Haplogroup K2b (Y-DNA)

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Haplogroup K2b (P331)
Possible time of origin About 3,000 years younger than K-M9 40,000-50,000 years old
Possible place of origin Probably Southeast Asia[1] possibly South Asia if an extinction event took place.[1]
Ancestor K2
Descendants
  • K2b1 (previously known as MS) and;
  • Haplogroup P (K2b2; subclades include haplogroups Q and R).
Defining mutations P331, CTS2019/M1205, PF5990/L405, PF5969,[2][3]

Haplogroup K2b (P331), also known as MPS [2] is a human y-chromosome haplogroup that is thought to be less than 3,000 years younger than K, and less than 10,000 years younger than F, meaning it probably is around 50,000 years old, according to the age estimates of Tatiana Karafet et al. 2014.[1]

The basal paragroup K2b* has not been identified among living males or ancient remains. (One previously reported sample, dated at 3,000 years before present, has since been reclassified as R1a – an individual known as RISE94, from Viby in Sweden.)

K2b1 (P397/P399) known previously as Haplogroup MS, and Haplogroup P (P-P295), also known as K2b2 are the only primary clades of K2b. The population geneticist Tatiana Karafet and other researchers (2014) point out that K2b1, its subclades and P* are virtually restricted geographically to South East Asia and Oceania.[1] Whereas, in a striking contrast, P1 (P-M45)and its primary subclades Q and R now make up "the most frequent haplogroup in Europe, the Americas, and Central Asia and South Asia". According to Karafet et al., the estimated dates for the branching of K, K2, K2b and P point to a "rapid diversification" within K2 "that likely occurred in Southeast Asia", with subsequent "westward expansions" of P*, P1, Q and R.[1]

Phylogenetic structure[edit]

  • K2b (P331), also known as MPS.
    • K2b1 (P397, P399), similar to the previous Haplogroup MS.
    • Haplogroup P (P295/PF5866/S8) – also known as K2b2.
      • P1 (M45) – also known as K2b2a; descendant subclades include the major haplogroups Q and R.

Distribution[edit]

While basal K2b* has not yet been identified, populations with living members of the immediate subclades K2b1* and P* (K2b2) appear to be polarized between Oceania, South Asia and eastern Siberia.

Some Negrito populations of South-East Asia carry very high levels of K2b at the subclade level. It is carried, for instance, by more than 83% of males among the Aeta (or Agta) people of the Philippines, in the form of K2b1 (60%), P* (P-P295*, a.k.a. K2b2*) and P2 (P-B253; K2b2b).

K2b1[edit]

K2b1 is found in 83% of males of Papua New Guinea, and up to 60% in the Aeta people of the Philippines.[4] It is also found among other Melanesian populations, as well as indigenous Australians, and at lower levels amongst Polynesians.[4]

Major studies of indigenous Australian Y-DNA, published in 2014 and 2015, suggest that about 29% of indigenous Australian males belong to subclades of K2b1. That is, up to 27% indigenous Australian males carry haplogroup S1a1a1 (S-P308; previously known as K2b1a1 or K-P308),[4] and one study found that approximately 2.0% – i.e. 0.9% (11 individuals) of the sample in a study in which 45% of the total was deemed to be non-indigenous – belonged to haplogroup M1 (M-M4; also known as M-M186 and known previously as haplogroup K2b1d1). All of these males carrying M1 were Torres Strait Islanders.[5] (The other Y-DNA haplogroups found were: basal K2* [K-M526], C1b2b [M347; previously Haplogroup C4], and basal C* [M130].)

Population K2b1 (including haplogroups M & S)
Papua New Guinea 82.76%
Maori 03.82% (1.95% of those sampled, i.e. 49% of Maori males were deemed to have non-indigenous Y-DNA)
Fiji 60.75%
Solomon Islands 71.9%
French Polynesia 08%
Vanuatu 76.5%
New Caledonia
Guam 33.3% (small sample size)
Samoa 08.04%
Kiribati 00% (small sample size)
Tonga 20.69%
Micronesia FDR 66.67%
Marshall Islands 63.64%
American Samoa
Northern Mariana Islands
Palau 61.5% (small sample size)
Cook Islands 03.9%
Wallis and Futuna 26%
Tuvalu 36%
Nauru 28.6% (small sample size)
Norfolk Island
Niue 00% (small sample size)
Tokelau 50% (small sample size)
Hawaii 20% (small sample size from FTDNA)
Aboriginal Australians 29% [5]
Timor 25%
Aeta 60%
Malay 06.4%
Flores 35%
Sulawesi 11.3%
East Indonesia 25.9%
Java Indonesia 00%
Bali Indonesia 00.9%
Sumatra Indonesia 00%
Borneo Indonesia 05.8%
West Papua (Papua Province, Indonesia) 52.6%
West Papua (Papua Province, Indonesia) 82.6%
Sumba Indonesia 25.2%
Chukkese people Micronesia 76.5%
Pohnpeian people Micronesia 70% (small sample size)

P (K2b2)[edit]

Apart from the basal paragroup P* (K2b2), it has only one subclade: P1 (M45), also known as K2b2a – which is also the parent of the major haplogroups Q (K2b2a1) and R (K2b2a2).[1]

P (K2b2) descendant haplogroups Q (K2b2a1) and R (K2b2a2) is widely distributed among males of Native American, Central Asian, South Asian and European ancestry.

