Pierre Boulez CBE (French: [pjɛʁ bu.lɛːz]; 26 March 1925 – 5 January 2016) was a French composer, conductor, writer and pianist. He was also the founder and director of the Paris-based Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM).
In his early career, Boulez played a key role in the development of integral serialism, controlled chance and electronic music. This, coupled with his highly polemical views on the evolution of music, gained him the reputation as an enfant terrible.
As a conductor, Boulez was known mainly for his performances of Béla Bartók, Alban Berg, Anton Bruckner, Claude Debussy, Gustav Mahler, Maurice Ravel, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, Edgard Varèse and Anton Webern. He was chosen to conduct the Jahrhundertring, the performance of Wagner's Ring cycle for the centenary of the Bayreuth Festival, and conducted the work of his contemporaries such as Elliott Carter and György Ligeti. He received a total of 26 Grammy Awards during his career. Boulez died on 5 January 2016, at his home in Baden-Baden, at the age of 90.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Boulez as a conductor
- 3 Boulez as a writer
- 4 Boulez as a performer
- 5 Selected compositions
- 6 Decorations and awards
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Boulez was born 26 March 1925, in Montbrison, Loire, France, to Léon, an engineer and director of a steel works, and Marcelle (née Calabre) Boulez. From the age of six he was educated at the local Catholic school, where he spent 13-hour days and prayed in the chapel every school day for ten years. The grueling schedule instilled in him an iron discipline but, for him, "the Catholic God was the God that Failed". As a child, he began piano lessons and demonstrated aptitude in both music and mathematics. He studied the latter at Lyon before pursuing music at the Paris Conservatoire under Olivier Messiaen and Andrée Vaurabourg (the wife of Arthur Honegger).
The first fruits of his studies were his cantatas Le visage nuptial and Le soleil des eaux for female voices and orchestra, both composed in the late 1940s and revised several times since, as well as the Second Piano Sonata of 1948, a well-received 32-minute work that Boulez composed at the age of 23. In the late 1940s, Boulez preferred instrumental forms that were superficially affiliated with the neo-classical movement. He used sonata form as a pretext for thematic presentation.
Boulez quickly became one of the philosophical leaders of the post-war movement in the arts towards greater abstraction and experimentation. Many composers of Boulez's generation taught at the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik in Darmstadt, Germany. According to Scott Burnham, in the so-called Darmstadt School composers were instrumental in creating a style that, for a time, existed as an "antidote" to music of nationalist fervor; an international, cosmopolitan style that could not be 'co-opted' as propaganda in the way that the Nazis used, for example, the music of Ludwig van Beethoven. Boulez was in contact with many composers who would become influential, including Luciano Berio, John Cage, Luigi Nono, Bruno Maderna, and Karlheinz Stockhausen. Early in his career, he performed as a specialist on the ondes Martenot.
[A]ny musician who has not experienced—I do not say understood, but truly experienced—the necessity of dodecaphonic music is USELESS. For his whole work is irrelevant to the needs of his epoch.— Pierre Boulez ("Eventuellement...", 1952, translated as "Possibly...")
Boulez's totally serialized, punctual works consist of Polyphonie X (1950–51; withdrawn) for 18 instruments, the two musique concrète Études (1951–52), and Structures, book I for two pianos. Structures was also a turning point for Boulez. As one of the most visible totally serialized works, it became a lightning rod for various kinds of criticism. György Ligeti, for example, published an article that examined its patterns of durations, dynamics, pitch, and attack types in great detail, concluding that its "ascetic attitude" is "akin to compulsion neurosis", and that Boulez "had to break away from it ... And so he created the sensual feline world of the 'Marteau'".
These criticisms, combined with what Boulez felt was a lack of expressive flexibility in the language, as he outlined in his essay "At the Limit of Fertile Land..." had already led Boulez to refine his compositional language. He loosened the strictness of his total serialism into a more supple and strongly gestural music, and did not publicly reveal much about these techniques, which limited further discussion. His first venture into this new kind of serialism was a work for 12 solo voices titled Oubli signal lapidé (1952), but it was withdrawn after a single performance. Its material was reused in the 1970 composition Cummings ist der Dichter.
