112, no. 1540 (June): 557.
  • Hayes, Malcolm. 1992. Review of Stocktakings from an Apprenticeship by Pierre Boulez; Stephen Walsh. Tempo new series, no. 180 (Mar. 1992): 29–30.
  • Heinemann, Stephen. 1993. "Pitch-Class Set Multiplication in Boulez's Le Marteau sans maître". DMA thesis. Seattle: University of Washington.
  • Heinemann, Stephen. 1998. "Pitch-Class Set Multiplication in Theory and Practice". Music Theory Spectrum 20, no. 1 (Spring): 72–96. Abstract (accessed 17 June 2008)
  • Hewett, Ivan. 2015. "The Modernist Maverick: Pierre Boulez at 90". The Telegraph (26 March).
  • Hopkins, G. W., and Paul Griffiths. 2011. "Boulez, Pierre", Grove Music Online, ed. Deane Root (accessed 6 January 2016). (Subscription access)
  • Humbertclaude Eric. 1999. La Transcription dans Boulez et Murail : de l'oreille à l'éveil, Paris: Harmattan. ISBN 2-7384-8042-X
  • Jameux, Dominique. 1991. Pierre Boulez, translated by Susan Bradshaw. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-66740-9 London: Faber. ISBN 0-571-13744-X.
  • Kimmelman, Michael. 2010. "Boulez's Gentler Roar". New York Times (6 January) (Accessed 22 January 2013).
  • Koblyakov, Lev. 1977. "P. Boulez Le marteau sans maître: Analysis of Pitch Structure". Zeitschrift für Musiktheorie 8, no. 1:24–39.
  • Koblyakov, Lev. 1981. "The World of Harmony of Pierre Boulez: Analysis of Le marteau sans maître". Ph.D. diss., Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
  • Koblyakov, Lev. 1990. Pierre Boulez: A World of Harmony. Contemporary Music Studies 2. Chur, Switzerland, and New York: Harwood Academic Publishers. ISBN 3-7186-0422-1
  • Ligeti, György. 1960. "Pierre Boulez: Decision and Automatism in Structure Ia." Die Reihe 4 (Young Composers): 36–62. (Translated from the original German edition of 1958.)
  • McNamee, Ann K. 1992. "Are Boulez and Stockhausen Ready for the Mainstream? A Review". Musical Quarterly 76, no. 2:283–91. |doi:10.1093/mq/76.2.283
  • Mosch, Ulrich. 1997. "Wahrnehmungsweisen serieller Musik". Musiktheorie 12:61–70.
  • Mosch, Ulrich. 2004. Musikalisches Hören serieller Musik: Untersuchungen am Beispiel von Pierre Boulez' Le Marteau sans maître. Saarbrücken: Pfau-Verlag. ISBN 3-89727-253-9
  • Obrist, Hans Ulrich, and Philippe Parreno. 2008. "An Interview with Pierre Boulez". In Sound Unbound: Sampling Digital Music and Culture, edited by Paul D. Miller, a.k.a. DJ Spooky That Subliminal Kid, 361–74. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-63363-5
  • Olivier, Philippe. 2005. Pierre Boulez: Le maître et son marteau. Collection points d'orgue. Paris: Hermann, éditeurs des sciences et des arts. ISBN 2-7056-6531-5.
  • Orton, Richard, and Hugh Davies. 2001. "Ondes martenot". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
  • Peyser, Joan. 1976. Boulez: Composer, Conductor, Enigma. New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-871700-7; London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-29901-4
  • Peyser, Joan. 1999. To Boulez and Beyond: Music in Europe Since the Rite of Spring, with a preface by Charles Wuorinen. New York: Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-7875-2. Revised edition, Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8108-5877-0
  • Steenhuisen, Paul. 2009. "Interview with Pierre Boulez". In Sonic Mosaics: Conversations with Composershttp://wayback.archive.org/web/20141015151345/http://www.uap.ualberta.ca/UAP.asp?LID=41&bookID=687. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. ISBN 978-0-88864-474-9
  • Südwestrundfunk. n.d. "Donaueschinger Musiktage: Programme seit 1921: Programm des Jahres 1961[dead link]". SWR website (Accessed 26 May 2013).
  • Vermeil, Jean. 1996. Conversations with Boulez: Thoughts on Conducting. Translated by Camille Nash, with a selection of programs conducted by Boulez and a discography by Paul Griffiths. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 1-57467-007-7

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Unreconstructed Modernist". The Atlantic. 1 September 1995. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
  2. ^ [1] Archived 5 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Pierre Boulez: "enfant terrible" faz 90 anos". Diversao.terra.com.br. 21 December 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
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  5. ^ a b c Nichols, Roger (6 January 2016). "Pierre Boulez obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c Griffiths, Paul (6 January 2016). "Pierre Boulez, French Composer, Dies at 90". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
  7. ^ Hewett 2015.