Basal P* (K2b2*)[edit]

P-P295* (sometimes known as "pre-P", before P-M45 was redesignated P1) is found among 28% of males among the Aeta, as well as in Timor at 10.8%, and one case may have been found in Papua New Guinea (Kaysar et al. 2006) although this has not been verified.[4]

Population Rate of P* (%) Notes
Papua New Guinea 0.69 assumed from Kayser et al. 2006, i.e. one P* found
New Zealand 0
Fiji 0
Solomon Islands 0
French Polynesia 0
Vanuatu 0
New Caledonia
Guam 0
Samoa 0
Kiribati
Tonga 0
Federated States of Micronesia 0
Marshall Islands 0
American Samoa
Northern Mariana Islands
Palau
Cook Islands 0
Wallis and Futuna 0
Tuvalu 0
Nauru
Norfolk Island
Niue 0 small sample size
Tokelau 0 small sample size
Hawaii 0 small sample size from FTDNA
Australia 0
Timor 10.8
Aeta 28
Filipino Austronesian 0
Malay 0
Flores 0
Sulawesi 0.6
East Indonesia 0
Java Indonesia 0
Bali Indonesia 0
Sumatra Indonesia 0
Borneo Indonesia 0
West Papua Province 0
Papua Province 0
Sumba Indonesia 3.2

P1 (K2b2a)[edit]

P1 (M45/PF5962), also known as K2b2a, is hundreds of times more common than P* (K2b2; PxM45), as it includes haplogroups Q and R, is estimated as being 14,300 years younger than K2b.[4]

Many ethnic groups with high frequencies of P1 are located in Central Asia and Siberia: 35.4% among Tuvans, 28.3% among Altaian Kizhi,[6] and 35% among Nivkh males.

Modern South Asian populations also feature P1 at low to moderate frequencies.[7] In South Asia it is most frequent among the Muslims of Manipur (33%), but this may be due to a very small sample size (nine individuals). Cases of P1 (M45) reported in South Asia may be unresolved cases or R2 or Q.[7]

Population group (with ethnolinguistic affiliation) Paper N Percentage SNPs Tested
Tuvinian (Turkic) Darenko 2005 113 35.40 P-M45
Nivkh (isolate) Lell 2001 17 35 P-M45
Altai-Kizhi (Altaians) (Turkic) Darenko 2005 92 28.3 P-M45
Todjin (Turkic) Darenko 2005 36 22.2 P-M45
Chukchi (Chukotkan) Lell 2001 24 20.8 P-M45
Koryak (Chukotkan) Lell 2001 27 18.5 P-M45
Yupik (Eskimo-Aleut) Lell 2001 33 18.2 P-M45
Uighur (Turkic) Xue 2006 70 17.1 P-M45
Kalmyk (Mongolic) Darenko 2005 68 11.8 P-M45
Turkmen (Turkic) Wells 2001 30 10 P-M45
Soyot (Turkic) Darenko 2005 34 8.8 P-M45
Uriankhai (Mongolic) Katoh 2004 60 8.3 P-M45
Khakas (Turkic) Darenko 2005 53 7.6 P-M45
Kazakh (Turkic) Wells 2001 54 5.6 P-M45
Uzbek (Turkic) Wells 2001 366 5.5 P-M45
Khasi-Khmuic (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 353 5.40 P-M45(xM173) §
Mundari (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 64 10.90 P-M45(xM173) §
Nicobarese (Mon-Khmer) Reddy 2009 11 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Southeast Asia (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 257 1.60 P-M45(xM173) §
Garo (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 71 1.40 P-M45(xM173) §
India (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 226 3.10 P-M45(xM173) §
East Asia (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 214 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Eastern India (Indo-European) Reddy 2009 54 18.50 P-M45(xM173) §
Iran (Southern Talysh) Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Azerbaijan (Northern Talysh) Nasidze 2009 40 5.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Mazandarani (Iranian) Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Gilaki (Iranian) Nasidze 2009 50 0.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Tehran (Iranian) Nasidze 2004 80 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Isfahan (Iranian) Nasidze 2004 50 6.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Bakhtiari (Iranian) Nasidze 2008 53 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Iranian Arabs (Arabic) Nasidze 2008 47 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
North Iran (Iranian) Regueiro 2006 33 9.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Iran (Iranian) Regueiro 2006 117 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Caucacus (Georgian) Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 77 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Caucacus (Armenian) Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 100 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Hvar (Croatian) Barać et al. 2003 14
Korčula (Croatian) Barać et al. 2003 6

§ These may include members of haplogroup R2.