Le marteau sans maître
Boulez described one of the work's innovations, called "pitch multiplication", in several articles, most importantly in the chapter "Musical Technique" in Boulez 1971. It was Lev Koblyakov, however, who first described its presence in the three "L'artisanat furieux" movements of Le marteau sans maître, in his 1981 doctoral thesis. However, an explanation of the processes themselves was not made until 1993. Other techniques used in the "Bourreaux de solitude" cycle were first described by Ulrich Mosch, and later fully elaborated by him.
Why compose works that have to be re-created every time they are performed? Because definitive, once-and-for-all developments seem no longer appropriate to musical thought as it is today, or to the actual state that we have reached in the evolution of musical technique, which is increasingly concerned with the investigation of a relative world, a permanent 'discovering' rather like the state of 'permanent revolution'.— Pierre Boulez ("Sonate, que me veux-tu?", 1960)
From the 1950s, beginning with the Third Piano Sonata (1955–57/63), Boulez experimented with what he called "controlled chance" and he developed his views on aleatoric music in the articles "Aléa" and "Sonate, que me veux-tu?" His use of chance, which he would later employ in compositions like Éclat (1965), Domaines (1961–68) and Rituel in memoriam Bruno Maderna (1974–75), is very different from that in the works of, for example, John Cage. While in Cage's music the performers are often given the freedom to create completely unforeseen sounds, with the object of removing the composer's intention from the music, in works by Boulez they only get to choose between possibilities that have been written out in detail by the composer—a method that, when applied to the successional order of sections, is often described as "mobile form", a formal technique innovated by his colleague Earle Brown in 1952 and originally inspired by Alexander Calder's sculptures.
The desire to expand unrealized possibilities also led Boulez to create related works in series. His early twelve miniatures for piano, Notations (1945), was, since the 1970s, in the process of being expanded as an orchestral cycle. At least seven movements were completed before Boulez's death, although only five have been performed. The material contained in Anthèmes for solo violin was later expanded into an extended composition for violin and electronics Anthèmes 2 and Boulez had been developing it further into a large-scale work for violin and orchestra.
Until his death, Boulez remained one of the leading exponents of 20th-century music.
From 1976 to 1995, he held the Chair in Invention, technique et langage en musique at the Collège de France. In 2001, he was the recipient of the Grawemeyer Prize for music composition, for his work Sur Incises. In 2002, he was awarded the Glenn Gould Prize for his contributions. In 2004, he founded the Lucerne Festival Academy, a summer orchestral institute for young musicians, dedicated to music of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
Early in 2012, Boulez cancelled conducting engagements after an eye operation left him with severely impaired sight. Other health problems included a shoulder injury resulting from a fall. He died on 5 January 2016, at his home in Baden-Baden, at the age of 90. He had been ill for some time and had been unable to take part in the many celebrations, held across the world, for his 90th birthday. He was buried on 13 January in Baden-Baden's main cemetery following a church service. At a memorial service the next day at the Church of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, eulogists included Daniel Barenboim, Renzo Piano, and Laurent Bayle, president of the Philharmonie de Paris.
According to music critic Norman Lebrecht, who knew him for decades, Boulez was gay. He moved to Baden-Baden in the 1960s with his lifelong partner, Hans Messmer, whom he sometimes referred to as his valet. In its obituary, The New York Times reported that "about his private life he remained tightly guarded" and that apart from his older sister, Jeanne, "few others were able to break through his reserve". Boulez, who was nevertheless known for his humor, charm, and personal warmth, once said he would be the first composer to die without a biography.
Boulez as a conductor
Boulez was also a conductor, known for having directed most of the world's leading symphony orchestras and ensembles since the late fifties. His rhythmic precision, achieved with only his hands without the use of a baton, combined with his acute tonal discernment to engender many orchestral legends: "There are countless stories of him detecting, for example, faulty intonation from the third oboe in a complex orchestral texture", wrote The New York Times.