  8. ^ "Pierre Boulez: A Master With Class". Inspired Minds. Retrieved 18 August 2009. http://wayback.archive.org/web/20141129015653/http://www.inspiredminds.de/detail.php?id=30
  9. ^ "Boulez Interview". EdWebProject. Retrieved 18 August 2009. 
  10. ^ "Oxford Music Online". 0-www.oxfordmusiconline.com.bianca.penlib.du.edu. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  11. ^ Scott G. Burnham. "Beethoven, Ludwig van, §19: Posthumous influence and reception (iii) Political reception.". In Macy, Laura. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press.  (subscription required)
  12. ^ Orton and Davies 2001.
  13. ^ Boulez 1991b, 113
  14. ^ a b c Hopkins and Griffiths 2011.
  15. ^ Ligeti 1960, 62
  16. ^ Hopkins, G. W. and Paul Griffiths. 2011. "Pierre Boulez", Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy Retrieved on 6 January 2016
  17. ^ Koblyakov 1977.
  18. ^ Koblyakov 1981, published as Koblyakov 1990.
  19. ^ Heinemann 1993
  20. ^ Mosch 1997
  21. ^ Mosch 2004.
  22. ^ Boulez 1986, 143.
  23. ^ Boulez 1991c and 1986.
  24. ^ Audio Culture: Reading in Modern Music by Christoph Cox, Daniel Warner, 2004, p 189–194.
  25. ^ Tom Service: 'You just have to impose your will', interview with Boulez, The Guardian, 28 August 2008
  26. ^ a b WQXR Staff, "Pierre Boulez Breaks His Shoulder, Cancels in Lucerne" (Tuesday, 6 August 2013 - 12:00 PM). WQXR Blog (accessed 6 January 2016).
  27. ^ John von Rhein (21 December 2013). "'Health issues' sideline Boulez from CSO residency". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 11 October 2015. 
  28. ^ Machart, Renaud. "Mort du compositeur et chef d'orchestre Pierre Boulez". Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
  29. ^ Mark Brown. "Pierre Boulez, classical music's maverick, dies aged 90". the Guardian. Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  30. ^ Roux, Marie-Aude (15 January 2016). "Pierre Boulez, inhumé à Baden-Baden, célébré à Saint-Sulpice". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 15 January 2016. 
  31. ^ Lebrecht, Norman. The Maestro Myth (ISBN 0-8065-2088-4), Citadel Press (New York, USA), p 183 (2001).
  32. ^ Vermeil 1996.
  33. ^ "Press Quotes for Bartók Piano Concertos Nos.1–3 Boulez 4775330". Deutsche Grammophon. Retrieved 15 July 2007. 
  34. ^ Kozinn, Allan (1 February 2005). "Peering into the Mechanism of Stravinsky's 'Rite of Spring'". New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2007. 
  35. ^ Oestreich, James (16 March 2000). "Music Review; Colorful Sounds, Tuned by a Dynamo". New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2007. 
  36. ^ Tommasini, Anthony (29 January 2005). "A Good Scrubbing for Mahler". New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2007. 
  37. ^ Marc Bridle. "Review of Boulez's Bruckner 8th Symphony on CD". MusicWeb International. Retrieved 15 July 2007. 
  38. ^ Boulez at 70: Pierre Boulez as conductor in his recent DG recordings and in conversation with Stephen Plaistow. A Gramophone magazine/Deutsche Grammophon CD (1995)
  39. ^ Kimmelman 2010.
  40. ^ Tim Ashley (4 June 2007). "From the House of the Dead". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2007. 
  41. ^ "What's On / Proms by Day—Friday 15 August". BBC. 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008. http://wayback.archive.org/web/20100818034117/http://www.bbc.co.uk/proms/2008/whatson/1508.shtml
  42. ^ "BBC Four - Pierre Boulez at the BBC: Master and Maverick". BBC. Retrieved 31 January 2016. 
  43. ^ Barulich 1988, 50; Blaustein 1989, 273; Harvey 1971, 557; Hayes 1992, 29; McNamee 1992, 286 all cite his writing as "perceptive".
  44. ^ Boulez 1995, 2005a, and 2005b.
  45. ^ Boulez and Albertson 2007; Obrist and Parreno 2008.
  46. ^ Olivier 2005, 37.
  47. ^ "Leading clarinetist to receive Sanford Medal". Tourdates.co.uk. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  48. ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF) (in German). p. 689. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
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