Population group N P (xQ,xR) Q R Paper
Count % Count % Count %
Gope 16 1 6.4 Sahoo 2006
Oriya Brahmin 24 1 4.2 Sahoo 2006
Mahishya 17 3 17.6 Sahoo 2006
Bhumij 15 2 13.3 Sahoo 2006
Saora 13 3 23.1 Sahoo 2006
Nepali 7 2 28.6 Sahoo 2006
Muslims of Manipur 9 3 33.3 Sahoo 2006
Himachal Pradesh Rajput 15 1 6.7 Sahoo 2006
Lambadi 18 4 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Gujarati Patel 9 2 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Katkari 19 1 5.3 Sahoo 2006
Madia Gond 14 1 7.1 Sahoo 2006
Kamma Chowdary 15 0 0 1 6.7 12 80 Sahoo 2006

See also[edit]

  • Ancient populations haplogroups are assumed from small ancient sample sizes.
    • † Stands for assumed extinction (no living sample of the same haplogroup)
      • [8] Entire Phlogeny except for Hg X + distribution of K2b1 clades K2* clades and K2c+K2d, as well as P(xm45)

[15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22][23][24][25] Modern Populations+Ancient Basques

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References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Tatiana M. Karafet et all. Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia, 2014
  2. ^ a b c http://www.phylotree.org/Y/tree/index.htm
  3. ^ Karafat 2014
  4. ^ a b c d e Karafet 2014
  5. ^ a b Nagle, N. et al., 2015, "Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes", American Journal of Physical Anthropology (epub ahead of print version; abstract).
  6. ^ Miroslava Derenko et al 2005, Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions
  7. ^ a b Sahoo, S. (2006). "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (4): 843–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507714103. PMC 1347984Freely accessible. PMID 16415161. 
  8. ^ http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ejhg2014106a.html
  9. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v505/n7481/full/nature12736.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20140102
  10. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7487/full/nature13025.html
  11. ^ http://www.fsigenetics.com/article/S1872-4973(14)00116-1/abstract
  12. ^ http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2148-9-181.pdf
  13. ^ http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0041252
  14. ^ http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/journals/journal/ca.html
  15. ^ Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A. (2012). "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501Freely accessible. PMID 22470552. 
  16. ^ Bekada, Asmahan; Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Larruga, José M.; Pestano, José; Benhamamouch, Soraya; González, Ana M. (2013). "Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape". PLoS ONE. 8 (2): e56775. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...856775B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775. PMC 3576335Freely accessible. PMID 23431392. 
  17. ^ Rosser, Z. H.; Zerjal, T; Hurles, M. E.; Adojaan, M; Alavantic, D; Amorim, A; Amos, W; Armenteros, M; Arroyo, E; Barbujani, G; Beckman, G; Beckman, L; Bertranpetit, J; Bosch, E; Bradley, D. G.; Brede, G; Cooper, G; Côrte-Real, H. B.; De Knijff, P; Decorte, R; Dubrova, Y. E.; Evgrafov, O; Gilissen, A; Glisic, S; Gölge, M; Hill, E. W.; Jeziorowska, A; Kalaydjieva, L; Kayser, M; et al. (December 2000). "Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (6): 1526–43. doi:10.1086/316890. PMC 1287948Freely accessible. PMID 11078479. 
  18. ^ Genetic Structure in Contemporary South Tyrolean Isolated Populations Revealed by Analysis of Y-Chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu Polymorphisms
  19. ^ Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios
  20. ^ http://www.krepublishers.com/06-Special%20Volume-Journal/T-Anth-00-Special%20Volumes/T-Anth-SI-03-Anth-Today-Web/Anth-SI-03-31-Trivedi-R/Anth-SI-03-31-Trivedi-R-Tt.pdf
  21. ^ http://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/11443
  22. ^ Sanchez, J.J.; Børsting, C.; Hernandez, A.; Mengel-Jørgensen, J.; Morling, N. (2004). "Y chromosome SNP haplogroups in Danes, Greenlanders and Somalis". International Congress Series. 1261: 347–349. doi:10.1016/S0531-5131(03)01635-2. 
  23. ^ Cruciani, F; Trombetta, B; Sellitto, D; Massaia, A; Destro-Bisol, G; Watson, E; Beraud Colomb, E; Dugoujon, J. M.; Moral, P; Scozzari, R (July 2010). "Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages". European Journal of Human Genetics. 18 (7): 800–7. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.231. PMC 2987365Freely accessible. PMID 20051990. 
  24. ^ yhrd.org
  25. ^ http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/1/717.long
  26. ^ . 2013-12-13. bioRxiv 000802Freely accessible.  Missing or empty |title= (help)

Notes[edit]

[Assuming B70 ky for the TMRCA of M168 chromosomes,10 we estimate the interval of time between the diversification of K-M9 and that of K-P331 to be <3 ky. This rapid diversification has also been assessed using whole Y-chromosome sequence data.22 In addition, we estimate the total time between the common ancestor of K-M9 and that of P-P295 to be <5 ky, and the time between the common ancestor P-P295 and that of P-P27 to be 12.3 ky (95% CI: 6.6–20 ky).http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ejhg2014106a.html]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313     K2b1 [χ 10] P [χ 11]
NO   S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
N O Q R