In the 1968-69 season, Boulez made guest appearances in the United States, conducting in Boston, Cleveland, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York. When asked about the audience, he said: "For modern music, I prefer an audience that has vertical interests–that is, people who are interested in modern movies, modern art, modern literature" rather than "those who are interested in Beethoven as they would be in a cup of tea". He then signed an unusual five-year contract as a guest conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra, an appointment instigated by George Szell. His appointment to head the BBC Symphony Orchestra was announced in January 1969. He conducted the New York Philharmonic for the first time for four weeks beginning in March 1969 and was named its music director a few weeks later in June 1969.
Boulez was particularly famed for his polished interpretations of twentieth-century classics—Alban Berg, Claude Debussy, Gustav Mahler, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, Béla Bartók, Anton Webern and Edgard Varèse—as well as for numerous performances of contemporary music. Clarity, precision, rhythmic agility and a respect for the composers' intentions as notated in the musical score are the hallmarks of his conducting style. In 1984, he collaborated with Frank Zappa and conducted the Ensemble InterContemporain, who performed three of Zappa's pieces. His 19th-century repertoire focused upon Ludwig van Beethoven, Hector Berlioz, Robert Schumann and especially Richard Wagner. His recording of Anton Bruckner's Eighth Symphony met with considerable critical acclaim. In 1974, he also recorded Maurice Ravel's then little-known orchestral version of "Une Barque sur l'océan" from Miroirs, when there was still no printed score.
Boulez also conducted opera productions and made several recordings of opera. He joined the Bayreuth Festival's roster for 1966's Parsifal, after Hans Knappertsbusch died. Subsequently, he was the conductor for the 1976 centenary production of Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, directed by Patrice Chéreau, recordings of which were commercially released in audio and video formats. Boulez reunited with Chéreau for a late-seventies production of Alban Berg's Lulu at the Paris Opera (the first production of the complete opera) and a 2007 production originating at Vienna's Theater an der Wien, later traveling to Amsterdam, of Leoš Janáček's From the House of the Dead, in what Boulez said was the last opera production that he would ever conduct.
In 2004 and 2005, Boulez returned to Bayreuth to conduct a controversial new production of Parsifal directed by Christoph Schlingensief. Other operas Boulez conducted include Berg's Wozzeck (Opéra National de Paris), Wagner's Tristan und Isolde (Bayreuth), Bartók's Bluebeard's Castle (Aix-en-Provence Festival, Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande (productions for Covent Garden and WNO) and Arnold Schoenberg's Moses und Aron (Amsterdam and Salzburg).
On 15 August 2008, he conducted a concert of the music of Leoš Janáček for the BBC Proms at the Royal Albert Hall, preceded by a discussion of the music with Roger Wright, Director of the Proms, in the Royal College of Music.
In 2010, Boulez finished his 15-year, multi-orchestra Mahler cycle for Deutsche Grammophon with the release of Des Knaben Wunderhorn and the Adagio from Mahler's uncompleted Tenth Symphony performed by the Cleveland Orchestra. To celebrate Boulez's 85th birthday, Deutsche Grammophon released his first Karol Szymanowski recording featuring the composer's popular Violin Concerto No. 1 and Symphony No. 3 "Song of the Night", with the Wiener Philharmoniker, violinist Christian Tetzlaff, tenor Steve Davislim and the Wiener Singverein. Both Columbia Records in 2014 and Deutsche Grammophon in 2015 issued large limited edition box sets of Boulez's recordings, the first a set of 67 CDs, the later a set of 44, to celebrate his 90th birthday.
