Haplogroup K2b (Y-DNA)
|Haplogroup K2b (P331)|
|Possible time of origin||About 3,000 years younger than K-M9 40,000-50,000 years old|
|Possible place of origin||Probably Southeast Asia possibly South Asia if an extinction event took place.|
|Defining mutations||P331, CTS2019/M1205, PF5990/L405, PF5969,|
Haplogroup K2b (P331), also known as MPS  is a human y-chromosome haplogroup that is thought to be less than 3,000 years younger than K, and less than 10,000 years younger than F, meaning it probably is around 50,000 years old, according to the age estimates of Tatiana Karafet et al. 2014.
The basal paragroup K2b* has not been identified among living males or ancient remains. (One previously reported sample, dated at 3,000 years before present, has since been reclassified as R1a – an individual known as RISE94, from Viby in Sweden.)
K2b1 (P397/P399) known previously as Haplogroup MS, and Haplogroup P (P-P295), also known as K2b2 are the only primary clades of K2b. The population geneticist Tatiana Karafet and other researchers (2014) point out that K2b1, its subclades and P* are virtually restricted geographically to South East Asia and Oceania. Whereas, in a striking contrast, P1 (P-M45)and its primary subclades Q and R now make up "the most frequent haplogroup in Europe, the Americas, and Central Asia and South Asia". According to Karafet et al., the estimated dates for the branching of K, K2, K2b and P point to a "rapid diversification" within K2 "that likely occurred in Southeast Asia", with subsequent "westward expansions" of P*, P1, Q and R.
- K2b (P331), also known as MPS.
Some Negrito populations of South-East Asia carry very high levels of K2b at the subclade level. It is carried, for instance, by more than 83% of males among the Aeta (or Agta) people of the Philippines, in the form of K2b1 (60%), P* (P-P295*, a.k.a. K2b2*) and P2 (P-B253; K2b2b).
K2b1 is found in 83% of males of Papua New Guinea, and up to 60% in the Aeta people of the Philippines. It is also found among other Melanesian populations, as well as indigenous Australians, and at lower levels amongst Polynesians.
Major studies of indigenous Australian Y-DNA, published in 2014 and 2015, suggest that about 29% of indigenous Australian males belong to subclades of K2b1. That is, up to 27% indigenous Australian males carry haplogroup S1a1a1 (S-P308; previously known as K2b1a1 or K-P308), and one study found that approximately 2.0% – i.e. 0.9% (11 individuals) of the sample in a study in which 45% of the total was deemed to be non-indigenous – belonged to haplogroup M1 (M-M4; also known as M-M186 and known previously as haplogroup K2b1d1). All of these males carrying M1 were Torres Strait Islanders. (The other Y-DNA haplogroups found were: basal K2* [K-M526], C1b2b [M347; previously Haplogroup C4], and basal C* [M130].)
|Population||K2b1 (including haplogroups M & S)|
|Papua New Guinea||82.76%|
|Maori||03.82% (1.95% of those sampled, i.e. 49% of Maori males were deemed to have non-indigenous Y-DNA)|
|Guam||33.3% (small sample size)|
|Kiribati||00% (small sample size)|
|Northern Mariana Islands|
|Palau||61.5% (small sample size)|
|Wallis and Futuna||26%|
|Nauru||28.6% (small sample size)|
|Niue||00% (small sample size)|
|Tokelau||50% (small sample size)|
|Hawaii||20% (small sample size from FTDNA)|
|Aboriginal Australians||29% |
|West Papua (Papua Province, Indonesia)||52.6%|
|West Papua (Papua Province, Indonesia)||82.6%|
|Chukkese people Micronesia||76.5%|
|Pohnpeian people Micronesia||70% (small sample size)|
Basal P* (K2b2*)
P-P295* (sometimes known as "pre-P", before P-M45 was redesignated P1) is found among 28% of males among the Aeta, as well as in Timor at 10.8%, and one case may have been found in Papua New Guinea (Kaysar et al. 2006) although this has not been verified.
|Population||Rate of P* (%)||Notes|
|Papua New Guinea||0.69||assumed from Kayser et al. 2006, i.e. one P* found|
|Federated States of Micronesia||0|
|Northern Mariana Islands|
|Wallis and Futuna||0|
|Niue||0||small sample size|
|Tokelau||0||small sample size|
|Hawaii||0||small sample size from FTDNA|
|West Papua Province||0|
P1 (M45/PF5962), also known as K2b2a, is hundreds of times more common than P* (K2b2; PxM45), as it includes haplogroups Q and R, is estimated as being 14,300 years younger than K2b.