Boulez as a writer
Boulez has been called an articulate, perceptive and sweeping writer on music. He wrote on questions of technique and aesthetics in a reflective if sometimes elliptical manner. These writings have mostly been republished under the titles Stocktakings from an Apprenticeship, Orientations: Collected Writings, and Boulez on Music Today, as well as in the journal of the Darmstadt composers, Die Reihe. A third edition of the French texts, with previously uncollected material, appeared under the title Points de repère I, II, and III. Two interviews with Pierre Boulez were published in 2007 and 2008.
Boulez as a performer
During World War II and for a number of years after, Boulez performed in various capacities on the piano and allied keyboard instruments, often as a "supplemental" musician in orchestral works with choirs and soloists. This activity not only provided him with income, but also gave the young artist the opportunity of meeting and working with important personalities of the time, such as Arthur Honegger.
It was as a pianist that Boulez first introduced himself to UK audiences, in a partial premiere of book 2 of his Structures for two pianos, which he performed together with Yvonne Loriod at the Wigmore Hall, London, in March 1957. The same performers gave the premiere of the complete second book, with two different versions of chapter 2, in a chamber-music concert that was part of the Donaueschinger Musiktage on 21 October 1961.
- Piano Sonata No. 1 (1946)
- Le visage nuptial (soprano, alto, female chorus and orchestra, 1946/51/88–89)
- Piano Sonata No. 2 (1947–48)
- Le soleil des eaux (soprano solo, mixed choir, orchestra, 1948/50/58/65)
- Livre pour quatuor (string quartet, 1948–49, rev. 2011–12)
- Polyphonie X (1951)
- Structures, Livres I et II (2 pianos, 1952 and 1961, respectively)
- Le marteau sans maître (alto, alto flute, guitar, vibraphone, xylorimba, percussion and viola, 1953–55)
- Piano Sonata No. 3 (1955–57/63 ...) (Unfinished: only two of the five movements have been published in final form.)
- Pli selon pli (soprano and orchestra, 1957–89)
- Figures, doubles, prismes (large orchestra, 1957–68)
- Éclat/Multiples (ensemble, 1965–70)
- Domaines (clarinet solo, 1968–69)
- Domaines (clarinet and ensemble, 1968–69)
- Cummings ist der Dichter (for chorus and ensemble, 1970)
- Ainsi parla Zarathoustra, incidental music (1974)
- Rituel in memoriam Bruno Maderna (orchestra, 1974–75)
- Messagesquisse (seven cellos, 1976–77),
See also: Paul Sacher § "eSACHERe"
- Notations (piano version 1945, orchestral version 1978/1999–...)
- Répons (two pianos, harp, vibraphone, glockenspiel, cimbalom, orchestra and electronics, 1980–84)
- Dialogue de l'ombre double (for clarinet and electronics, 1982–85)
- Dérive 1 (for six instruments, 1984)
- Dérive 2 (for eleven instruments, 1988–2006)
- ...explosante-fixe... (first version for flute, clarinet and trumpet, 1972; second version for octet and electronics, 1973–74; third version for vibraphone and electronics, 1985; fourth version for MIDI-flute, chamber orchestra and electronics, 1991–93)
- Sur Incises (3 pianos, 3 harps and 3 percussion parts, 1996–98)
- Dialogue de l'ombre double (transcribed for bassoon and electronics, 1985/1995)
- Anthèmes 2 (violin and electronics, 1998)
- Une page d'éphéméride (piano, 2005)
Decorations and awards
- 26 Grammy Awards
- Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (France)
- Member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts
- Merit Cross 1st Class of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Pour le Mérite (Germany)
- Sanford Medal (Yale University)
- 1963: Member of the Academy of Arts Berlin
- 1976: Prix France-Allemagne
- 1979: Ernst von Siemens Music Prize (Germany)
- 1979: Honorary Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE)
- 1983: Austrian Decoration for Science and Art
- 1985: Léonie Sonning Music Prize (Denmark)
- 1989: Praemium Imperiale (Japan Art Association)
- 1990: Gold Medal of Vienna
- 1992: Theodor W. Adorno Award
- 1995: Artist of the Year by the British music magazine The Gramophone
- 1995: Ceremony at the Victoires de la Musique in France
- 1995: German Record Critics' Award
- 1996: Berlin Art Prize
- 1996: Polar Music Prize (Sweden)
- 1997: Royal Philharmonic Society Gold Medal
- 2000: Wolf Prize (Israel)
- 2001: Grand Cross of the Order of Saint James of the Sword
- 2001: University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition, for Sur Incises (United States)
- 2002: Glenn Gould Prize (Canada)
- 2004: Golden Medal of Honour of Baden-Baden
- 2005: Fellowship of BASCA
- 2008: Franco-German cultural award
- 2009: Kyoto Prize (arts and philosophy)
- 2010: Edison Award (classical music) (Netherlands)
- 2011: Colburn Prize
- 2011: Giga-Hertz-Prize
- 2011: Medal of Salzburg
- 2012: Gramophone Hall of Fame entrant
- 2012: Robert Schumann Prize for Poetry and Music (Academy of Sciences and Literature, Mainz)
- 2012: The BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the Contemporary Music category
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- Barulich, Frances. 1988. "Pierre Boulez by Dominique Jameux; Pierre Boulez und sein Werk by Theo Hirsbrunner; Pierre Boulez: A Symposium edited by William Glock; Orientations: Collected Writings by Pierre Boulez edited and with an introduction by Jean-Jacques Nattiez and translated by Martin Cooper; Éclats/Boulez edited by Claude Samuel with the collaboration of Jacqueline Muller; Pierre Boulez: Eine Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag am 26. März 1985 edited by Josef Häusler; Boulez in Bayreuth/Boulez à Bayreuth: Der Jahrhundert-Ring/The Centenary 'Ring'/Le 'Ring' du centenaire Histoire d'un 'Ring' Entretiens sur la 'Tétralogie du centenaire': Pierre Boulez, Jeffrey Tate, Jean-Jacques Nattiez" [book review]. Notes 2nd series, 45, no. 1 (September): 48–52.
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- Boulez, Pierre. 1971. Boulez on Music Today, translate by Susan Bradshaw and Richard Rodney Bennett. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-08006-8; London: Faber. ISBN 0-571-09420-1
- Boulez, Pierre 1981. Orientations: Collected Writings, collected and edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez, translated by Martin Cooper. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-64376-3. New edition, translated by Martin Cooper from the second French edition of Points de repère, London and Boston: Faber & Faber, 1986. ISBN 0-571-13811-X (cased); ISBN 0-571-13835-7 (pbk).
- Boulez, Pierre. 1986. "Sonate, que me veux-tu?" (1960). In his Orientations: Collected Writings, translated by, 143–154. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-14347-4.
- Boulez, Pierre. 1991a. "Schoenberg is Dead" (1952). In his Stocktakings from an Apprenticeship, collected and presented by Paule Thévenin, translated by Stephen Walsh, with an introduction by Robert Piencikowski, 209–14. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-311210-8
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- Boulez, Pierre. 2005a. Points de repère. II: Regards sur autrui, edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez and Sophie Galaise. Musique/passé/présent. Paris: Bourgois.
- Boulez, Pierre. 2005b. Points de repère. III: Leçons de musique: Deux décennies d'enseignement au Collège de France, edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez, preface by Jonathan Goldman, foreword by Michel Fouculta. Musique/passé/présent. Paris: Bourgois.
- Boulez, Pierre, and Dan Albertson. 2007. ". . .'ouvert', encore. . .". Contemporary Music Review 26, nos. 3–4 (June–August):.339–40.
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one of the most important musical and intellectual figures of the 20th century
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- Lebrecht, Norman. The Maestro Myth (ISBN 0-8065-2088-4), Citadel Press (New York, USA), p 183 (2001).