Modern South Asian populations also feature P1 at low to moderate frequencies. In South Asia it is most frequent among the Muslims of Manipur (33%), but this may be due to a very small sample size (nine individuals). Cases of P1 (M45) reported in South Asia may be unresolved cases or R2 or Q.
|Population group (with ethnolinguistic affiliation)||Paper||N||Percentage||SNPs Tested|
|Tuvinian (Turkic)||Darenko 2005||113||35.40||P-M45|
|Nivkh (isolate)||Lell 2001||17||35||P-M45|
|Altai-Kizhi (Altaians) (Turkic)||Darenko 2005||92||28.3||P-M45|
|Todjin (Turkic)||Darenko 2005||36||22.2||P-M45|
|Chukchi (Chukotkan)||Lell 2001||24||20.8||P-M45|
|Koryak (Chukotkan)||Lell 2001||27||18.5||P-M45|
|Yupik (Eskimo-Aleut)||Lell 2001||33||18.2||P-M45|
|Uighur (Turkic)||Xue 2006||70||17.1||P-M45|
|Kalmyk (Mongolic)||Darenko 2005||68||11.8||P-M45|
|Turkmen (Turkic)||Wells 2001||30||10||P-M45|
|Soyot (Turkic)||Darenko 2005||34||8.8||P-M45|
|Uriankhai (Mongolic)||Katoh 2004||60||8.3||P-M45|
|Khakas (Turkic)||Darenko 2005||53||7.6||P-M45|
|Kazakh (Turkic)||Wells 2001||54||5.6||P-M45|
|Uzbek (Turkic)||Wells 2001||366||5.5||P-M45|
|Khasi-Khmuic (Austro-Asiatic)||Reddy 2009||353||5.40||P-M45(xM173) §|
|Mundari (Austro-Asiatic)||Reddy 2009||64||10.90||P-M45(xM173) §|
|Nicobarese (Mon-Khmer)||Reddy 2009||11||0.00||P-M45(xM173) §|
|Southeast Asia (Austro-Asiatic)||Reddy 2009||257||1.60||P-M45(xM173) §|
|Garo (Tibeto-Burman)||Reddy 2009||71||1.40||P-M45(xM173) §|
|India (Tibeto-Burman)||Reddy 2009||226||3.10||P-M45(xM173) §|
|East Asia (Tibeto-Burman)||Reddy 2009||214||0.00||P-M45(xM173) §|
|Eastern India (Indo-European)||Reddy 2009||54||18.50||P-M45(xM173) §|
|Iran (Southern Talysh)||Nasidze 2009||50||4.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|Azerbaijan (Northern Talysh)||Nasidze 2009||40||5.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|Mazandarani (Iranian)||Nasidze 2009||50||4.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|Gilaki (Iranian)||Nasidze 2009||50||0.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|Tehran (Iranian)||Nasidze 2004||80||4.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|Isfahan (Iranian)||Nasidze 2004||50||6.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|Bakhtiari (Iranian)||Nasidze 2008||53||2.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|Iranian Arabs (Arabic)||Nasidze 2008||47||2.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|North Iran (Iranian)||Regueiro 2006||33||9.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|South Iran (Iranian)||Regueiro 2006||117||3.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|South Caucacus (Georgian)||Nasidze and Stoneking 2001||77||3.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|South Caucacus (Armenian)||Nasidze and Stoneking 2001||100||2.00||P-M45(xM124,xM173)|
|Hvar (Croatian)||Barać et al. 2003||14|
|Korčula (Croatian)||Barać et al. 2003||6|
§ These may include members of haplogroup R2.
|Population group||N||P (xQ,xR)||Q||R||Paper|
|Oriya Brahmin||24||1||4.2||Sahoo 2006|
|Muslims of Manipur||9||3||33.3||Sahoo 2006|
|Himachal Pradesh Rajput||15||1||6.7||Sahoo 2006|
|Gujarati Patel||9||2||22.2||Sahoo 2006|
|Madia Gond||14||1||7.1||Sahoo 2006|
|Kamma Chowdary||15||0||0||1||6.7||12||80||Sahoo 2006|
- Ancient populations haplogroups are assumed from small ancient sample sizes.
- Tatiana M. Karafet et all. Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia, 2014
- Karafat 2014
- Karafet 2014
- Nagle, N. et al., 2015, "Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes", American Journal of Physical Anthropology (epub ahead of print version; abstract).
- Miroslava Derenko et al 2005, Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions
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- Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios
- Sanchez, J.J.; Børsting, C.; Hernandez, A.; Mengel-Jørgensen, J.; Morling, N. (2004). "Y chromosome SNP haplogroups in Danes, Greenlanders and Somalis". International Congress Series. 1261: 347–349. doi:10.1016/S0531-5131(03)01635-2.
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- . 2013-12-13. bioRxiv . Missing or empty
[Assuming B70 ky for the TMRCA of M168 chromosomes,10 we estimate the interval of time between the diversification of K-M9 and that of K-P331 to be <3 ky. This rapid diversification has also been assessed using whole Y-chromosome sequence data.22 In addition, we estimate the total time between the common ancestor of K-M9 and that of P-P295 to be <5 ky, and the time between the common ancestor P-P295 and that of P-P27 to be 12.3 ky (95% CI: 6.6–20 ky).http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ejhg2014106a.html]
|Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2 [χ 6]|
|L||T||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K-M2313||K2b1 [χ 10]||P [χ 11]|
|NO||S [χ 12]||M [χ 13]||P1||P2|