- Henahan, Donal (5 December 1967). "Tables are Turned on Avant-Garde Conductor". New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- Henehan, Donal (21 March 1968). "Boulez Gets Pact with Cleveland". New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- "Boulez to Become B.B.C. Music Chief". New York Times. 23 January 1969. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- Schonberg, Harold C. (14 March 1969). "Music : A First for Boulez". New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- Strongen, Theodore (11 June 1969). "Philharmonic Picks Boulez to Succeed Bernstein in 1971". New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- Vermeil 1996.
- "Press Quotes for Bartók Piano Concertos Nos.1–3 Boulez 4775330". Deutsche Grammophon. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- Kozinn, Allan (1 February 2005). "Peering into the Mechanism of Stravinsky's 'Rite of Spring'". New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- Oestreich, James (16 March 2000). "Music Review; Colorful Sounds, Tuned by a Dynamo". New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- Tommasini, Anthony (29 January 2005). "A Good Scrubbing for Mahler". New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- Marc Bridle. "Review of Boulez's Bruckner 8th Symphony on CD". MusicWeb International. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- Boulez at 70: Pierre Boulez as conductor in his recent DG recordings and in conversation with Stephen Plaistow. A Gramophone magazine/Deutsche Grammophon CD (1995)
- Tim Ashley (4 June 2007). "From the House of the Dead". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2007.
- Ross, Alex (9 August 2004). "Nausea". The New Yorker. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Randel, Don Michael (2002). The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press. p. 84. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Higgiuns, John (12 December 1969). "Boulez in the wardrobe". Spectator Archive. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Rockwell, John (24 February 1992). "Boulez and Stein Stage 'Pelleas' With Modern Nuances in Wales". New York Times. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Glass, Herbert (10 November 1996). "Schoenberg Masterpiece by Ear Only". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- "What's On / Proms by Day—Friday 15 August". BBC. 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.http://wayback.archive.org/web/20100818034117/http://www.bbc.co.uk/proms/2008/whatson/1508.shtml
- Cookson, Michael. "Review". MusicWeb. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Hurwitz, David. "Szymanowski: Symphony; Violin concerto/Boulez". Classics Today. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Allen, David (5 December 2014). "Recapturing the Radical on the Podium". New York Times. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Clements, Andrew (26 March 2015). "Pierre Boulez: 60 Years on Record". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- "BBC Four - Pierre Boulez at the BBC: Master and Maverick". BBC. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- Barulich 1988, 50; Blaustein 1989, 273; Harvey 1971, 557; Hayes 1992, 29; McNamee 1992, 286 all cite his writing as "perceptive".
- Boulez 1995, 2005a, and 2005b.
- Boulez and Albertson 2007; Obrist and Parreno 2008.
- Olivier 2005, 37.
- Griffiths (1973), p. 120
- Griffiths, Paul (2010). Modern Music and After (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 120n. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- "Leading clarinetist to receive Sanford Medal". Tourdates.co.uk. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF) (in German). p. 689. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
-  Archived 24 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Pierre Boulez (conductor and composer)". Gramophone. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
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- Pierre Boulez at AllMusic
- Pierre Boulez biography and works on the UE website (publisher)
- Advice for musicians and/or thinkers from BBVA Foundations Frontiers of Knowledge laureate Pierre Boulez. Press conference at the BBVA Foundatión Heathquarters in Madrid on 16 June 2013.
- Pierre Boulez Interview with Andy Carvin, 1992
- Pierre Boulez CompositionToday articles and review of works
- Pierre Boulez Photographic portrait by Philippe Gontier
- Tommasini, Anthony, "Boulez Salutes Bits and Bytes With an Artistic Partnership". New York Times, 25 April 2005.
- Clements, Andrew and Service, Tom (compilers), "A master who worked with a very small hammer". The Guardian, 25 March 2005.
- Boulez interviewed by Charles Amirkhanian, with Andrew Gerzso, 16 February 1986
- Excerpts from sound archives of Boulez's works.
- A biography on IRCAM's website (French)
- Two Interviews with Pierre Boulez by Bruce Duffie, 20 February 1986 & 26 October 1987
- Video recopilation of Boulez's works.